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Indus Valley, Mehrgarh Culture, Bichrome Oil Lamp, c. 3rd Millennium B.C.
The Indus Valley Civilization was not the first settled culture in the Indian subcontinent. The earlier Mehargarh culture was located in present day Pakistan about 125 miles from the Indus Valley. The site was first occupied around 7,000 or 8,000 B.C. It started out as a small village. The initial settlement practiced farming and raised crops, including wheat. As the community grew, farming continued, but the economy expanded and large scale trading began. Evidence shows that it traded with peoples far to the west. The goods included turquoise, cotton, and copper. Commerce was carried on with places as far away as Arabia. By 5,000 B.C. the Mehargarh people were living in mud brick houses and then built large permanent dwellings. Trade was the main aspect of the economy. The Mehargarh culture continued to exist well past 4,000 B.C. Hence it must have traded with the Indus Valley Civilization, which was in existence by then. AH21449. terracotta oil lamp, 5 cm x 5 cm (2" x 2") square, four pinched corners form, round base, the pot painted with geometric designs on the outer rim, Choice, complete and intact, light lime deposits, ex Edgar L. Owen; $130.00 (€114.40)
Greco-Roman Anatatolia (Smyrna, Ionia?), Terracotta Woman Holding Infant, 2nd century B.C. - 1st century A.D.
Kourotrophos (Greek: "child nurturer") was an Athenian deity, the protector of children and young people, with a cult and sanctuary, the so-called Kourotropheion. Gods and goddesses, including Athena, Apollo, Hermes, Hecate, Aphrodite, and Artemis, are given the epithet Kourotrophos when depicted holding an infant. Figurines of females holding infants are also called Kourotrophos. The purpose of kourotrophic figurines is debated. Perhaps they are representations of the Athenian goddess. Perhaps they were fertility or childbirth charms. They are found in graves, so perhaps they were companions for the dead.
We were unable to find another example of this type. Attribution to Smyrna, Ionia is based on the color and texture of the clay, and on the style and workmanship. AH21487. Terracotta kourotrophos statuette of a woman holding a swaddled infant, 25cm (9 7/8") tall, mold-made, hollow and without back, Choice, complete and intact, old dealer labels on the reverse, stands on its own base, Late Hellenistic to Roman Era; $600.00 (€528.00)
Crusaders, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Hetoum I, 1226 - 1270 A.D.
As the Mongols approached, King Hetoum made a strategic decision to send his brother Smpad to the Mongol court in Karakorum and agree to become a vassal state of the Mongol Empire. In 1254, Hetoum himself traveled to Mongolia to renew the agreement. The account of his travels, "The Journey of Haithon, King of Little Armenia, To Mongolia and Back" is still important for its observations of Mongol, Buddhist, and Chinese culture, geography, and wildlife. The Mamluks invaded Armenia in 1266, taking 40,000 Armenians captive, including Hetoum's son, Leo. Hetoum abdicated in 1270 in favor of his son Leo, and lived out the rest of his life in a monastery, as a Franciscan monk. CR89073. Silver tram, cf. Nercessian 332, aVF, toned, weight 2.870 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 90o, Sis mint, obverse Armenian legend: Hetoum king of the Armenians, crowned lion standing right, long cross in center on far side dividing legend above; reverse Armenian legend: By the will of God, King Hetoum (on right) and Queen Zabel standing holding long cross between them, star low on shaft; ex Munzhandlung Ritter (Düsseldorf, Germany); $100.00 (€88.00)
Byzantine, 11th - 12th Century A.D.
BZ92112. Lead seal, Uncertain, aVF, tan surfaces, modified seal cut in the shape of a fish, the cutting, however, obscures much of the reverse inscription, obverse The Theotokos (Virgin Mary) standing facing, orans; reverse Inscription; ex CNG e-auction 233 (26 May 2010), lot 571 (realized $390 plus fees); $390.00 (€343.20)
Crusaders, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Levon I, 1187-1219 A.D.
Leo II, or Lewon I, Levon I, and sometimes Levon I the Magnificent, was the tenth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” 1187–1198 - 1199 and the first king of Armenian Cilicia. During his reign, Leo succeeded in establishing Cilician Armenia as a powerful and a unified Christian state with a preeminence in political affairs. Leo eagerly led his kingdom alongside the armies of the Third Crusade and provided the crusaders with provisions, guides, pack animals and all manner of aid. Under his rule, Armenian power in Cilicia was at its apogee: his kingdom extended from Isauria to the Amanus Mountains CR89016. Silver tram, Nercessian 282 ff., gVF, toned, weight 2.869 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 270o, Armenia mint, obverse Armenian legend: Levon King of the Armenians, king seated on throne ornamented with lions, his feet resting on a footstool, wearing a crown and royal mantle on his shoulders, cross in right hand, fleur-de-lis in left hand; reverse Armenian legend: By the will of God, long cross with two bars, between two rampant lions facing outward, heads regardant; ex Münzenhandlung Brom (Berlin, Germany); $120.00 (€105.60)
Ilium (Troy), Troas, 29 B.C. - 14 A.D.
