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Roman Republic, Ti. Minucius C.f. Augurinus, 134 B.C.
NEW In 135 B.C., the First Servile War began. After the Second Punic war, an over-abundance of slaves caused them to be ill-fed by their masters, and they soon began to provide for themselves by robbery. Several decades of increasing tension finally broke out into war. The rebel leader was Eunus, a slave whose master had hired him out as a magician for parties. Eunus would humorously tell his audiences that he was a prophet, that someday he would be king, the classes would be reversed, and aristocrats would killed or enslaved - except for those that tipped him for the show. During the revolt he did spare the lives of at least some aristocrats who had tipped him. The war lasted until 132 B.C. Eunus was captured, but he died before he could be punished. This was the first of three slave revolts against the Roman Republic; the last and the most famous was led by Spartacus.RR97222. Silver denarius, Crawford 243/1, Sydenham 494, BMCRR Rome 1005, RSC I Minucia 9, Russo RBW 212, SRCV I 120, VF, bumps and marks, some die wear, weight 3.840 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 134 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Rome right, X (XVI monogram, mark of value) behind; reverse statue on a drum column, flanked by two stalks of grain and two togate standing figures, the figure on the left is holding a loaf of bread, the one on right is veiled and holding lituus, RO-MA divided above, TI MINVCI upward on left, AVGRINI downward on right; ex Savoca Numismatik silver auction 32 (14 Apr 2019), lot 314; $240.00 (€220.80)
Roman Republic, M. Sergius Silus, 116 - 115 B.C.
NEW The reverse depicts the moneyer's grandfather, M. Sergius Silus, who during the Punic War suffered 23 wounds and lost his right arm but continued to fight. He holds his sword and a severed Gallic head in his left hand.
EX S C indicates the issuer struck this coinage as quaestor by special decree of the Senate. Questors were the immediate superiors of the moneyers and occasionally struck coins under their own authority.RR97223. Silver denarius, BMCRR II Italy 512 (also smaller head of neat style), RSC I Sergia 1a (same), Sydenham 544, Crawford 286/1, Russo RBW 1115, SRCV I 163, Choice VF, well centered, toned, marks, weight 3.858 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 116 - 115 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right (smaller head of neat style), helmet winged and ornamented with a griffin head, wearing single drop earring and necklace, EX·S·C before, ROMA and X (XVI ligature, mark of value=16 asses) downward behind; reverse helmeted horseman galloping left, holding sword and severed Gallic head in left hand, Q (questor) below horse's forelegs, M SERGI below, SILVS in exergue; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 90 (7 Jun 2020), lot 394; $250.00 (€230.00)
Roman Republic, M. Volteius M. f., 78 B.C.
NEW In ancient Roman religion and mythology, Liber (Latin: "the free one"), also known as Liber Pater ("the free Father"), was a god of viticulture and wine, fertility and freedom. He was a patron deity of Rome's plebeians and was part of their Aventine Triad. His festival of Liberalia (March 17) became associated with free speech and the rights attached to coming of age. His cult and functions were increasingly associated with Romanised forms of the Greek Dionysus-Bacchus, whose mythology he came to share.RR97224. Silver denarius, Crawford 385/3, cf. BMCRR Rome 3160, Sydenham 776, RSC I Volteia 3, Russo RBW 1416, SRCV I 314 (only Crawford list the lizard control symbol), gVF, obverse well centered, bumps and marks, reverse off center, tiny edge cracks, weight 4.417 g, maximum diameter 16.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 78 B.C.; obverse Wreathed head of Liber or Bacchus right; reverse M VOLTEI M F, Ceres driving biga of serpents right, holding two torches, lizard head upward (control symbol) behind; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 90 (7 Jun 2020), lot 427; $220.00 (€202.40)
Roman Republic, Anonymous, Second Punic War, 211 - 206 B.C.
NEW The Second Punic War was between Carthage and the Roman Republic from 218 to 201 B.C. Hannibal made a surprising crossing of the Alps and, reinforced by Gallic allies, delivered crushing victories over Roman armies in the battle of the Trebia, the giant ambush at Trasimene, and again at Cannae. Many Roman allies went over to Carthage. Against Hannibal's tactical genius, the Romans used the Fabian strategy. Rome blocked attempts to reinforce Hannibal and, more capable in siegecraft, recaptured all of the major cities that had defected. Meanwhile, Scipio Africanus took Carthago Nova and ended Punic rule in Iberia. The final showdown was the Battle of Zama in Africa. Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal, harsh terms were imposed, and Carthage became a Roman client-state.RR93642. Copper quadrans, Crawford 56/5, Sydenham 143c, BMCRR Rome 255, Russo RBW 1244, SRCV I 1037, F, green patina, light marks, light earthen deposits, light corrosion, weight 7.274 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, Second Punic War, 211 - 206 B.C.; obverse head of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse prow right, ROMA above, three pellets below; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $110.00 (€101.20)
Roman Republic, Mn. Acilius Glabrio, 49 B.C.
NEW Salus and Valetudo were honored on coins of the Acilia gens because they claimed to have introduced the first Greek physician into Rome. Valetudo, Hygieia to the Greeks, was the original Roman goddess of personal health. Over time, Salus, the goddess of safety and well-being (including welfare and prosperity in addition to health) assumed Valetudo's role. Few recognize Valetudo's name today.
