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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ The Late Empire ▸ Valentinian IView Options:  |  |  |   

Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D.

Upon becoming emperor Valentinian I made his brother Valens his co-emperor, giving him rule of the eastern provinces while Valentinian retained the west. During his reign, Valentinian successfully fought the Alamanni, Quadi, and Sarmatians. Most notable was his victory over the Alamanni in 367 at the Battle of Solicinium. His brilliant general Count Theodosius defeated a revolt in Africa, and the Great Conspiracy, a coordinated assault on Roman Britain by Picts, Scots, and Saxons. Valentinian was the last emperor to conduct campaigns across both the Rhine and Danube rivers. He rebuilt and improved the fortifications along the frontiers, even building fortresses in enemy territory. He founded the Valentinian Dynasty, with his sons Gratian and Valentinian II succeeding him in the western half of the empire. Due to the successful nature of his reign and almost immediate decline of the empire after his death, he is often considered the "last great western emperor."


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In 372 Firmus, a wealthy Berber prince, whose late father had been a Roman military officer, revolted against the Roman comes Africae (magistrate), Romanus. Romanus had neglected defense of the Roman cities and had supported an attempt by Firmus' half-brother to take his inheritance. Valentinian sent his magister militum Theodosius (father of Theodosius I) to depose Romanus and eliminate Firmus. Firmus tried to negotiate, but Theodosius refused. Firmus proclaimed himself emperor and with an army of indigenous African tribes, fought a bloody but hopeless campaign. In 375, Firmus was betrayed by his brother Gildon and chose suicide over capture.
RL88691. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX Siscia 14(a)xix, LRBC II 1339, SRCV V 19450, Cohen VIII 12, Hunter V 40 var. (controls), VF, dark green patina, die wear, weight 2.072 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, M left, * over P over right, BSISC in exergue; $19.00 (16.15)


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In 370, Valentinian I and Valens banned the importation of wine and olive oil from areas controlled by the barbarians and banned marriages between Romans and barbarians under penalty of death.
RL88731. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX 27(a)xxxiii, LRBC II 1806, SRCV V 19518, Cohen VIII 37, Hunter V -, VF, tight flan, earthen deposits, weight 2.448 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE (security of the Republic), Victory walking left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, Z left, A right, TES in exergue; $19.00 (16.15)


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Victory or Nike is seen with wings in most statues and paintings, with one of the most famous being the Winged Victory of Samothrace. Most other winged deities in the Greek pantheon had shed their wings by Classical times. Nike is the goddess of strength, speed, and victory. Nike was a very close acquaintance of Athena and is thought to have stood in Athena's outstretched hand in the statue of Athena located in the Parthenon. Victory or Nike is also one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek and Roman coins.
RL88591. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX Siscia 15(a)xvi, LRBC II 1329, SRCV V 19509, Cohen VIII 37, Hunter V -, VF, tight flan, encrustations, weight 2.784 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE (security of the Republic), Victory walking left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, * over F left, M right, ∆SISC in exergue; $18.00 (15.30)


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They look similar, but there is a significant physical difference between angels and Victory. Angels are all male. Victory (Nike) is female. On Byzantine coinage, the male angel replaced the female Victory after the reunion with Rome was concluded on 28 March 519 A.D.

RL88674. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX Siscia 15(a)xv, LRBC II 1325, SRCV V 19509, Cohen VIII 37, VF, green patina, well centered, patina flaking, edge chipping, weight 2.667 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE (security of the Republic), Victory walking left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, * over F in left field, S right, ∆SISC in exergue; $17.00 (14.45)


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RL88660. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX Siscia 14(a)xiv, LRBC II 1319, SRCV V 19450, Cohen VIII 12, Hunter V 40 var. (controls), F, irregular shaped ragged flan, patina chipping, weight 2.711 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, S left, * over D right, BSISC in exergue; $14.00 (11.90)


