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Roman Republic, Lead Glandes Sling-Bullet, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.

|Lead| |Glandes| |Sling| |Bullets|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Lead| |Glandes| |Sling-Bullet,| |2nd| |-| |1st| |Century| |B.C.|,
According to the contemporary report of Vegatius, Republican slingers had an accurate range of up to six hundred feet. The best sling ammunition was cast from lead. For a given mass, lead, being very dense, offered the minimum size and therefore minimum air resistance. Also, lead sling-bullets were small and difficult to see in flight. In some cases, the lead would be cast in a simple open mold made by pushing a finger, thumb, or sharpened stick into sand and pouring molten metal into the hole. The flat top end was carved to a matching point after the lead cooled. More frequently, they were cast in two-part molds. Sling-bullets were made in a variety of shapes including an ellipsoidal form closely resembling an acorn; possibly the origin of the Latin word for lead sling-bullet: glandes plumbeae (literally leaden acorns) or simply glandes (meaning acorns, singular glans). The most common shape by far was biconical, resembling the shape of an almond or an American football. Why the almond shape was favored is unknown. Possibly there was some aerodynamic advantage, but it seems equally likely that there was a more prosaic reason, such as the shape being easy to extract from a mold, or that it will rest in a sling cradle with little danger of rolling out. Almond-shaped lead sling-bullets were typically about 35 millimeters (1.4 in) long and about 20 millimeters (0.8 in) wide. Sometimes symbols or writings were molded on the side. A thunderbolt, a snake, a scorpion, or others symbols indicating how it might strike without warning were popular. Writing might include the name of the military unit or commander, or was sometimes more imaginative, such as, "Take this," "Ouch," "Catch," or even "For Pompey's backside."
AW66458. Lead glandes sling-bullet; cf. Petrie XLIV 15-23; roughly biconical, without symbols or inscriptions, c. 40 - 90 grams, c. 3 - 5 cm long, one sling-bullet randomly selected from the same group as those in the photo, ONE BULLET, BARGAIN PRICED!; $20.00 SALE |PRICE| $18.00


Roman, Lead Conical Bulla Seal, Early 4th Century A.D.

|Seals|, |Roman,| |Lead| |Conical| |Bulla| |Seal,| |Early| |4th| |Century| |A.D.|, |seal|
The ancients did not all agree on the attributes of Serapis. A passage in Tacitus affirms that many recognized in this god, Aesculapius, imputing healing to his intervention; some thought him identical with Osiris, the oldest deity of the Egyptians; others regarded him as Jupiter, possessing universal power; but by most he was believed to be the same as Pluto, the "gloomy" Dis Pater of the infernal regions. The general impression of the ancients seems to have been that by Serapis, was to be understood the beginning and foundation of things. Julian II consulted the oracle of Apollo for the purpose of learning whether Pluto and Serapis were different gods; and he received for an answer that Jupiter-Serapis and Pluto were one and the same divinity.
AS83610. Lead seal, aEF, weight 8.022 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, early 4th Century A.D.; obverse diademed, draped, bearded, bust of Serapis right, kalathos(?) on head; reverse conical back, pierced for cord; $160.00 SALE |PRICE| $144.00


Roman, Lead Conical Bulla Seal, Aristanetos, Early 4th Century A.D.

|Seals|, |Roman,| |Lead| |Conical| |Bulla| |Seal,| |Aristanetos,| |Early| |4th| |Century| |A.D.|, |seal|
The portrait indicates an early 4th century date. It is the personal seal of Aristanetos, as the Greek genitive legend indicates. Many personal seals from the late Roman and Byzantine eras feature the owner's portrait.
AS85926. Lead seal, cf. MŁnzzentrum auction 157 (2011), lot 552, aVF, weight 9.060 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, early 4th Century A.D.; obverse APICT-ANETOV, draped bust of a slightly balding middle-aged man with sideburns; reverse conical back, pierced for cord; $100.00 SALE |PRICE| $90.00


Byzantine Palestina III, Petraean-Early Byzantine Oil Lamp, c. 325 - 520 A.D.

|Oil| |Lamps|, |Byzantine| |Palestina| |III,| |Petraean-Early| |Byzantine| |Oil| |Lamp,| |c.| |325| |-| |520| |A.D.|,
Grawehr writes, "...firstly, lamps of this period were produced with great care and are well fired; they were of far better quality than their predecessors of the 3rd century A.D. Secondly, one single type - the Petraean-Early Byzantine lamp - is clearly dominating, and thirdly, this type is concentrated in a relatively small area east of the Wadi Arabah between Wadi Mujib and the Red Sea." He further notes that the quality attests to an upswing in the regional economy, but the distribution indicates increasing regionalism.
AL21909. Petraean-Early Byzantine Oil Lamp; Grawehr type L, 504 (very similar, Petra, Ez Zantur III, 325-520 A.D.); 8.7 cm long, 6.0 cm wide, Choice, intact, tiny chip in fill hole edge, small chip in shoulder (visible in photo), c. 325 - 520 A.D.; red clay, cream slip, mold-made, thin walled, piriform body, single rim around wick hole, double rim around large filling hole, very small knob handle, lines on nozzle radiating from wick hole the outer lines ending in a spiral, curved lines radiating from filling hole on shoulders, ring base, maker's mark VV on bottom below the handle; $280.00 SALE |PRICE| $252.00


