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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Medieval & Modern Coins| ▸ |Crusaders||View Options:  |  |  |   

Coins of the Crusaders

The crusades were military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part in these enterprises. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th and 13th century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Sicily, Greece, Asia Minor, and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area. Politics were complicated, including a Christian alliance with the Islamic Sultanate of Rm during the Fifth Crusade. The Crusaders ravaged the countries they marched through, killed 8,000 Jews in the Rhineland in the first of Europe's pogroms, devastated the Mediterranean ports, fought amongst themselves as much as the "Infidel" and fleeced their subjects to fill their coffers. Murder and massacre in the service of the Gospel was commonplace. Seventy thousand civilians were butchered in the sack of Jerusalem. The end came in 1291 with the fall of Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. Near East 1135

Tre Monete Indite Dei Cavalieri Di San Giovanni A Rodi

|Crusaders|, |Tre| |Monete| |Indite| |Dei| |Cavalieri| |Di| |San| |Giovanni| |A| |Rodi|
Three new coins of the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. Excerpt from Ticino journals of numismatics and classical antiquities, Lugano, 1983 - Vol XII.
BL16808. Tre Monete Indite Dei Cavalieri Di San Giovanni A Rodi, Francesco Mannucci, reprinted 1983, in Italian, booklet, 6 pages; $.50 (.50)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Tancred,| |Regent,| |March| |1101| |-| |May| |1103| |and| |Late| |1104| |-| |December| |1112||follis|NEW
Tancred, a Norman leader of the 1st Crusade, became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch when his uncle Bohemund was taken prisoner. He later took the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was captured, but Baldwin was released, defeated him and took it back. Tancred was made regent of Antioch again when Bohemund went to Europe to recruit more Crusaders. Tancred refused to honor a treaty in of fealty to the Byzantine Emperor, making Antioch independent, and ruled until his death in a typhoid epidemic.
CR111233. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades pl. III, 50; Malloy Crusaders p. 199, 3a; Schlumberger pl. II, 6, aVF, dark patina, highlighting earthen deposits, weight 4.799 g, maximum diameter 22.7 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, c. 1101 - 1103; obverse nimbate bust of St. Peter (patron saint of Antioch) facing, short curly hair and curly beard, scroll in right hand, cross in left hand, O / ΠE-TP/O/C (TP ligate) divided across field; reverse + / KE BOI /ΘH TO ΔV / ΛO COV T/ANKΡI (O Lord, help your servant Tancred) in five lines; ex Morton & Eden auction 119 (6 Dec 2022), lot 333 (part of); $110.00 (111.10)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Bohemond II, 1126 - 1130 A.D.

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Bohemond| |II,| |1126| |-| |1130| |A.D.||follis|NEW
Bohemond came to Antioch in autumn 1126. He launched successful military campaigns against the nearby Muslim rulers, but his conflict with Joscelin I of Courtenay enabled Imad ad-Din Zengi to secure Mosul and Aleppo. Meanwhile, Roger II of Sicily occupied the Principality of Taranto in 1128. Bohemond died fighting against Danishmend Emir Gazi during a military campaign against Cilician Armenia, and Gmshtigin sent Bohemond's embalmed head to the Abbasid Caliph.
CR111235. Bronze follis, Malloy Crusaders p. 201, 10a; Metcalf Crusades pl. 6, 103; Schlumberger pl. II, 14, gF, green patina, earthen deposits, weight 2.375 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint mint, 1126 - 1130 A.D.; obverse bust of St. Peter facing, nimbate, cross in right hand, OA (ligate)/Π-TP/OC in downward columns left and right; reverse slender cross pomme, BA-IM-OYN-ΔOC (OY ligate) in quarters; ex Morton & Eden auction 119 (6 Dec 2022), lot 333 (part of); rare; $150.00 (151.50)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Bohemond III, Minority, 1149 - 1163 A.D.

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Bohemond| |III,| |Minority,| |1149| |-| |1163| |A.D.||fractional| |dinar|NEW
As a child, Bohemond III's mother, Constance, ruled as regent. Then her second husband Raynald of Chtillon ruled as Prince of Antioch until he was captured. Bohemond was then of legal age to succeed, but Constance refused. King Baldwin III of Jerusalem intervened and declared Bohemond ruler of the principality. Constance asked the he Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia to help her keep rule, but the citizens of Antioch rioted. She was exiled, Bohemond took control, and she died later that year.
CR111237. Bronze fractional dinar, Malloy Crusaders p. 209, 44; Metcalf Crusades pl. 19, 468; Schlumberger pl.3, 16;, VF, centered obv., rev. a little off center, light earthen deposits, weight 0.697 g, maximum diameter 16.8 mm, die axis 45o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 1149 - 1163; obverse + PRIN•CEPS, large reversed S ornamented with two pellets, flanked by 2 pellets on each side; reverse ANTIO•hIA, cross patte, pellet in 1st, 2nd and 3rd angles, crescent horns downwards in the 4th angle; ex Morton & Eden auction 119 (6 Dec 2022), lot 333 (part of); rare; $150.00 (151.50)