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In 1423, Despot Andronicus, who was in charge of the Thessaloniki, ceded it to the Republic of Venice in the hope that it could be protected from the Ottomans who were besieging the city (there is no evidence to support the oft-repeated story that he sold the city to them). The Venetians held Thessaloniki until it was captured by the Ottoman Sultan Murad II on the 29th of March, 1430. Murad II took Thessaloniki with a brutal massacre and enslaved roughly one-fifth of the city's native population. During the First Balkan War, on 26 October 1912, the feast day of the city's patron saint, Saint Demetrius, the Greek Army accepted the surrender of the Ottoman garrison at Thessalonika; after the Second Balkan War, in 1913 Thessaloniki was annexed to Greece by the Treaty of Bucharest.
RL88736. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX Thessalonica 16(a)ii (S), LRBC II 1708, SRCV V 19453, Cohen VIII 12, Hunter V -, VF, green patina, well centered, irregular flan, scratches and marks, a little rough, weight 2.481 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 367 - 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), emperor walking left, dragging captive with right, labarum (chi rho Christogram standard) in left, TESB in exergue; $14.00 (11.90)


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In 370, Valentinian I and Valens banned the importation of wine and olive oil from areas controlled by the barbarians and banned marriages between Romans and barbarians under penalty of death.
RL88753. Bronze centenionalis, LRBC II 1336, RIC IX Siscia 15(a)xvii, SRCV V 19510, Cohen VIII 37, aVF, dark patina with coppery high points, weight 2.315 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE (security of the Republic), Victory walking left, raising wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, star over P left, M right, ΓSISC in exergue; $14.00 (11.90)


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Valentinian I was proclaimed emperor shortly after the death of Jovian in 364 A.D. He settled in Paris, established a militia to defend the region and ruled the Western Roman Empire from Caledonia (Scotland) to the Rhine frontier. Valentinian spent most of his reign along the Rhine frontier, combating barbarian invasions ensuring the Empire a few years of relative security. His brother, Valens, ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from the Danube to the Persian border. his reign combating barbarian invasions along the Rhine frontier ensuring the Empire a few years of relative security. His brother, Valens, ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from the Danube to the Persian border.
RL88771. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX Thessalonica 16(a)i, LRBC II 1704, SRCV V 19453, Cohen VIII 12, Hunter V -, F, turquoise patina, well centered, tight flan, scratches, a little rough, earthen deposits, weight 2.157 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, TESB in exergue; $14.00 (11.90)


Click for a larger photo
Valentinian I was proclaimed emperor shortly after the death of Jovian in 364 A.D. He settled in Paris, established a militia to defend the region and ruled the Western Roman Empire from Caledonia (Scotland) to the Rhine frontier. Valentinian spent most of his reign along the Rhine frontier, combating barbarian invasions ensuring the Empire a few years of relative security. His brother, Valens, ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from the Danube to the Persian border. his reign combating barbarian invasions along the Rhine frontier ensuring the Empire a few years of relative security. His brother, Valens, ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from the Danube to the Persian border.
RL88790. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX Thessalonica 16(a)i, LRBC II 1704, SRCV V 19453, Cohen VIII 12, Hunter V -, F, green patina, a little rough, prominent pre-strike flan casting sprue, weight 2.617 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, TESB in exergue; $14.00 (11.90)


Click for a larger photo
In 370, Valentinian I and Valens banned the importation of wine and olive oil from areas controlled by the barbarians and banned marriages between Romans and barbarians under penalty of death.
RL88809. Bronze centenionalis, LRBC II 1336, RIC IX Siscia 15(a)xvii, SRCV V 19510, Cohen VIII 37, aVF, green patina, bumps and marks, earthen encrustations, weight 2.437 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE (security of the Republic), Victory walking left, raising wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand, star over P left, M right, ΓSISC in exergue; $14.00 (11.90)




  



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OBVERSE LEGENDS

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REFERENCES

Carson, R., P. Hill & J. Kent. Late Roman Bronze Coinage. (London, 1960).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappes sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 8: Nepotian to Romulus Augustus, plus tesserae & cotorniates. (Paris, 1888).
Depeyrot, G. Les monnaies d'or de Constantin II Zenon (337-491). Moneta 5. (Wetteren, 1996).
Hahn, Wolfgang. Moneta Imperii Romani-Byzantinii. (Vienna, 1989).
King, C. & D. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume V, Carausius to Romulus Augustus. (London, 1987).
Paolucci, R. & A. Zub. La monetazione di Aquileia Romana. (Padova, 2000).
Pearce, J. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Volume IX, Valentinian I - Theodosius I. (London 1933).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. V. Diocletian (Reform) to Zeno. (Oxford, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. V: The Christian Empire...Constantine II to Zeno, AD 337 - 491. (London, 2014).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Tuesday, May 21, 2019.
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Roman Coins of Valentinian I