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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Roman Provincial| ▸ |Roman Judea and Palestina||View Options:  |  |  |   

Roman Provincial Coins of Judea and Palestina

Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

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The eight prutot was Herod's largest denomination. The style of this scarcer variety is somewhat schematic. The vertical legends are also unusual. This is an appendage group type (O2/R3) as discussed in the Feb '05 Celator.
SH08332. Copper 8 prutot, Hendin 1169, Meshorer AJC 1a, MCP O-I-04, Fontanille Celator Feb '05 O2/R3, VF, weight 10.14 g, maximum diameter 28.0 mm, die axis 0o, Samaria mint, 40 B.C.; obverse HPΩ∆OY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (of King Herod), in 3 strait lines, tripod, ceremonial bowl (lebes) above, LΓ - P (year 3 of the tetrarchy = 40 B.C.) across fields; reverse military helmet facing with cheek pieces and straps, wreathed with acanthus leaves, fillets and star above, flanked by two palm-branches; areas not fully struck, nice green patina highlighted by buff earthen fill; scarce; SOLD


Judean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D.

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Agrippa spent much of his boyhood at the imperial court in Rome and was close to both Caligula and Claudius. One of Claudius' first acts was a treaty guaranteeing Agrippa's kingdom, with the title "great king," and granting the additional territory of Chalcis to Agrippa's elder brother Herod V. The reverse of this coin depicts a victimarius (sacrificial assistant) about to kill a pig to sanctify the oaths of this treaty. Both Josephus (Jospehus, Ant. xix.5.1) and Suetonius (Suetonius, Claud. 25.5) wrote that Claudius and Agrippa performed this fetial ceremony in the center of the Forum in Rome.
SH66828. Bronze AE 26, Hendin 1245, Meshorer AJC II p. 248, 8, Meshorer TJC 121; RPC I 4983, F, weight 15.186 g, maximum diameter 25.9 mm, die axis 0o, Caesarea Maritima mint, 42 - 43 A.D.; obverse TIBEPIOΣ KAICAP ΣEBAΣTOΣ ΓEPM (Tiberius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), laureate head of Claudius right; reverse BAΣIΛEYΣ MEΓAΣ AΓPIΠΠAΣ ΦIΛOKAIΣAP (the Great King Agrippa, friend of Caesar), figures of Agrippa and Claudius stand facing each other within a distyle temple, priest(?) standing in center background, victimarius kneeling in center at feet holding pig, LZ (regnal year 7) in pediment; ex William M. Rosenblum auction 43A, lot 18; very rare; SOLD


Marcus Aurelius, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D., Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem), Syria Palestina

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In 132, a messianic, charismatic Jewish leader Simon bar Kokhba started the Bar Kokhba revolt, a war of liberation for Judea against Rome. At first the rebellion was a success. The legion X Fretensis was forced to retreat from Jerusalem to Caesarea. The legion XXII Deiotariana, which advanced from Egypt, was destroyed. The Jews re-established their sacrifices and struck coins to celebrate their independence. The rebellion would last for only 30 months. By 135, the Romans had recaptured Jerusalem, Simon bar Kokhba was dead, and the majority of the Jewish population of Judea was either killed, exiled, or sold into slavery. Jerusalem was renamed Colonia Aelia Capitolina and an altar to Jupiter was erected on the site of the Temple. After these events, the Jews would remain scattered without a homeland for close to two millennia.
JD11646. Bronze AE 32, BMC Palestine p. 89, 36 and pl. IX, 10, aVF, weight 20.46 g, maximum diameter 32.3 mm, die axis 0o, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) mint, obverse IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG, draped bust right; reverse COL AEL CAP, Serapis seated left, scepter in left, right extended over Kerberos seated at feet; nice portrait; very rare; SOLD


Jerusalem or Tyre, 12 - 11 B.C., Judas' 30 Pieces of Silver

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Judas' 30 Pieces of Silver
"Then one of the 12, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the chief priests, and said unto them, 'What will ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you?' And they covenanted with him for 30 pieces of silver." - Matthew 26:14-15. Shekels of Tyre were the only currency accepted at the Jerusalem Temple and are the most likely coinage with which Judas was paid for the betrayal of Christ.