Crusaders, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Baldwin III, 1143 - 1163

|Holyland| |Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Kingdom| |of| |Jerusalem,| |Baldwin| |III,| |1143| |-| |1163||denier|NEW
Baldwin III was was the eldest son of Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem. He became king while still a child, and was at first overshadowed by his mother Melisende, whom he eventually defeated in a civil war. During his reign Jerusalem became more closely allied with the Byzantine Empire, and the Second Crusade tried and failed to conquer Damascus. Baldwin captured the important Egyptian fortress of Ascalon, but also had to deal with the increasing power of Nur ad-Din in Syria. He died childless and was succeeded by his brother Amalric.
CR111220. Billon denier, cf. Malloy Crusaders p. 70, 5; Metcalf Crusaders pl. 10, 153, aVF, dark toning, weight 0.774 g, maximum diameter 16.5 mm, die axis 90o, Jerusalem mint, 1143 - 1163; obverse REX BALDVINVS, cross patte; reverse + DE IERVSALEH, tower of David; $130.00 (131.30)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Bohemond III, 1163 - 1201

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Bohemond| |III,| |1163| |-| |1201||denier|NEW
As a child, Bohemond III's mother, Constance, ruled as regent. Then her second husband Raynald of Chtillon ruled as Prince of Antioch until he was captured. Bohemond was then of legal age to succeed, but Constance refused. King Baldwin III of Jerusalem intervened and declared Bohemond ruler of the principality. Constance asked the he Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia to help her keep rule, but the citizens of Antioch rioted. She was exiled, Bohemond took control, and she died later that year.
CR111226. Billon denier, Malloy Crusaders p. 206, 26; Metcalf Crusades pl. 15, 349, aVF, speckled toning, clashed dies, edge chips, weight 0.649 g, maximum diameter 16.8 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, minority under regents, 1149 - 1163; obverse + BOAMVNDVS (square A and V's), bare head right, linear portrait,; reverse + ANTIOCHIA (square A's), cross patte, annulet in first quarter; $90.00 (90.90)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Bohemond III, 1163 - 1201

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Bohemond| |III,| |1163| |-| |1201||denier|NEW
Bohemond was a contemporary and sometime adversary of Levon I of Armenia, an ally of the Byzantine Empire, and sometimes an enemy of Saladin. He was a Christian, but to preserve the peace with Saladin, Bohemond did not join the crusaders during the Third Crusade.
CR110683. Billon denier, cf. Malloy Crusaders p. 215, 66, VF, edge chip, weight 0.726 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 1163 - 1201; obverse + BOAHVHDVS (A's ornamented with annulets, S with central pellet), bust left wearing helmet and chain-mail, cross patte on helmet, mail composed of upward crescents, upward crescent left, five-pointed star right; reverse + AHTIOCHIA (A's ornamented with annulets, ornate C), cross patte, crescent inward in upper right angle; $70.00 (70.70)


Crusaders, County of Edessa, Baldwin II, Second Reign, 1108 - 1118

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |County| |of| |Edessa,| |Baldwin| |II,| |Second| |Reign,| |1108| |-| |1118||follis|NEW
Baldwin II was Count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and King of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death. He accompanied his cousins Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin of Boulogne to the Holy Land during the First Crusade. In 1098 the unpopular and childless ruler of Edessa, Toros, invited the aid of the crusader Baldwin de Boulogne, adopted him as his son and appointed him co-regent. A month later, Toros was dethroned and executed. Edessa was the first state created by the crusaders, on 10 March 1098, and was also the first to fall. On 3 November 1146, Edessa was conquered by Nur-ad-Din Mahmud.
CR111212. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades pl. 7, 114; Malloy Crusaders p. 245, 11; Schlumberger pl. I, 10, aF, overstruck with strong undertype effects, weight 4.482 g, maximum diameter 22.43 mm, die axis 180o, Edessa (Urfa, Turkey) mint, 2nd reign, 1110 - 1118; obverse Count Baldwin standing facing, wearing conical helmet, long cross in right hand, shield in left hand; reverse small cross, BHΔN (Greek abbreviation: Baldwin) around (clockwise from 9:00); undertype: floriated cross; $100.00 (101.00)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Tancred,| |Regent,| |March| |1101| |-| |May| |1103| |and| |Late| |1104| |-| |December| |1112||follis|NEW
Tancred, a Norman leader of the 1st Crusade, became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch when his uncle Bohemund was taken prisoner. He later took the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was captured, but Baldwin was released, defeated him and took it back. Tancred was made regent of Antioch again when Bohemund went to Europe to recruit more Crusaders. Tancred refused to honor a treaty in of fealty to the Byzantine Emperor, making Antioch independent, and ruled until his death in a typhoid epidemic.
CR111213. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades pl. 5, 82; Malloy Crusaders p. 199, 5; Schlumberger pl. II, 8, aVF, well centered on a broad flan, dark patina, earthen deposits, edge split, overstruck, weight 4.367 g, maximum diameter 24.5 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, Mar 1101 - Dec 1112; obverse facing bust of Christ, wears nimbus cruciger ornamented with one pellet in each limb of cross, pallium, and colobium, Gospels in both hands, IC - XC (Greek abbreviation: ΙΗΣΟΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ - Jesus Christ) across field; reverse cross pomme, fleuronne at base, TA-NK/P-H in quarters; ex Aphrodite Art Coins (Wiesbaden, Germany) auction VI (22 Oct 2022), lot 1085; $90.00 (90.90)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Raymond of Poitiers 1136 - 1149 A.D.

