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   View Categories Home > Catalog > |Greek Coins| > |Geographic - All Periods| > |Anatolia| > |Caria| > |Persian Caria| > SH22452
Persian Achaemenid Empire, Carian Satrapy, Pixodarus, c. 340 - 335 B.C.
|Persian| |Caria|, |Persian| |Achaemenid| |Empire,| |Carian| |Satrapy,| |Pixodarus,| |c.| |340| |-| |335| |B.C.|, The archer-horseman tetradrachms are one of the most enigmatic Persian coinages struck in Asia Minor prior to the invasion of Alexander the Great. No inscriptions identify the issuer, mint, or purpose of the issue. The Pixodarus Hoard included only examples without symbols or letters in the fields, thus dating the earliest of the type to c. 350 B.C. and dating those with symbols to after the deposit date, 341 B.C. In that period, many possible Satraps could have been the issuer.

The type may have been issued by Memnon, the famous and worthy adversary of Alexander. As a Carian, Greek-style issue, the type was likely issued for the hire of Greek mercenaries. Memnon co-commanded local forces before the defeat at the Granicus and afterward was in charge of all forces in Western Asia Minor. At Granicus he was joined on the left wing (where Alexander charged) by Orontobates, the son-in-law of Pixodaros. Memnon was a 'rebel' Greek (actually Rhodian) commander and a very competent one at that. He sailed away from the siege at Halicaranassos and became a thorn in Alexander's side, threatening his lines of communication and more than once capturing the coastal towns and islands as the conqueror moved South. He fell ill and died before he could more greatly affect the invasion, a great loss to the faltering Persian Empire.

Another possible issuer is Orontobates, the Satrap of Caria after the death of Pixodaros. Orontobates assisted in the defence of Halicarnassos, and was later at Gaugemela, afterward he is not heard of again and we presume he died.
SH22452. Silver tetradrachm, Konuk Influences, group 5 var.; SNG Cop 290-291 var.; Traité II 121 var. (all refs head of Herakles), gVF, Halikarnassos (Bodrum, Turkey) mint, weight 15.077g, maximum diameter 25.1mm, die axis 0o, c. 340 - 335 B.C.; obverse Kneeling-running figure of the Great King right, drawing bow, bearded, crowned, quiver at shoulder; reverse satrap on horseback right, thrusting spear; above left, bearded male head facing right; attractively toned, minor porosity; Ex Gorny & Mosch 117 lot 335; ex CNG 69 lot 449, ex CNG 72 lot 801; unpublished symbol variety of an extremely rare type; SOLD


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