After the coinage of Tyre was debased under Roman control, some experts believe Herod the Great began to strike "Tyre" shekels in Jerusalem. These coins were of cruder fabric and style, but maintained the silver purity required to pay the temple tax. The Jerusalem shekels have the letters KP or KAP to the right of the eagle and dates range from PH (18/17 B.C.) to PKE (69/70 A.D.). The Greek letters KP or KAP are probably an abbreviation for KAICAP, Greek for Caesar.
SH91534. Silver shekel, RPC I 4645; BMC Phoenicia p. 248, 192 var. (beth vice aleph); Baramki 79 var. (same); Rouvier 2088 var. (same); Cohen DCA 920/115; HGC 10 357, VF, dark old collection patina, cleaning scratches, a few spots of mild corrosion, flan crack, weight 13.712 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 0o, Tyre or Jerusalem mint, 12 - 11 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Melqart right, lion's skin knotted around neck; reverse TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY (of Tyre the holy and inviolable), eagle left, right foot on ship's ram, transverse palm frond on far side, PIE (year 115) over club left, KP (Caesar) over BN (control) right, Phoenician letter aleph (control) between legs; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; SOLD


Judaea, Bar Kochba Revolt, 134 - 135 A.D.

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JD58246. Bronze AE 24, Mildenberg 142 (O11/R106), Meshorer TJC 289; Hendin 1437, gVF, weight 11.300 g, maximum diameter 24.2 mm, die axis 180o, year 3 (134 - 135 A.D.); obverse paleo-Hebrew inscription: "Shimon", seven branched palm tree with two bunches of dates; reverse paleo-Hebrew inscription: "for the freedom of Jerusalem", five-lobed vine-leaf, hanging from curved branch; SOLD


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta

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This type celebrates the success of Vespasian and Titus in quelling the First Jewish Revolt. Coins commemorating this event are referred to as "Judaea Capta" issues.
SH30639. Orichalcum sestertius, Hendin 775, SRCV I 2327, BMCRE II 546, RIC II 427, aVF, pleasant brown surfaces, weight 24.377 g, maximum diameter 32.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate bust right; reverse IVDAEA CAPTA, Jewess mourning sits right on right beneath palm tree, behind Vespasian stands right in military dress with spear and parazonium, foot on helmet, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; very scarce; SOLD


Judaea, Bar Kochba Revolt, 132 - 135 A.D.

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These coins are usually overstruck on earlier denarii or drachms. Roman Imperial bust wreath ties are clearly visible on the reverse, as well as the back of the head and neck.
SH21684. Silver zuz, Mildenberg 167, Hendin 1431, Meshorer TJC 277, aEF, flat strike areas, weight 3.369 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Judaean mint, undated, 132 - 135 A.D.; obverse Shim'on (in Hebrew), bunch of grapes; reverse For the freedom of Jerusalem (in Hebrew), two trumpets; SOLD


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Legio X Fretensis Countermark

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In 72 A.D. the Roman governor Lucius Flavius Silva laid siege to Masada, a desert fortress, the last outpost of the Jewish rebels following the end in 70 of the First Jewish Revolt. The Legio X Fretensis surrounded the mountain fortress with a 7-mile long siege wall and built a rampart of stones and beaten earth against the western approach. In the Spring of 73 A.D., 960 Zealots under the leadership of Eleazar ben Ya'ir committed mass suicide when defeat became imminent.
SL89795. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC II 1156, Lyon 41, BMCRE II , Cohen I , SRCV I; countermark: Howgego 733 (reign of Domitian, 84-96 A.D.), NGC G, strike 4/5, surface 3/5, countermark LXF [=Legio X Fretensis] (2490386-006), weight 10.912 g, maximum diameter 27.9 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS III (or IIII), radiate head right, globe at point of bust; countermark: LXF (Legio X Fretensis) in a rectangular punch; reverse SECVRITAS AVGVSTI, Securitas seated right, resting head on raised hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, flaming altar to right, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; ON LAYAWAY


The Temple Tax Coin, KAP Tyrian Type Half Shekel, Jerusalem or Tyre Mint, 19 - 18 B.C.

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A KAP Temple Tax Coin - Important Transitional Year!