Ilion (Troy) became an ally of Rome in the 1st century BC. In 48 B.C., Julius Caesar bestowed benefactions on the city, recalling the city's loyalty during the Mithridatic Wars, the city's connection with his cousin L. Julius Caesar, and the family's claim that they were ultimately descended from Venus through the Trojan prince Aeneas and therefore shared a kinship with the Ilians. In 20 B.C., Augustus visited Ilion and financed the restoration and rebuilding of the sanctuary of Athena Ilias, the bouleuterion, and the theater. GB89286. Bronze AE 13, RPC I 2302; Bellinger T108; SNG München 220; SNG Cop 359; SNGvA 7605 var. (controls); BMC Troas p. 59, 19 Athena standing right, controls), aVF, uneven patina, porous, weight 2.522 g, maximum diameter 12.6 mm, die axis 0o, Ilium (Troy) mint, 29 B.C. - 14 A.D.; obverse facing helmeted head of Athena turned half right; reverse Athena Ilias standing right, lance in left hand over left shoulder, distaff(?) in right hand, IΛI upward above palm frond (control) left, ∆I monogram (control) lower right; $70.00 (€61.60)
Kings of Galatia, Deiotaros, Tetrarch 63 - 59 B.C., King 59 - 40 B.C.
Deiotarus was chief of the Celtic Tolistobogii tribe in western Galatia and became King of Galatia. He was a faithful ally of Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus, for which he was rewarded by Pompey. Caesar pardoned him for siding with Pompey in the civil war but he was deprived of some of his dominions. After Caesar's death, Mark Antony, for a large payment, publicly announced that, in accordance with instructions left by Caesar, Deiotarus was to resume possession of all the territory of which he had been deprived. When civil war broke out again, Deiotarus supported the anti-Caesarian party of Brutus and Cassius, but after the Battle of Philippi in 42 B.C., he went over to the triumvirs. He retained his kingdom until his death at a very advanced age. GB89293. Bronze AE 25, SNGvA 6103 (same countermark); Arslan K4; SNG BnF 2333; BMC Galatia p. 1, 1; HGC 7 774 (R2); see RPC I p. 536, aF, corrosion, reverse off center, weight 10.539 g, maximum diameter 24.9 mm, die axis 315o, uncertain Phrygian mint, 59 - 40 B.C.; obverse bust of winged Nike right, hair in a bunch behind; reverse eagle standing right on a sheathed sword, wings open, head turned back left, flanked by pilei of the Dioscuri each with a star above, BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, ∆HIOTAPOV below; very rare; $90.00 (€79.20)
Sardes, Lydia, c. 133 B.C. - 14 A.D.
Sardis was the capital of the Kingdom of Lydia, an important city of the Persian Empire, a Roman proconsul seat, and in later Roman and Byzantine times the metropolis of the province Lydia. In the Book of Revelation, Sardis, one of the Seven Churches of Asia, is admonished to be watchful and to strengthen since their works haven't been perfect before God. (Revelation 3:1-6). GP89325. Bronze AE 14, Johnston Sardis 229 corr. (lower left monogram), SNG Cop 469 var. (monograms), SNG Ashmolean -, VF, black patina, earthen deposits, scratches, reverse off center, weight 3.210 g, maximum diameter 14.2 mm, die axis 0o, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, under Roman rule, c. 133 B.C. - 14 A.D.; obverse head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean lion-scalp headdress knotted at neck; reverse kantharos, monograms flanking base, ΣAP∆I-ANΩN divided in two downward lines starting on the right; ex CNG e-auction 403 (9 Aug 2017), lot 198; scarce; $70.00 (€61.60)
Magnesia ad Meandrum, Ionia, c. 350 - 190 B.C.
Magnesia ad Maeandrum was an inland city of Ionia, located on a small tributary of the Maeander River about 12 miles southeast of Ephesus. GB89330. Bronze AE 11, cf. BMC Ionia, 160, 17 - 18; SNG Cop 802; SNGvA 7920; SNG München 593; SNG Kayhan 408, aVF, dark green-brown patina, some roughness , weight 1.288 g, maximum diameter 11.0 mm, die axis 0o, Magnesia ad Meandrum (near Tekin, Turkey) mint, c. 350 - 190 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo left, hair rolled; reverse forepart of rushing bull right, MAΓ above, meander pattern at truncation, magistrate name(?) behind; ex CNG e-auction 400 (28 Jun 2017), lot 212; $95.00 (€83.60)
Antiocheia, Pisidia, 138 - 161 A.D.
Paul of Tarsus gave his first sermon to the Gentiles (Acts 13:13-52) at Antiochia in Pisidia, and visited the city once on each of his missionary journeys, helping to make Antioch a center of early Christianity in Anatolia. Antioch in Pisidia is also known as Antiochia Caesareia and Antiochia in Phrygia. RP89331. Bronze AE 14, RPC Online IV.3 T7350 (10 spec.); Krzyzanowska pl. IV, table 8, VII/- (cf. 7-9); BMC Lycia p. 176, 1; SNGvA 4916, VF, green patina, earthen deposits, cleaning scratches. , weight 1.401 g, maximum diameter 13.5 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch in Pisidia (Yalvac, Turkey) mint, c. 138 - 161 A.D.; obverse ANTIO-C-H, bare-headed, draped bust of Hermes (resemble young Marcus Aurelius as caesar) left, caduceus behind; reverse CO-LONI, cock walking right; ex CNG e-auction 400 (28 Jun 17), lot 528; $100.00 (€88.00)
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