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Roman Republic, Dictatorship of Julius Caesar, C. Antius C. f. Restio, 47 B.C.
Issued during Caesar's dictatorship. The Herakles reverse relates to the supposed descent of the Antiagens from Antiades, son of Hercules and Aglaia. The trophy is not one of Hercules normal attributes and may refer to Caesar's military exploits. Antius Restio was proscribed by the triumval government in 43 B.C. and fled to Sicily and the protection of Sextus Pompey. RR87658. Silver denarius, Crawford 455/2a, RSC IAntia 2, Sydenham 971, Sear CRI 35, BMCRERome 4032, RBW Collection 1594, SRCV I 435, VF/F, toned, bumps and scratches, corrosion, slightly off center, weight 3.566 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, 47 B.C.; obverseDEI PENATES, jugate heads of Dei Penates right; reverse C·ANTIVS·C·F, Hercules walking left, nude, raising club in right, trophy in left, Nemean lion skin over left arm; scarce; $180.00 (€153.00)
Roman Republic, D. Junius L.f. Silanus 91 B.C.
In 91 BC., the tribune Marcus Livius Drusus proposed extending Roman citizenship to allied Italian cities. He was assassinated, leading to the Social War. RR87670. Silver denarius, BMCRRRome 1797 var. (H / XX), SRCV I 225, Sydenham 646, Crawford 337/3, RSC IJunia 15, VF, toned, porous, bumps and scratches, struck with worn/damaged dies, off center, weight 3.863 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 91 B.C.; obversehead of Roma right in winged helmet, H (control letter) behind; reverseVictory in a biga galloping right, XXIX (control number) above, D SILANVS L F over ROMA in exergue; $150.00 (€127.50)
Roman Republic, Q. Cassius Longinus, 55 B.C.
The obverse portrait has been variously interpreted as Bonus Eventus (the God of good Success) or Genius Populi Romani (the guardian spirit of the Roman people). Quintus Cassius Longinus was a governor in Hispania for Caesar. Cassius was one of the tresviri monetales of the Roman mint in 55 B.C. He served as a quaestor for Pompey in Hispania Ulterior in 54 B.C. RR87659. Silver denarius, SRCV I 391, Sydenham 916, Crawford 428/3, BMCRR 3868, RSC ICassia 7, aVF, light toning, highest points flatly struck, banker's marks, bumps and scratches, scrape on reverse, closed edge crack, weight 3.651 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 55 B.C.; obverse young male head (Genius Populi Romani or Bonus Eventus) right, scepter behind; reverseeagle standing right on thunderbolt, head right, wings open, lituus (augur's staff) on left, jug on right, Q•CASSIVS below; $160.00 (€136.00)
Carteia, HispaniaBaetica, c. 44 B.C. - 1st Century A.D.
The Latin colony of Carteia was founded in 171 B.C. In 27 B.C., when Augustus had become emperor, Hispania Ulterior was divided into Baetica (modern Andalusia) and Lusitania (modern Portugal, Extremadura, and part of Castilla-León). Cantabria and Basque country were also added to Hispania Citerior.RP84139. Bronze quadrans, Villaronga-Benages 2609, Villaronga 65; RPC I 116, SNG Cop 434, SNG Lorichs 1337, SNG München -, SNG Tub, VF, tight flan, earthen deposits, areas of heavy scratches, weight 2.922 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 180o, Carteia mint, c. 44 B.C. - 1st century A.D.; obverseCARTEIA, head of Fortuna-Tyche right, wearing crown of turreted city walls, trident behind; reverseCupid riding dolphin right, IIII VIR above, EX D D below; $40.00 (€34.00)
Sextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet, Executed 35 B.C.
In Greek mythology, Scylla was a monster that lived on one side of Strait of Messina between Italy and Sicily, opposite her counterpart Charybdis. The two sides of the strait were within an arrow's range of each other - so close that sailors attempting to avoid Charybdis would pass dangerously close to Scylla and vice versa. Scylla made her first appearance in Homer's Odyssey, where Odysseus and his crew encounter her and Charybdis on their travels. Later myth gave her an origin story as a beautiful nymph who gets turned into a monster. The idiom "between Scylla and Charybdis" has come to mean being forced to choose between two similarly dangerous situations.SH87414. Silver denarius, RSC IPompeia 3a (same ligatures), Crawford 511/4d, Sydenham 1348, BMCRRSicily 20, Sear CRI 335b, SRCV I 1393, gVF, beautifully toned, edge cracks, legends not fully struck, weight 3.566 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 225o, uncertain Sicilian mint, 40 - 39 B.C.; obverse MAG•PIVS•IMP•ITER, pharos (lighthouse) of Messana, topped with stature of Neptune standing right holding trident and rudder, his left foot on a galley ram; quinquereme (war galley) sailing left in foreground below adorned with aquila on prow and scepter at the stern; reverse PRAEF ORAE•MARIT•ET•CLAS• S•C• (AEs and MAR ligate), the sea monster Skylla, her upper body a nude human female torso, lower body of two fish tails and three dog foreparts, attacking to left with a rudder wielded as a club in both hands raised overhead; ex Nomos Obolos 10, lot 349; rare; $2100.00 (€1785.00)
Roman Republic, Fragment of an Aes Formatum Large Domed Disc Ingot, 4th Century B.C.