Some Tyrian shekels and all half shekels struck year 108 (19/18 B.C.) bear the Greek letters KAP. Years 109 - 111 all the coins bear the KAP ligature. In the following years until production ceased all the coins bear the Greek letters KP. Meshorer argued that the KAP and KP coins were actually struck at Jerusalem, initially by Herod. He based his opinion on a sudden stylistic and fabric degradation, find locations indicating the KP coins circulated mainly in Israel, and an end to production coinciding with the First Jewish Rebellion and the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in A.D. 70. Under Augustus the cities in the east such as Kyzikos, Tyre and Sidon lost much of their autonomy. Perhaps Tyre lost the freedom to strike silver coins. Under Roman control the other traditional silver coinages of the area did disappear, with the exception of a debased Antioch coinage. Given Herod's influence with Augustus, it is conceivable that he successfully arranged minting Tyre type shekels in Jerusalem in order to fill the need for the accepted temple coinage. The letters KAP and KP likely abbreviate the Greek for Caesar perhaps indicating the approval of Rome.
JD79298. Silver shekel, BMC Phoenicia p. 252, 233; Cohen DCA 921 (R3); RPC I 4684; Hendin 1619; HGC 10 358, Baramki AUB -, F, toned, rough, die wear, weight 5.808 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 45o, Jerusalem or Tyre mint, 19 - 18 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Melqart right, lion's skin knotted around neck; reverse TYPOYIEPAΣ KAIAΣYΛOY (of Tyre the holy and inviolable), eagle left, right foot on ship's ram, palm frond behind, date PH (year 108) over club and palm frond left, KAP (Kaisar?) monogram right, Phoenician letter beth (control) between legs; rare date; SOLD


The Temple Tax Coin, Tyre KP Type Half Shekel, Jerusalem or Tyre Mint, 49 - 50 A.D.

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SH13696. Silver shekel, BMC Phoenicia p. 249, 210; RPC I 4674; Prieur 1435 (2 spec.); Cohen DCA 920-175 (C), gVF, weight 13.266 g, maximum diameter 24.8 mm, die axis 0o, 49 - 50 A.D.; obverse laureate head of Melqart right, lion's skin knotted around neck; reverse TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY (of Tyre the holy and inviolable), eagle left, right foot on ship's ram, palm frond behind, POE (year 175) and club left, KP / EP right, Aramaic letter between legs; SOLD




  




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REFERENCES

Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
Fontanille, J.P. Menorah Coin Project Website. http://menorahcoinproject.org.
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Hendin, D. Guide to Biblical Coins, 5th Edition. (Amphora, 2010).
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Hill, George F. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum: Phoenicia. (London, 1910).
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Meshorer, Y. Ancient Jewish Coinage. (New York, 1982).
Meshorer, Y. A Treasury of Jewish Coins from the Persian Period to Bar Kokhba. (Jerusalem, 2001).
Meshorer, Y. City-Coins of Eretz Israel and the Decapolis in the Roman Period. (Jerusalem, 1985).
Meshorer, Y. "One Hundred Ninety Years of Tyrian Shekels" in Studies Mildenberg.
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Meshorer, Y. The Coins of Aelia Capitolina. (Jerusalem, 1989).
Meshorer, Y. "The Coins of Caesarea Paneas" in INJ 8 (1984-5).
Meshorer, Y. "The Coins of Dora" in INJ 9 (1986).
Meshorer, Y. "Monnaies de Raphia" in RN 1976.
Mildenberg, L. The Coinage of the Bar Kokhba War. Typos VI. (Aarau, 1984).
Mildenberg, L. "Yehud: A Preliminary Study of the Provincial Coinage of Judaea" in Essays Thompson. (Wetteren, 1979).
Prieur, M. & K. Prieur. The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and their fractions from 57 BC to AD 258. (Lancaster, PA, 2000).
Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Vol. I: City-Coins of Palestine: Aelia Kapitolina, Akko, Anthedon Antipatirs and Ascalon. (Jerusalm, 1972).
Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Vol. II: City-Coins of Palestine: Caesarea, Diospolis, Dora, Eleutheropolis, Gaba, Gaza and Joppa. (Jerusalem, 1975).
Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Vol. III: City-Coins of Palestine: Hipos-Sussita, Neapolis, Nicopolis, Nysa-Scytopolis, Caesarea-Panias, Pelusium, Raphia, Sabaste, Sepphoris-Diocaesarea, Tiberias. (Jerusalem, 1977).
Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Vol. IV: The Coinage of Eastern Palestine, and legionary countermarks, Bar-Kochba overstruck. (Jerusalem, 1978).
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Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 6: Palestine - South Arabia. (New York, 1981).

Catalog current as of Saturday, December 14, 2019.
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Roman Judea and Palestina