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Arcadius inherited the eastern empire while his brother Honorius received the west. He inherited none of his father's skills and was under the influence Praetorian prefects and other advisers, including Empress Eudoxia. His greatest personal accomplishment was beautiful handwriting. RL88821. Bronze maiorina, RIC IX Cyzicus 27(b)2, DOCLR 171, LRBC II 2572, SRCV V 20795, Hunter V 43 var. (1st officina), aVF, well centered on a ragged flan with edge splits, brown tone, light corrosion, weight 4.953 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 15 May 392 - 17 Jan 395 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), emperor standing facing, head right, standard in right hand, globe in left hand, SMKB in exergue; $28.00 (24.64)
Marcian, 24 August 450 - 31 January 457 A.D.
Marcian laid out many legal reforms in his five novels, or codes of law, many of which were targeted at reducing the corruption and abuses of office that existed during the reign of Theodosius. Marcian decreed that anyone who performed pagan rites would lose their property and be condemned to death, and that no pagan temples, which had previously been closed, could be re-opened. He repealed a marriage law enacted by Constantine I, which decreed that a man of senatorial status could not marry a slave, freedwoman, actress, or woman of no social status (humilis), in an attempt to preserve the purity of the senatorial class. Marcian adjusted this law by declaring that the law should not exclude a woman of good character, regardless of her social status or wealth. He banned the export of weapons, and tools used to manufacture them, to barbarian tribes. In order to ensure his laws were implemented, he set a penalty of 50 pounds (23 kg) of gold for any judge, governor, or official who did not enforce the law. RL91321. Bronze half centenionalis, RIC X Marcian 561 (R), LRBC II 2609, SRCV V 21398, Hahn MIB 33, DOCLR -, Hunter V -, aF, well centered on a typical tight flan, part of legend not struck/off flan, encrustations, corrosion, weight 1.078 g, maximum diameter 10.1 mm, die axis 180o, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 453 - 457 A.D.; obverse D N MARCINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse Marcian's monogram (RIC monogram 1) , in wreath, CYZ in exergue; rare; $50.00 (44.00)
Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D.
In 251 A.D., a fifteen-year plague began in the Roman Empire. In Roman Coins and Their Values III, David Sear notes, "This unusual reverse type doubtless represents an appeal to the god of healing for deliverance from the pestilence which was afflicting Rome." RS91605. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 32 (S), RSC IV 20, SRCV III 9627, Hunter III -, VF/F, toned, flow lines, porous, frosty surfaces, weight 3.207 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 252 A.D.; obverse IMP CAE C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse APOLL SALVTARI (Apollo the Healer), Apollo standing left, nude, laurel branch in right hand, leaning with left on lyre set on rock; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection, ex Numismatique Archeologie, M. Platt (Paris); scarce; $90.00 (79.20)
Aemilian, July or August - October 253 A.D.
Victoria or Nike, the Winged Goddess of Victory, personifies victory. She was described variously in different myths as the daughter of the Titan Pallas and the goddess Styx, and the sister of Kratos (Strength), Bia (Force), and Zelus (Zeal). Nike and her siblings were close companions of Zeus. According to classical (later) myth, Styx brought them to Zeus when the god was assembling allies for the Titan War. Nike assumed the role of the divine charioteer, a role in which she often is portrayed in Classical Greek art. Nike flew around battlefields rewarding the victors with glory and fame, symbolized by a wreath of laurel leaves. RS91607. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 11 (R), RSC IV 53, SRCV III 9846, Hunter - (p. cxi), VF, toned, nice portrait, flow lines, die wear, slightly ragged flan edge with small splits, weight 3.375 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 253 A.D.; obverse IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA AVG (the victory of the Emperor), Victory walking left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; rare; $160.00 (140.80)
Honorius, 23 January 393 - 15 August 423 A.D.
The Notitia Dignitatum shows the development of forces in the Roman Empire. When this coin was struck 200,000 soldiers guarded the borders, and a reserve force of 50,000 was available for deployment. Many of the soldiers were from Germanic tribes: Alamanni, Franks, Goths, Saxons and Vandals. In the winter of 394 the Huns cross the frozen Danube and destroyed the villages built by resettled Goths. Regardless of the force size available, Theodosius I, six hundred miles away in Italy, did not send reinforcements to defend the northern frontier. RL91666. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX Cyzicus 29(c), DOCLR 703 - 705, LRBC II 2576, SRCV V 20998, Cohen VIII 23, F, centered on a tight flan, scratches, porous, weight 1.784 g, maximum diameter 16.1 mm, die axis 0o, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 23 Jan 393 - 17 Jan 395 A.D.; obverse D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), Honorius on horseback right, raising right hand, reins in left hand, SMK[...] in exergue; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; $40.00 (35.20)
Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.
