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Byzantine Empire, Manuel II Palaeologus, 25 September 1373 - 1423 A.D.
After his older brother Andronikos IV tried to usurp their father's throne, Manuel II was made co-emperor and heir. In 1376 - 1379 and again in 1390 Andronikos IV and then his son John VII seized rule. Manuel defeated his nephew and restored his father's throne. He was then sent as a hostage to the court of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I, where he was forced to participate in the Ottoman campaign that reduced Philadelphia, the last Byzantine enclave in Anatolia. After a five year Ottoman siege, in 1399 Manuel left for the European courts to seek aid. Relations between John VII and Manuel had improved and John VII was left as regent. The siege was lifted after the Mongols defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara. Taking advantage of the Ottoman civil war that followed and rival princes seeking friendship, John VII secured the return some lost territory including the city of Thessalonica. When Manuel returned home in 1403, his nephew retired to govern Thessalonica. Manuel was friendly with Mehmed I but after Mehmed died in 1421, the Ottomans assault began anew. Manuel relinquished most duties to his son and heir John VIII, and left again to seek aid. Unsuccessful, the Byzantines were forced to pay tribute to the sultan. Manuel II retired as a monk in 1423 and died on 21 July 1425.
BZ86362. Silver half stavraton (Basileus series), quarter hyperpyron, sigla 38; Bendall PCPC 334.20 (same rev. die), DOC V 1447 (same), Lianta 943 (same), Grierson 1517, Sommer 88.2, SBCV 2551, VF, centered on a tight flan, scrape, corrosion/porosity, edge cracks, Imperial mint, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, weight 3.580g, maximum diameter 19.5mm, die axis 180o
, 1403 - c. 1415; obverse bust of Christ facing, cross nimbus with pellets in arms, tunic and himation, right raised in benediction, Gospels in left, double border with pellets between, IC - XC flanking across field, pellet above and below XC in right field; reverse + MANOVHΛ BACIΛEVC O ΠAΛEOΛOΓO (King Manuel Palaeologus), bust of John VII facing, bearded, nimbate, crown with pendilia, pellet over B on left, pellet over reversed B on right; scarce
Catalog current as of Sunday, August 25, 2019.
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