Called aes formatum by Haeberlin, this very rare bronze currency was a precursor to the issues of aes grave but later than aes rude. Presumably, molten bronze-iron alloy was poured into a shallow hole in the dirt. This left a disc-shaped metal mound with a flat reverse. Broken examples like this one are much more common than complete ones.RR86151. Cast bronze Aes Formatum, cf. Haeberlin p. 4, pl. 2.7; fragment, weight 199.40 g, maximum diameter 66.1 mm, Italian mint, 4th century B.C.; obverse convex obverse; reverse flat reverse; rare; $200.00 (€170.00)
Roman Republic, c. 169 - 91 B.C., Unofficial Issue
Crawford notes, "The very common quadrantes with M • and N• (as Milan 351) are clearly unofficial."RR79715. Copper quadrans, cf. Milan 351 (from Crawford appendix p. 309 unofficial issues of bronze coins), Sydenham -, VF, centered on a tight flan, light marks,, weight 4.182 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 135o, unofficial mint, c. 169 - 91 B.C.; obversehead of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse prow right, ROMA below, three pellets before, M• above; ex FORVM (2006), ex Goodman collection; $125.00 (€106.25)
Luceria, Apulia, Italy, c. 211 - 200 B.C.
In 321 B.C., the Romans, deceived into thinking Lucera was under siege by the Samnites, walked into an ambush and were defeated. The town threw out the Samnites, sought Roman protection, and in 320 B.C. was granted the status of Colonia Togata, which meant it was ruled by the Roman Senate. To strengthen ties, 2,500 Romans moved to Lucera. Roman culture merged with the native one slowly, probably accompanied by cross-cultural marriages, but Lucera was a steadfast supporter of Rome. By the 2nd century B.C., the rustic town was transformed into a proper Roman city with houses, public buildings, paved roads, sidewalks and services for travelers, accommodation for livestock with running water, and warehouses for storing goods.GB86125. Bronze uncia, SNG ANS 709; SNG Cop 663; SNG BnF 1368; SNG München 504; HN Italy 682; BMC Italy p. 141, 62; Hunterian -, VF, rough, weight 4.084 g, maximum diameter 14.9 mm, die axis 0o, Luceria mint, c. 211 - 200 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, bow and quiver at shoulder, pellet behind; reverse LOVC-ERI, toad seen from above; very rare; $680.00 (€578.00)
Roman Macedonia, "Thasian" Type, c. 148 - 80 B.C.
This Dionysos / Herakles type was first struck by Thasos itself on the island and in its continental territories in the South of the Balkans, c. 168 - 148 B.C. After Rome took control of the area, "Thasian" types were struck by Roman authorities, c. 148 - 80 B.C., mainly in Macedonia but also, perhaps, by mobile military mints on campaigns. Imitatives were also struck by at least several tribal groups (mainly Celtic or mixed enclaves) from as early as 120 - 100 B.C. to about 20 - 10 B.C.GS79630. Silver tetradrachm, Prokopov Thasos, group XII, monogram 6, 743 (O AC8 / R 592); SNG Cop 1040 ff. (Thasos), VF, toned, bumps and marks, die wear, weight 16.745 g, maximum diameter 32.8 mm, die axis 0o, Roman provincial or military mint, c. 148 - 80 B.C.; obversehead of Dionysos right, wearing taenia and wreathed in flowering ivy; reverse HPAKΛEOYΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ ΘAΣIΩN, Herakles standing half left, nude but for Nemean lion's skin on left arm, resting right hand on grounded club before him, left hand on hip, (MH monogram) inner left; $215.00 (€182.75)
Tutere (Tudor), Umbria, Italy, 280 - 240 B.C.
Todi was founded by the ancient Italic people of the Umbri, in the 8th - 7th century BC, with the name of Tutere. The name means "border," it being the city located on the frontier with the Etruscan dominions. It was conquered by the Romans in 217 BC. According to Silius Italicus, it had a double line of walls that stopped Hannibal himself after his victory at the Trasimeno. Christianity spread to Todi very early, through the efforts of St. Terentianus. Bishop St. Fortunatus became the patron saint of the city for his heroic defense of it during the Gothic siege. In Lombard times, Todi was part of the Duchy of Spoleto. SH73969. Bronze hemiobol, HN Italy 37, Campania CNAI 2, SNG Cop 75, SNG ANS 105; BMC Italy p. 39, 1, F, well centered, pitted, flan crack, weight 3.364 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Tuder (Todi, Italy) mint, 280 - 240 B.C.; obverse bearded head of the satyr Silenus (Seilenos) right, wearing ivy wreath; reverse Umbrian: TVTEDE (downward on left, TVT top outward, EDE top inward), eagle standing left, wings spread; rare; $320.00 (€272.00)
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Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974).
Grueber, H.A. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910).
Haeberlin, E. J. Aes Grave. Das Schwergeld Roms und Mittelitaliens. (Frankfurt, 1910).
Rutter, N.K. ed. Historia Numorum. Italy. (London, 2001).
Seaby, H.A., D. Sear, & R. Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Volume I, The Republic to Augustus. (London, 1989).
Sear, D. R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. (London, 1998).
Sear, D. R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Stannard, C. The local coinages of Central Italy in the late Roman Republic: provisional catalogue, Oct 2007.
Sydenham, E. Aes Grave, a Study of the Cast Coinages of Rome and Central Italy. (London, 1926).
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