The reverse description is our best guess. It is obscure and could be another type. RL91667. Bronze half centenionalis, cf. RIC IX Thessalonica 65(c), VF/Fair, brown tone, obverse off center, reverse obscure due to poor strike, small edge cracks, weight 1.260 g, maximum diameter 12.9 mm, Thessalonica(?) mint, 28 Aug 388 - spring 393; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE (health of the Republic), Victory walking left, head right, trophy of captured arms over shoulder in right hand, dragging captive with left hand, TES...(?) in exergue; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; $18.00 (15.84)
Honorius, 23 January 393 - 15 August 423 A.D.
The three emperors are Arcadius, Honorius and Theodosius II. Theodosius II, Arcadius' son, is the smaller junior emperor in the center. xx92090. Bronze centenionalis, RIC X Arcadius 153, DOCLR 774, LRBC II 2802, SRCV V 21011, Cohen VIII 28, Hunter V 44 var. (4th officina), Nice VF, attractive near black patina with red earthen highlighting, well centered on a tight irregularly shaped flan, weight 2.325 g, maximum diameter 16.4 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 406 - 1 May 408 A.D.; obverse D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, star left; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), three emperors stand facing, two outer taller with heads toward center, holding spear and resting hand on shield, center holds spear in right and globe in left hand, ANTΓ in exergue; ex Dmitry Markov Coins and Medals; $110.00 (96.80)
Honorius, 23 January 393 - 15 August 423 A.D.
In 395, Alaric the Visigoth, renounced Roman fealty and was declared king. The Visigoths, ending a 16-year period of peace with the Romans, devastated Thrace and Macedonia, imposed a tribute on Athens, and then turned their sights on the West. At the same time, the Huns invaded Armenia, Cappadocia and Syria. RL92679. Bronze centenionalis, RIC X Arcadius 61, LRBC II 2206, SRCV V 21028, DOCLR 755 (no officina indicated), Cohen VIII 56, VF, dark patina with earthen highlighting, tight flan cutting off most of legends, reverse die wear, weight 3.185 g, maximum diameter 19.68 mm, die axis 30o, 3rd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 395 - 401 A.D.; obverse D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS EXERCITI (courage of the army), Emperor on left standing facing, head right, spear vertical in his right hand, left hand resting on grounded shield, Victory beside him on right, standing left and crowning him with wreath, palm frond in her left hand, CONSΓ in exergue; $28.00 (24.64)
Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D., Sidon, Phoenicia
Zeus was enamored of Europa and decided to seduce or ravish her. He transformed himself into a tame white bull and mixed in with her father's herds. While Europa and her female attendants were gathering flowers, she saw the bull, caressed his flanks, and eventually got onto his back. Zeus took that opportunity and ran to the sea and swam, with her on his back, to the island of Crete. He then revealed his true identity, and Europa became the first queen of Crete. Zeus gave her a necklace made by Hephaestus and three additional gifts: Talos, Laelaps and a javelin that never missed. Zeus later re-created the shape of the white bull in the stars, which is now known as the constellation Taurus. RP91511. Bronze AE 23, Rouvier 1457 (no star visible); RPC I 4612 (9 spec.); BMC Phoenicia p. 178, 208, gF, grainy and porous, scratches, weight 10.556 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 0o, Sidon (Saida, Lebanon) mint, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse laureate head right, star lower right (star not visible, RPC notes the star is often faint but likely all originally had a star); reverse veiled Europa seated on bull left, holding bull's horn with right hand, inflated veil billowing overhead in left hand, ΣI∆ΩNOΣ over L HMP (year 148) below; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; $140.00 (123.20)
Nerva, 18 September 96 - 25 January 98 A.D.
On 18 Sep 96, the same day Domitian was murdered, Nerva was declared emperor by the Senate. He recalled citizens exiled by Domitian. Under Nerva, the Roman Senate regained much of the power usurped by Domitian. This is the beginning of the Era of the Five Good Emperors. RB91570. Copper as, RIC II 86, BMCRE II 131, BnF III 112, Hunter I 56, Cohen 115, SRCV II -, F/aF, parts of legends weak/off flan, corrosion, weight 10.638 g, maximum diameter 27.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jan - Sep 97 A.D.; obverse IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head right; reverse LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left, pileus in right hand, rod in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field at center; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; $100.00 SALE |PRICE| $90.00
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