Roman Palestina or Arabia, Nabataean Pottery Oil Lamp, c. 225 - 300 A.D.

|Hanukkah|, |Roman| |Palestina| |or| |Arabia,| |Nabataean| |Pottery| |Oil| |Lamp,| |c.| |225| |-| |300| |A.D.|,
This lamp came to us in a group accumulated in Israel. The four Nabatean towns of Haluza, Mamshit, Avdat and Shivta, with their associated fortresses and agricultural landscapes linking them to the Mediterranean are in the Negev Desert, southern Israel today. In his, Nabataean Clay Lamps, an Analytical Study of Art and Myths, Nabil Khariy identifies lamps known from the Nabataean sites, especially Petra, which can be differentiated from Greek, Roman and Judaean parallels and identified specifically as Nabataean made. Khariy notes that although the Nabataeans lost their independence in 106 A.D., excavations clearly show aspects of Nabataean culture continued until late in the 6th century A.D. Khariy 66, similar to this lamp, is described as made with a local clay and cruder than similar lamps from non-Nabataean sites. Grawehr type J3, like this lamp, has a larger filling hole than most similar lamps. The larger filling hole is found on late examples of the type.
AL21908. Nabatean Oil Lamp; cf. Khariy 66; Grawehr J3 (Petra, 225-300 A.D.) Murray-Ellis p. 26, 16 (Petra, ND); Negev-Sivan p. 117, 129 (Mampsis, 75-200 A.D.), near Choice, intact, small chips in handle, c. 225 - 300 A.D.; reddish-brown clay, round body, small rounded nozzle, small knob handle, defined ridge separating shoulders from plain concave discus, ten stamped rosettes impressed around shoulders, very low ring base; $150.00 (Ä135.00)


Roman Palestina or Arabia, Nabataean Pottery Oil Lamp, c. 225 - 300 A.D.

|Oil| |Lamps|, |Roman| |Palestina| |or| |Arabia,| |Nabataean| |Pottery| |Oil| |Lamp,| |c.| |225| |-| |300| |A.D.|,
This lamp came to us in a group accumulated in Israel. The four Nabatean towns of Haluza, Mamshit, Avdat and Shivta, with their associated fortresses and agricultural landscapes linking them to the Mediterranean are in the Negev Desert, southern Israel today. In his, Nabataean Clay Lamps, an Analytical Study of Art and Myths, Nabil Khariy identifies lamps known from the Nabataean sites, especially Petra, which can be differentiated from Greek, Roman and Judaean parallels and identified specifically as Nabataean made. Khariy notes that although the Nabataeans lost their independence in 106 A.D., excavations clearly show aspects of Nabataean culture continued until late in the 6th century A.D. Khariy 66, similar to this lamp, is described as made with a local clay and cruder than similar lamps from non-Nabataean sites. Grawehr type J3, like this lamp, has a larger filling hole than most similar lamps. The larger filling hole is found on late examples of the type.
AL93928. Nabatean Oil Lamp; cf. Khariy 66; Grawehr J3 (Petra, 225-300 A.D.) Murray-Ellis p. 26, 16 (Petra, ND); Negev-Sivan p. 117, 129 (Mampsis, 75-200 A.D.), Choice, complete and intact, interesting root marks in the bottom of the interior, c. 225 - 300 A.D.; buff clay, round body, small rounded nozzle, small knob handle, defined ridge separating shoulders from plain concave discus, 16 stamped rosettes impressed around shoulders, very low ring base; $160.00 SALE |PRICE| $144.00


Late Roman - Byzantine, Holyland (Syro-Palestinian), "Elongated" Pottery Oil Lamp, c. 400 - 620 A.D.

|Oil| |Lamps|, |Late| |Roman| |-| |Byzantine,| |Holyland| |(Syro-Palestinian),| |"Elongated"| |Pottery| |Oil| |Lamp,| |c.| |400| |-| |620| |A.D.|,
This type is identified by Adler as a Transjordan elongated lamp. Adler writes that the shoulders are narrow and ornamented with a wide variety of motifs including linear bands, geometric, and floral designs; the handle is tongue shaped projecting horizontally and decorated with three or more bands; the nozzle is decorated with geometric or floral designs or rarely a cross. The type is found in the northern part of Transjordan, and in Israel, mainly in northern Israel and the Beit Shean area. They date to the fifth and sixth century but possibly also the beginning of the seventh century. In the Hellenistic and Roman eras Beit Shean was the Decapolis city Scythopolis. Click the photo on the right of the ancient ruins at Beit Shean, to learn more about the city. Scythopolis
AL21923. Transjordan elongated lamp; Adler type JOR.1, cf. 967 ff.; 8.9 cm (3 1/2") long, Average, significant losses of the original surface and ornamentation around the filling hole and on shoulders, yet still potentially functional, c. 400 - 600/620 A.D.; pink-orange clay, cream slip, mold made, elongated body, tongue shaped handle rising diagonally ornamented with three vertical bands, convex shoulders and nozzle ornamented with a pattern of radiating lines, circles, arcs and dots; $45.00 SALE |PRICE| $40.50


