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Numismatics
Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 May 305 A.D.

|Diocletian|, |Diocletian,| |20| |November| |284| |-| |1| |May| |305| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
In theory, the Roman Empire was not divided by the dual imperium of Diocletian and Maximian. Each emperor had his own court, army, and official residences, but these were matters of practicality, not substance. Imperial propaganda insisted on a singular and indivisible Rome, a patrimonium indivisum. Legal rulings were given and imperial celebrations took place in both emperors' names, and the same coins were issued in both parts of the empire. Diocletian sometimes issued commands to Maximian's province of Africa; Maximian could presumably have done the same for Diocletian's territory.
RL94842. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 330 (R), Cohen VI 276, SRCV IV -, Hunter V -, VF, well centered, dark patina, light marks, light earthen deposits, reverse die wear, weight 4.525 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 180o, Tripolis (Tripoli, Lebanon) mint, c. 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG (to Jove the protector of the Emperor), Victory on left, walking right, palm in left hand over left shoulder, presenting wreath in right hand to emperor, emperor on right, standing left, globe in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, TR in low center, XXI exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; rare; $50.00 (€41.00)


St. Helena, Augusta, 8 November 324 - c. 330 A.D., Mother of Constantine the Great

|Helena|, |St.| |Helena,| |Augusta,| |8| |November| |324| |-| |c.| |330| |A.D.,| |Mother| |of| |Constantine| |the| |Great||centenionalis|NEW
Edward Gibbon wrote of Antioch: "Fashion was the only law, pleasure the only pursuit, and the splendor of dress and furniture was the only distinction of the citizens of Antioch. The arts of luxury were honored, the serious and manly virtues were the subject of ridicule, and the contempt for female modesty and reverent age announced the universal corruption of the capital of the East." Antioch was, paradoxically, also an important hub of early Christianity. Late in 311, an embassy from Antioch presented themselves before Maximinus and requested permission to banish Christians from their city. Maximinus initially agreed, but in May 313 restored privileges and property to Christians.
RL97852. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Antioch 82 (R4), LRBC I 1328, Cohen VII 12, SRCV 16628, Hunter V 14 var. (2nd officina), Choice aEF, excellent centering, attractive desert patina, light scratches, weight 3.272 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 0o, 10th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 328 - 329 A.D.; obverse FL HELENA AVGVSTA, pearl-diademed, draped and mantled bust right, wearing necklace; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE (security of the Republic), Securitas standing half left, olive branch pointed down in right hand, raising pallium with left hand, •SMANTI in exergue; from a Norwegian collection; rare; $180.00 (€147.60)


Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.

|Constantine| |II|, |Constantine| |II,| |22| |May| |337| |-| |March| |or| |April| |340| |A.D.||centenionalis|NEW
Constantine II was the son of Constantine I, the eldest with his second wife, Fausta. He was made Caesar before he was a year old. Constantine II was about eight years old when this coin was minted. He is depicted draped in the ornate trabea worn by a consul, a powerful child Caesar with the world and victory in his hands! Upon his father's death, Constantine II inherited the Western empire. After quarreling with his younger brother Constans, he invaded Constans' territory, only to be killed in an ambush near Aquileia.
RL98401. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Trier 382 (R3), SRCV V 17152, Cohen VII 23, Hunter V -, EF, near black patina (toned silvering), radiating flow lines, tiny encrustations, very slightly off center but full legends, trace of pre-strike casting sprue, weight 3.710 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, as caesar, 321 - 323 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate bust left draped in ornate trabea (consular mantle), Victory on globe offering wreath in right hand, mappa in left hand; reverse BEATA TRANQVILLITAS (blessed tranquility), altar inscribed VO/TIS / XX in three lines, surmounted by celestial globe, three stars above, •STR• in exergue; very rare; $180.00 (€147.60)


Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.

|Constantine| |II|, |Constantine| |II,| |22| |May| |337| |-| |March| |or| |April| |340| |A.D.||centenionalis|NEW
It has been suggested that the mappa in Constantine II's left hand on this bust type is actually a parazonium (dagger) with an eagle's head for the pommel cap. We are not sure, but we are staying with the traditional and more widely accepted description.
RL98404. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Trier 312 (R4), SRCV V 17152, Cohen VII 23, Hunter V 14 var. (2nd officina), Choice gVF, some mint luster, dark patina, well centered, small edge split, weight 2.469 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, as caesar, 321 A.D.; obverse CONSTATINVS IVN NOB C, laureate bust left draped in ornate trabea (consular mantle), Victory on globe offering wreath in right hand, mappa in left hand; reverse BEATA TRANQVILLITAS (blessed tranquility), altar inscribed VOT/IS / XX in three lines, surmounted by celestial globe, three stars above, PTR in exergue; very rare; $140.00 (€114.80)


Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.

|Constantius| |II|, |Constantius| |II,| |22| |May| |337| |-| |3| |November| |361| |A.D.||heavy| |maiorina|NEW
The usurper Magnentius set up the mint at Ambianum, his reputed birthplace. Constantius shut down the mint following this issue.

