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This type is from a late, massive, and intriguing anonymous issue undoubtedly struck by the moneyer triumvirate of Gargonius, Ogulnius and Vergilius. Their signed coins (SRCV I 263 - 265) have identical types and are scarce or rare. RR88446. Silver denarius, Crawford 350a/2, Sydenham 723, RSC I 226, BMCRR I Rome 2622, RBW Collection 1333, SRCV I 266, gVF, well centered, reverse die wear, weight 4.046 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, 86 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, thunderbolt below; reverseJupiter in quadriga right, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, brandishing thunderbolt in right hand, reins in left hand; ex Artemide Aste (San Marino); $180.00 (€153.00)
Roman Republic, Lucius Caesius, 112 - 111 B.C.
An Egyptian papyrus of 112 B.C. issues instructions to a local official in the Fayum for the visit of a Roman senator, Lucius Memmius. He was apparently visiting for pleasure, to see the sights, and was to receive a reception similar to that which would be given to a great dignitary of the kingdom. Everything was to be ready for his entertainment, including food for the sacred crocodiles. It is an incidental light upon the subservience to members of the Roman elite which it was now thought politic to show in the Ptolemaic Kingdom. RR88447. Silver denarius, Crawford 298/1, Sydenham 564, RSC ICaesia 1, BMCRR Italy 585, RBW Collection 1140, SRCV I 175, VF, toned, some pitting, a few scratches, weight 3.724 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 112 - 111 B.C.; obversebust of Vejovis left, viewed from behind, wearing a taenia and a cloak over his left shoulder, hurling a thunderbolt with his right hand, ROMAmonogram right; reverse the two Lares Praestites seated right, each holds long scepter in left hand, dog between them, head of Vulcan facing left and tongs above, LA (ligate) left, PRE (ligate) right, L·CÆSI in exergue; ex CNG auction 419 (25 Apr 2018), lot 340; $120.00 (€102.00)
Roman Republic, Gaius Egnatuleius C.f., 97 B.C.
This reverse refers to Marius' victories over the Teutones and Ambrones at Aquae Sextiae in 102 B.C. and the Cimbri at Vercellae in 101 B.C. Crawford believes this issue financed settlement of Marius' veterans, partly in Cisalpine Gaul. -- Roman Republican Coinage by Michael H. Crawford RR88448. Silver quinarius, Crawford 333/1, Sydenham 588, RSC IEgnatuleia 1, BMCRR I Rome 1076, Russo RBW 1193, SRCV I 213, F, toned, encrustations, weight 1.479 g, maximum diameter 15.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 97 B.C.; obverse C·EGNATVLEI·C·F (NAT and VL ligate) downward behind, laureate head of Apollo right, Q (mark of value) below; reverseVictory standing left inscribing shield attached to trophy, trophy topped with a helmet ornamented with bull horns, carnyx (Gallic war trumpet) at base of trophy, Q (mark of value) in center, ROMA in exergue; ex CNG auction 419 (25 Apr 2018), lot 342; $70.00 (€59.50)
Roman Republic, Marcus Furius L.f. Philus, c. 119 B.C.
This type commemorates the victory by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and Q. Fabius Maximus over the Allobrogoges and the Averni in Gaul in 121 B.C. RR88449. Silver denarius, Crawford 281/1, Sydenham 529, BMCRR Italy 555, RSC IFuria 18, RBW Collection 1105, SRCV I 156, aVF, light toning, scratches, weight 3.722 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 165o, Rome mint, c. 119 B.C.; obverse M•FOVRI•L•F, bearded, laureate head of Janus, I above center (a vestigial mark of value copied from Janus on the Roman as); reverseRoma standing left, helmeted and draped, transverse long scepter in left hand, with right hand placing wreath on trophy of captured Gallic arms with carnyx and shield on each side, star above, ROMA upward on right, PHILI (PHI ligate) in exergue; ex Naville Numismatics, auction 40 (27 May 2018), lot 489; $100.00 (€85.00)
Roman Republic, Dictatorship of Julius Caesar, Lucius Hostilius Saserna, 48 B.C.
The events of 48 B.C. are among the best known of ancient history. Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalus and later was greeted at Alexandria with a gift of Pompey's head. The twenty-one year old Cleopatra VII had herself delivered to him rolled in a carpet and became his mistress. Caesar and Cleopatra defeated Ptolemy XIII, but during the battle the Library of Alexandria was burned. RR88450. Silver denarius, Crawford 448/1a, Sydenham 951, BMCRR I Rome 3989, RSC IHostilia 5, Sear CRI 17, RBW Collection 1567, SRCV I 417, EF, lightly toned, tight flan cutting off left side of reverselegend, weight 3.667 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, 48 B.C.; obverse female head (Pietas or Clementia?) right, wearing oak wreath, cruciform earring, necklace, jewel above her ear, hair collected into a knot behind, and lock falling down her neck; reverse L HOSTILIVS SASERNA clockwise from upper right, Victory running right, winged caduceus in right, Gallic trophy and palm fronds in left; ex Naville Numismatics, auction 42 (22 Jul 2018), lot 471; $240.00 (€204.00)
Roman Republic, Ti. Claudius Ti.f. Ap.n. Nero, 79 B.C.