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Raymond| |of| |Poitiers| |1136| |-| |1149| |A.D.||AE| |17|NEW
Raymond of Poitiers was Prince of Antioch from 1136 to 1149. He was the younger son of William IX, Duke of Aquitaine and his wife Philippa, Countess of Toulouse, born in the very year that his father the Duke began his infamous liaison with Dangereuse de Chatelherault.
CR111219. Bronze AE 17, Malloy Crusaders p. 203, 17; Metcalf pl. 18, 462; Schlumberger pl. 2, 19, VF, coppery patina, weight 0.862 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 1136 - 1149 A.D.; obverse R A M in ornamental style within a triangular pattern; reverse AN/TIOC/HIE in three lines; first example of this type handled by Forum; very rare; $300.00 (303.00)




  






REFERENCES|

Bedoukian, P. Coinage of the Artaxiads of Armenia. RNS Special Publication 10. (London, 1978).
Bedoukian, P. Coinage of Cilician Armenia. ANSNNM 147. (1962).
Bellinger, A. Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection, Alexius I to Michael VIII, 1081-1261. (Washington D.C., 1966).
Biaggi, E. Monete e Zecche medievali Italiane dal Sec. VIII al Sec. XV. (Torino, 1992).
Boudeau, E. Monnaies Franaises Provinciales. (Maastricht, 1970).
Boutin, S. Monnaies des Empires de Byzance - Collection of N.K. Volumes 1-2. (Maastricht, 1983).
Grierson, P. & L. Travaini. Medieval European Coinage, Vol. 14: Italy III: South Italy, Sicily, Sardinia. (Cambridge, 1998).
Hendy, M. Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire 1081-1261. (Washington D.C., 1969).
Malloy, A., I. Preston, & A. Seltman. Coins of the Crusader States, 2nd Edition. (New York, 2004).
Metcalf, D. Coinage of the Crusaders and the Latin East in the Ashmolean Museum Oxford. (London, 1995).
Metcalf, D. "Coinage of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in the name of Baudouin" in NC 1978.
Mnzen & Medaillen. Coins of the Crusader States and Their Successors, The Collection of Erich Wckerlin, auction 47, 23 May 2019.
Nercessian, Y. Armenian Coins and Their Values. Armenian Numismatic Society, Special Publication 8. (Los Angeles, 1995).
Phillips, M. "The 'Roupen' Hoard of Helmet Pennies of Antioch" in NC 2005.
Porteous, J. "Crusader Coinage with Greek or Latin Inscriptions" in A History of the Crusades, vol. IV. (Madison, 1989).
Sabine, C. "The billon and copper coinage of the crusader country of Tripoli, c. 1102-1268" in NC 1980.
Sear, D. Byzantine Coins and Their Values. (London, 1987).
Schlumberger, G. Numismatique de l'Orient latin. (1878; Supplement 1882; reprinted: Graz, 1954).
Sommer, A. Die Mnzen des Byzantinischen Reiches 491-1453. Mit einem Anhang: Die Mnzen des Kaiserreichs von Trapezunt. (Regenstauf, 2010).
Sotheby's. The John J. Slocum Collection of Coins of the Crusades, catalog of public auction, London, 6 Mar 1997.
Travaini, L. "Hohenstaufen and Angevin denari of Sicily and Southern Italy: their mint attributions" in NC 1993.
Tzamalis, A. "Addition to the tornesia of the 1st group of Guillaume de Villehardouin" in NK 11 (1992).
Tzamalis, A. "The first period of the Frankish tornesio. New evidence from an old hoard" in NK 9-10 (1990-1991).

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