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Byzantine Empire, Manuel II Palaeologus, 25 September 1373 - 1423 A.D.
After his older brother Andronikos IV tried to usurp their father's throne, Manuel II was made co-emperor and heir. In 1376 - 1379 and again in 1390 Andronikos IV and then his son John VII seized rule. Manuel defeated his nephew and restored his father's throne. He was then sent as a hostage to the court of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I, where he was forced to participate in the Ottoman campaign that reduced Philadelpheia, the last Byzantine enclave in Anatolia. After a five year Ottoman siege, in 1399 Manuel left for the European courts to seek aid. Relations between John VII and Manuel had improved and John VII was left as regent. The siege was lifted after the Mongols defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara. Taking advantage of the Ottoman civil war that followed and rival princes seeking friendship, John VII secured the return some lost territory including the city of Thessalonica. When Manuel returned home in 1403, his nephew retired to govern Thessalonica. Manuel was friendly with Mehmed I but after Mehmed died in 1421, the Ottomans assault began anew. Manuel relinquished most duties to his son and heir John VIII, and left again to seek aid. Unsuccessful, the Byzantines were forced to pay tribute to the sultan. Manuel II retired as a monk in 1423 and died on 21 July 1425.
SH73564. Silver half stavraton
series), quarter hyperpyron
, sigla 17; Bendall PCPC
334.3; DOC V
1412 var. (obverse
also has pellet right); Grierson
2551, VF, Imperial mint, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, weight
3.694g, maximum diameter
20.6mm, die axis
, 1403 - c. 1415; obverse bust
of Christ facing, cross nimbus
with pellets in arms, tunic and himation
, right raised in benediction
, Gospels in left, IC - XC
(Greek abbreviation: Jesus Christ) across field
over K (or IK) left and lis right, double border
with pellets between; reverse
+ MANOVHΛ BACIΛEVC O ΠAΛEOΛOΓO (King
Manuel Palaeologus), bust
of John VII facing, bearded, nimbate
, crown with pendilia
, pellet in left and right fields; scarce
Catalog current as of Wednesday, March 20, 2019.
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