Unlike the Greek gods, Roman gods were originally considered to be numina: divine powers of presence and will that did not necessarily have physical form. At the time Rome was founded, Diana and the other major Roman gods probably did not have much mythology per se, or any depictions in human form. The idea of gods as having anthropomorphic qualities and human-like personalities and actions developed later, under the influence of Greek and Etruscan religion. Once Greek influence had caused Diana to be considered identical to the Greek goddess Artemis, Diana acquired Artemis' physical description, attributes, and variants of her myths as well. Like Artemis, Diana is usually depicted in art wearing a short skirt, with a hunting bow and quiver, and often accompanied by hunting dogs. RR88418. Silver denariusserratus, Crawford 383/1, Sydenham 770a, RSC IClaudia 6, SRCV I 310, BMCRR I Rome 3118 var. (A•XV), RBW Collection 1411 var. (CXXXXVIII), aF, well centered, scratches, encrustations, weight 3.645 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 79 B.C.; obverse diademed and draped bust of Diana, bow and quiver over shoulder, S•C before; reverseVictory in a biga right, raising wreath in right hand, palm and reins in left, A•II (control number) below, TI•CLAVD•TI•F / AP N (VD and AP in monogram) in two lines in exergue; $38.00 (€32.30)
Roman Republic, Second Punic War Vanquished Enemy Overstrike, 211 - 204 B.C.
This coin is from Andrew McCabe's group H1, a previously unrecognized late Second Punic War issue, overstruck on the coins of Rome's vanquished enemies, from a mint or mints in Southern Italy, Sicily or Sardinia. The most common undertype is Carthaginian Tanit / horse types, but coins of Capua, the Bretti, Syracuse and other coins of the vanquished were also overstruck. For reasons unknown, these coins were overstruck on types that weighed half the standard for the same denomination at Rome. In the past these coins were often assumed, based on their weight, to date to the late second century or first century B.C. RR88422. Bronze triens, McCabe Anonymous group H1, cf. Crawford 56/4, Sydenham 143b, SRCV I 911 (Rome mint, normal weight c. 14g), aF, earthen deposits, weight 5.676 g, maximum diameter 21.8 mm, die axis 30o, Southern Italy, Sicily or Sardinia mint, 211 - 204 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Minerva right, four pellets above; reverse prow of galley right, apotropaic eye on side of hull, long diagonal prow stem, ROMA above, four pellets below; $38.00 (€32.30)
Roman Republic, L. Antestius Gragulus, c. 136 B.C.
This was the first type to use the X value mark (ligate XVI = 16 asses).
L. Antestius Gragulus was a moneyer in 136 B.C., a magistrate, responsible for the production of the Roman coinage. Magistrates were not simple mint workers (monetarii), they were officials who controlled the process, including the design on the coins themselves. During the Roman Republic, moneyers were called tresviri aere argento auro flando feriundo, literally "three men for casting (and) striking bronze, silver (and) gold (coins)" RR88428. Silver denarius, Crawford 238/1, Sydenham 451, RSC IAntestia 9, BMCRRRome 976, RBW Collection 980, SRCV I 115, F, well centered, light tone, light marks and scratches, light deposits, weight 3.792 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 315o, Rome mint, c. 136 B.C.; obversehead of Roma left in winged helmet, crest with griffinhead, peaked visor in three pieces, wearing earring and necklace, X below chin; reverseJupiter in fast quadriga right, thunderbolt in right hand, long lotus topped scepter and reins in left hand, L•ANTES (ANTE ligate) below horses, ROMA in exergue; $80.00 (€68.00)
Roman Republic, Anonymous, c. 169 - 158 B.C.
In 194 B.C., the Romans defeated the Boii in the Battle of Mutina, fought near Modena. The victory effectively ended the threat of the Gauls in Italy. RR88429. Bronze as, cf. McCabe Anonymous p. 269, K2.AS, Crawford 56/2, Sydenham 143, BMCRRRome 217 ff., SRCV I 627, Fair, corrosion, weight 25.515 g, maximum diameter 33.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 169 - 158 B.C.; obverse laureate and bearded head of Janus, I (mark of value) above; reverse prow right, apotropaic eye on side of hull, flat topped deck structure, I (mark of value) above, ROMA below; scarce; $28.00 (€23.80)
Roman Republic, Lucius Rutilius Flaccus, c. 77 B.C.
In 77 B.C. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Roman consul and leader of the democratic party, was defeated by Quintus Lutatius Catulus outside Rome. The rebels in Etruria were wiped out by Gnaeus Pompeius. Lepidus, with some 21,000 troops, escaped to Sardinia. Soon afterward he became ill and died. His battered army, now under command by Marcus Perperna, sailed on to the Iberian Peninsula. RR88431. Silver denarius, BMCRR I Rome 3244 (same helmet visor), Crawford 387/1, Sydenham 780a, RSC IRutilia 1a, RBW Collection 1420, SRCV I 318, F, weight 3.577 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 77 B.C.; obversehead of Roma right, wearing a winged helmet with peaked visor, single drop earring and necklace, FLAC downward behind; reverseVictory in a fast biga right, raising wreath in extended right hand, reins in left hand, L•RVTIILI in exergue; $40.00 (€34.00)
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Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974).
Grueber, H.A. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910).
Haeberlin, E. J. Aes Grave. Das Schwergeld Roms und Mittelitaliens. (Frankfurt, 1910).
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Stannard, C. The local coinages of Central Italy in the late Roman Republic: provisional catalogue, Oct 2007.
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