John Casey was employed at Durham between 1972 and 2000, retiring as Reader in Archaeology. He was a well-known Romanist and numismatist who undertook excavations at the Roman forts of Brecon Gaer (nr Aberyscir) and Segontium (Gwynedd), the Roman town of Venta Silurum (Caerwent), the Roman temple at Lydney (Gloucestershire) and the Greta Bridge vicus in County Durham. He was the author of numerous articles on Roman coinage and hoards, including the finds from Piercebridge. His books included Coins and the Archaeologist (1974, 2nd ed. 1988), The End of Roman Britain (1979), Roman Coinage in Britain (1980), and Understanding Ancient Coins (1986).
RL98409. Bronze heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Amiens 48, Hunter V 1, LRBC II 25, SRCV V 18090, Cohen VII 46, VF, well centered, flow lines, dark brown patina, some legend weak, edge ragged with splits, weight 5.098 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, Ambianum (Amiens, France) mint, 18 August - end 353 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, A behind; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), helmeted soldier standing left spearing fallen horseman, shield on left arm, another shield on the ground, horseman is bare-headed, turns to face soldier, and extends left arm, AMB in exergue; RIC VIII lists this type as common but this is the first specimen of the type handled by FORVM; ex John Casey Collection; scarce mint; $250.00 (€205.00)


Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.

|Constantine| |II|, |Constantine| |II,| |22| |May| |337| |-| |March| |or| |April| |340| |A.D.||centenionalis|NEW
In 328 Arelatum was renamed Constantia in honor of Constantine II. After Constantine II was killed in 340, the name reverted to Arelate, only to be changed again in 354 to Constantia by Constantius II. It retained that name, although the mintmark 'AR' appeared on some of its coins even in the fifth century.
RL98420. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Arles 311 (R2), LRBC I 323, Depeyrot EMA 38/3, SRCV V 17223, Cohen VII 165, Hunter V -, Choice EF, well centered, much silvering, flow lines, weight 3.393 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Arelatum (Arles, France) mint, as caesar, 327 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left; reverse PROVIDENTIAE CAESS (to the foresight of the two princes), campgate, six rows of brick, two turrets, no doors, star above, S - F across field and ARLT in exergue; rare; $120.00 (€98.40)


Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.

|Constantius| |I|, |Constantius| |I,| |May| |305| |-| |25| |July| |306| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
Felicitas was the goddess or personification of happiness, good fortune, and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RL96876. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 Treveri p. 299, 655 (S), SRCV IV 14003, Cohen VII 278, Hunter IV - (p. cxciii), F, green patina, coppery high spots, porosity, reverse a little rough, weight 2.700 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, as caesar, 293 - 294 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTIVS NOB C, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse TEMPOR FEL, Felicitas standing left, holding long caduceus and cornucopia, C in left field, PTR in exergue; ex Trusted Coins; rare; $80.00 (€65.60)


Kyrene, Kyrenaika, North Africa, c. 325 - 313 B.C.

|Kyrenaica|, |Kyrene,| |Kyrenaika,| |North| |Africa,| |c.| |325| |-| |313| |B.C.||AE| |16|NEW
Silphium, which is now extinct, was so critical to the Kyrenian economy that most of their coins depict it. The plant was used as a spice and to treat all kinds of maladies including cough, sore throat, fever, indigestion, pain, and warts. It was so widely used as a contraceptive that it was worth its weight in denarii. The traditional heart shape, the symbol of love, is probably derived from the shape of the silphium seed due to the use of silphium as an contraceptive.

"By the next day this maiden and all her girlish apparel had disappeared, and in the room were found images of the Dioscuri, a table, and silphium upon it." - Description of Greece, Pausanias 3.16.3, 2nd Century A.D.
GB98571. Bronze AE 16, Asolati 12/1; BMC Cyrenaica p. lxviii, 198b, pl. XIX, 12; Buttrey Cyrene I 137; Müller Afrique 22 var. (no fruit); SNG Cop 1226 var. (same), aF, rough corroded surfaces, the reverse better, weight 3.898 g, maximum diameter 16.3 mm, die axis 180o, Kyrene (near Shahhat, Libya) mint, 325 - 313 B.C.; obverse head of Apollo Karneios right, short curly hair, THP (magistrate) upward behind; reverse Three silphium plants arranged in triskeles pattern seen from above, heart shaped fruit at center, K-Y-P around divided by stalks, all within a linear circle border within a round incuse; ex CNG e-auction 494 (23 Jun 2021), lot 257; rare; $100.00 (€82.00)


Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 104 - 76 B.C., Overstrike

|Alexander| |Jannaeus|, |Judean| |Kingdom,| |Alexander| |Jannaeus| |(Yehonatan),| |104| |-| |76| |B.C.,| |Overstrike||prutah|NEW
This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in "The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coins and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types," Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint.
JD97683. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1149a, Meshorer TJC T, Meshorer AJC I; undertype Hendin 1148 (Jannaeus, lily/anchor), aVF, overstruck, highlighting earthen deposits (desert patina), reverse edge beveled, weight 2.230 g, maximum diameter 15.3 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, 103 - 76 B.C.; obverse Paleo-Hebrew inscription: Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath, struck over anchor; reverse double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns, struck over lily; $90.00 (€73.80)


Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 104 - 76 B.C., Overstrike

|Alexander| |Jannaeus|, |Judean| |Kingdom,| |Alexander| |Jannaeus| |(Yehonatan),| |104| |-| |76| |B.C.,| |Overstrike||prutah|NEW
This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in "The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coins and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types," Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint.
JD97684. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1149a, Meshorer TJC T, Meshorer AJC I; undertype Hendin 1148 (Jannaeus, lily/anchor), gF, overstruck, highlighting earthen deposits (desert patina), remnants of pre-strike casting sprues, weight 1.958 g, maximum diameter 15.9 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, 103 - 76 B.C.; obverse Paleo-Hebrew inscription: Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath, struck over anchor; reverse double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns, struck over lily; $100.00 (€82.00)











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