Late Roman - Byzantine, Holyland (Syro-Palestinian), "Elongated" Pottery Oil Lamp, c. 400 - 620 A.D.

|Oil| |Lamps|, |Late| |Roman| |-| |Byzantine,| |Holyland| |(Syro-Palestinian),| |"Elongated"| |Pottery| |Oil| |Lamp,| |c.| |400| |-| |620| |A.D.|,
This type is identified by Adler as a Transjordan elongated lamp. Adler writes that the shoulders are narrow and ornamented with a wide variety of motifs including linear bands, geometric, and floral designs; the handle is tongue shaped projecting horizontally and decorated with three or more bands; the nozzle is decorated with geometric or floral designs or rarely a cross. The type is found in the northern part of Transjordan, and in Israel, mainly in northern Israel and the Beit Shean area. They date to the fifth and sixth century but possibly also the beginning of the seventh century. In the Hellenistic and Roman eras Beit Shean was the Decapolis city Scythopolis. Click the photo on the right of the ancient ruins at Beit Shean, to learn more about the city. Scythopolis
AL21906. Transjordan elongated lamp; Adler type JOR.1, cf. 967 ff.; 8.6 cm (3 3/8") long, near Choice, small chips in filling hole and wick rims, small chips in handle, c. 400 - 600/620 A.D.; pink-orange clay, cream slip, mold made, elongated body, double rim around large filling hole, convex shoulders and sides of nozzle ornamented with a pattern of lines, arcs and dots; $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00


Byzantine - Islamic, Eastern Mediterranean, Unglazed Pottery Oil Lamp, c. 6th - 7th Century A.D.

|Oil| |Lamps|, |Byzantine| |-| |Islamic,| |Eastern| |Mediterranean,| |Unglazed| |Pottery| |Oil| |Lamp,| |c.| |6th| |-| |7th| |Century| |A.D.|,
This type has been found in Egypt, Cyprus and the Levante. We purchased this lamp many years ago from a New Jersey dealer. It was part of a large of a group of lamps which he acquired from a dealer in Jerusalem.
AH21446. unglazed pottery oil lamp; cf. Bailey BMC III Q2276 (Wadi Sarga, near Asyut, Egypt), Schloessinger 506 - 507 (Jerusalem), near Choice, complete and intact, encrustations, partial slip, c. 6th - 7th Century A.D.; 8.5 cm (3 3/8") long, 5 cm (2") tall; pink-orange clay with a brown slip, wheel made with applied nozzle and handle, slightly flared filling hole, narrow neck, body lightly ribbed with wheel marks, wide steep shoulders to a low carination, nozzle slightly rising, handle attached at filling hole rim and shoulder; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00


Late Roman - Byzantine, Holyland (Syro-Palestinian), Bi-Lanceolate Pottery Oil Lamp, c. 300 - 500 A.D.

|Oil| |Lamps|, |Late| |Roman| |-| |Byzantine,| |Holyland| |(Syro-Palestinian),| |Bi-Lanceolate| |Pottery| |Oil| |Lamp,| |c.| |300| |-| |500| |A.D.|,
Adler notes these lamps are found throughout the northern part of Israel, especially in Beit Shean and Hamat Gader, and date to the fourth and fifth centuries. Hamat Gader was already a well known health and recreation site in Roman times, mentioned in Strabo, Origen and Eunapius, as well as the Rabbinic literature. Construction of the bath complex began in the 2nd century by the 10th Roman Legion, which was garrisoned in nearby Gadara (modern Umm Qais). The ancient Hebrew name means hot springs of (the ancient city of) Gadara. The Arabic name El-Hamma preserves this, and the name of the tel located near the site, Tel Bani, is a corruption of the Latin word meaning "baths." The empress Aelia Eudocia composed a poem praising the qualities of the multiple springs which was inscribed so that visitors could see it as they went into the pool. The photo to the right is of the ancient Roman baths. Click the photo to see a larger image.Hammat Gader Baths
AL93919. Bi-lanceolate pottery oil lamp; Adler Collection (website) type N2; cf. Schloessinger 450; Bailey BMC -; 7.4 cm (2 7/8") long, near Choice, complete and intact, wear, c. 300 - 500 A.D.; pink-buff clay, mold made with incised and/or punched decoration, the body includes the entire lamp from tip of nozzle to tip of handle, wide rim surrounds a large fill hole, row of pellets in annulets over diagonal lines around shoulders, incised lines lengthwise on handle, annulet and punches ornamentation on the bottom; $55.00 SALE |PRICE| $49.50











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