On 10 January 49 B.C., Julius Caesar led his army across the Rubicon, which separated his jurisdiction (Cisalpine Gaul) from that of the Senate (Italy), and thus initiates a civil war. In October 49 B.C., Caesar was appointed Dictator of Rome.RR97490. Silver denarius, Crawford 442/1b, RSC I Acilia 8a, Sydenham 922, BMCRR I Rome 3943, SRCV I 412, VF, uneven tone, light bumps and scratches, weight 3.844 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 49 B.C.; obverse SALVTIS (downward behind), laureate head of Salus right; reverse MN ACILIVS (straight downward on right, MN and TV in monogram) / III VIR VALETVS (curving upward on left), Valetudo (the old Roman goddess of personal health) standing left, snake in right hand, resting left elbow on column; ex Papillon auction 3 (27 Dec 20), lot 374; $200.00 (€184.00)
Roman Republic, Sextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet, Executed 35 B.C., Portrait of Pompey the Great
The inscription PRAEF CLAS ET ORAE MARIT abbreviates Praefectus Classis et Orae Maritimae, which translates Commander-in-Chief of the Fleet and the Sea Coasts. This title was held by both Pompey the Great and his son Sextus Pompey. Although Sextus Pompey was the supreme naval commander, Octavian had the Senate declare him a public enemy. He turned to piracy and came close to defeating Octavian. He was defeated by Marcus Agrippa at the naval battle of Naulochus (3 September 36 B.C.) and was executed by order of Mark Antony in 35 B.C.RR96734. Silver denarius, Crawford 511/3a, RSC I Pompey the Great 17, Sydenham 1344, BMCRR Sicily 7, Sear CRI 334, SRCV I 1392, aVF, attractive iridescent toning, obverse off center, tight flan, reverse strike weak on right, weight 3.822 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 135o, Sicilian mint, 42 - 40 B.C.; obverse MAG PIVS IMP ITER, head of Pompey the Great right, between capis and lituus (augural symbols); reverse Neptune standing left, right foot on prow, nude but for chlamys on left arm, holding apluster, flanked by the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, running in opposite directions with their parents on their shoulders, PRAEF above, CLAS ET ORAE / MARIT EX S C in two lines in exergue; scarce; $570.00 (€524.40)
Osco-Latin, Central Italy, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
GA96779. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, cf. G. Fallai, IAPN 8, pl. 6, 2-2e; Alvarez-Burgos P28; Thurlow-Vecchi -, Fair, weight 13.617 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, uncertain Osco-Latin mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; cast from a bipod shell; $100.00 (€92.00)
Osco-Latin, Central Italy, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
GA96094. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, cf. G. Fallai, IAPN 8, pl. 6, 2-2e; Alvarez-Burgos P28; Thurlow-Vecchi -, weight 22.906 g, maximum diameter 35.4 mm, uncertain Osco-Latin mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; similar bronze Aes formatum were cast in molds made from seashells, but this specimen was not cast from a mold made with a shell - the shape and lines are the work of a human hand; $150.00 (€138.00)
Pontus (Amisos?), Roman Quaestor (Lucius Lucullus?), c. 100 - 50 B.C.
The Q identifies the bare male head as a Roman Quaestor. This letter is not noted in RPC but is visible here and clear on other examples known to Forum. Perhaps the image is of Lucius Lucullus, an important Quaestor of Sulla, about whom Plutarch wrote. The reverse legend, the Latin FETIA, refers to the fetial ceremony, part of the treaty making process, during which a pig was sacrificed to sanctify the oaths. The mint location is unknown but Imhoof-Blumer placed it at Amisus, where Leypold acquired his specimen.RP96461. Brass AE 21, RPC I 2156, SNG Leypold I p. 24, 69; Imhoof-Blumer GRMK 281, F, dark patina, flat centers, scratches, reverse die wear, reverse off center, weight 7.913 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 0o, Pontos (Amisos?) mint, c. 80 B.C.(?); obverse bare male head right, Q (quaestor) below; reverse two men standing, holding a pig between them, each with a hand raised, taking an oath of fealty, FETA IA in exergue; rare; $200.00 (€184.00)
Roman Silver Coins, Volume I, Republic to Augustus
Roman Silver Coins I. Republic to Augustus by H. A. Seaby (With David R. Sear)
The first of five volumes dealing exclusively with Roman silver coinage. BK21956. Roman Silver Coins, Volume I, Republic to Augustus by H. A. Seaby (With David R. Sear), hardcover, used, very light cover wear, international shipping at actual cost of shipping; $50.00 (€46.00)
Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 1: Pompey to Domitian. (Paris, 1880).
Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974).
Grueber, H.A. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910).
Haeberlin, E. J. Aes Grave. Das Schwergeld Roms und Mittelitaliens. (Frankfurt, 1910).
Rutter, N.K. ed. Historia Numorum. Italy. (London, 2001).
Seaby, H.A., D. Sear, & R. Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Volume I, The Republic to Augustus. (London, 1989).
Sear, D. R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. (London, 1998).
Sear, D. R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Stannard, C. The local coinages of Central Italy in the late Roman Republic: provisional catalogue, Oct 2007.
Sydenham, E. Aes Grave, a Study of the Cast Coinages of Rome and Central Italy. (London, 1926).
Sydenham, E. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. (London, 1952).
Thurlow, B. and I. Vecchi. Italian Cast Coinage. (Dorchester, 1979).
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