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Greek, Athens(?), Miniature Pottery Oil Lamp, c. Late 6th - Early 5th Century B.C.
The referenced lamp from Isthmia is a very similar miniature lamp with the same shape and same dull brown glaze on buff pottery. Broneer identifies it as, "probably a local [Athens] product." Broneer also writes, "There are no close parallels from the Athenian Agora. See Corinth IV, ii, p. 137, fig 61, which, however is later, as shown by the longer nozzle" AH21462. Broneer Isthmia 59, cf. Corinth IV 61 (longer nozzle, later); 2.8 cm (1 1/8") high, 5.8 cm (2 1/4") long, Choice, complete and intact, much of brown slip lost, c. late 6th - early 5th century B.C.; wheel-turned, partial dull brown slip on slightly pink buff pottery, round, small projecting nozzle, concave discus, large fill hole, sides narrowing slightly to low round disc base, no handle; ex Edgar L. Owen; $160.00 (€140.80)
Ancient Israel, Pinched-Rim Saucer Oil Lamp, Middle Bronze Age II, c. 1730 - 1550 B.C.
From the traditional time of Israel in Egypt.
The earliest Palestinian lamp was the wheel-made saucer with four pinched corners, forming a square lamp with four wick channels. Although the four wick lamp continued to be produced, this later one wick type became increasingly popular and became the prototype for almost all the lamps that followed. AH21498. Pinched-rim saucer oil lamp; Sussman p. 45, 5.27:1; Amiran pl. 59, 9; Adler 1.1.7; Schloessinger 315; Anawati -; 10.1 cm (4") long, 2.5 cm (1") high, Collectible, complete, intact except for small chips in edge, base marked with ink, "MB IIB 1730 - 1550 BC", pottery, coarse pinkish-buff clay, wheel made shallow bowl, pinch in the rim for wick, pinch pulled outward to protrude from the body, simple flat bottom, ex Alex G. Malloy; $240.00 (€211.20)
Ancient Israel, Four-Wick Saucer Oil Lamp, Middle Bronze Age, c. 2200 - 1550 B.C.
According to tradition, Abraham was born in 2166 B.C. and traveled to Cannan in 2019 B.C.
This four-pinch or four wick type is the earliest type of oil lamp, made as early as 2200 B.C. The type was still made in the Middle Bronze Age to about 1550 B.C. By the end of that period, most lamps had only one pinch for only one wick. AH21499. Four-wick oil lamp; Sussman p. 27, 3.19:5; Amiran pl. 59, 1; Adler 1.1.3; Schloessinger 311; Anawati -; 10.1 cm (4") long, 2.5 cm (1"), Choice, complete, intact, earthen deposits, Hebrew ink markings on bottom, Middle Bronze Age, c. 2200 - 1550 B.C.; pottery, coarse pinkish-buff clay, wheel made saucer, rim pushed inward on four sides, creating a squared form with a channels in each corner for a wick, slightly convex flat bottom, ex Alex G. Malloy; scarce; $350.00 (€308.00)
Southern Israelite Monarchy, Pinched-Rim Stepped-Base Lamp, Iron Age IIC, 700 - 586 B.C.
The final phase of the Iron Age in Palestine ended in 586 B.C. with the destruction of the First Temple in Jerusalem by the Babylonians.
Sussman writes that thick heavy, ungainly bases of are characteristic of this last stage of the Iron Age - particularly in Southern Palestine. She also notes that the types is clumsier, receptacle smaller and many of the lamps are unstable (this one is stable). Alex Malloy says this type is scarce and is not found above Meggedo. AH21501. Southern Israelite pinched-rim stepped-base lamp, Sussman p. 69, type D, figure 8.38:2; Petrie Gerar 91u; Amiran -; Schloessinger -, Choice, complete except for tiny chip in the rim (visible in photo), a few thin cracks (probably as made), traces of a white slip, Iron Age IIC, 700 - 586 B.C.; pinkish clay with traces of a white slip, wheel-made with pinched-in rim for wick, shallow receptacle with a broad fairly flat rim, stepped base with a distinct disk on a thick heavy heal; ex Alex G. Malloy; scarce; $280.00 (€246.40)
Greco-Roman Anatatolia (Smyrna, Ionia?), Terracotta Woman Holding Infant, 2nd century B.C. - 1st century A.D.
Kourotrophos (Greek: "child nurturer") was an Athenian deity, the protector of children and young people, with a cult and sanctuary, the so-called Kourotropheion. Gods and goddesses, including Athena, Apollo, Hermes, Hecate, Aphrodite, and Artemis, are given the epithet Kourotrophos when depicted holding an infant. Figurines of females holding infants are also called Kourotrophos. The purpose of kourotrophic figurines is debated. Perhaps they are representations of the Athenian goddess. Perhaps they were fertility or childbirth charms. They are found in graves, so perhaps they were companions for the dead.
We were unable to find another example of this type. Attribution to Smyrna, Ionia is based on the color and texture of the clay, and on the style and workmanship. AH21487. Terracotta kourotrophos statuette of a woman holding a swaddled infant, 25cm (9 7/8") tall, mold-made, hollow and without back, Choice, complete and intact, old dealer labels on the reverse, stands on its own base, Late Hellenistic to Roman Era; $600.00 (€528.00)
Crusaders, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Hetoum I, 1226 - 1270 A.D.
As the Mongols approached, King Hetoum made a strategic decision to send his brother Smpad to the Mongol court in Karakorum and agree to become a vassal state of the Mongol Empire. In 1254, Hetoum himself traveled to Mongolia to renew the agreement. The account of his travels, "The Journey of Haithon, King of Little Armenia, To Mongolia and Back" is still important for its observations of Mongol, Buddhist, and Chinese culture, geography, and wildlife. The Mamluks invaded Armenia in 1266, taking 40,000 Armenians captive, including Hetoum's son, Leo. Hetoum abdicated in 1270 in favor of his son Leo, and lived out the rest of his life in a monastery, as a Franciscan monk. CR89073. Silver tram, cf. Nercessian 332, aVF, toned, weight 2.870 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 90o, Sis mint, obverse Armenian legend: Hetoum king of the Armenians, crowned lion standing right, long cross in center on far side dividing legend above; reverse Armenian legend: By the will of God, King Hetoum (on right) and Queen Zabel standing holding long cross between them, star low on shaft; ex Munzhandlung Ritter (Düsseldorf, Germany); $100.00 (€88.00)
Byzantine, 11th - 12th Century A.D.
BZ92112. Lead seal, Uncertain, aVF, tan surfaces, modified seal cut in the shape of a fish, the cutting, however, obscures much of the reverse inscription, obverse The Theotokos (Virgin Mary) standing facing, orans; reverse Inscription; ex CNG e-auction 233 (26 May 2010), lot 571 (realized $390 plus fees); $390.00 (€343.20)
Crusaders, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Levon I, 1187-1219 A.D.
Leo II, or Lewon I, Levon I, and sometimes Levon I the Magnificent, was the tenth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” 1187–1198 - 1199 and the first king of Armenian Cilicia. During his reign, Leo succeeded in establishing Cilician Armenia as a powerful and a unified Christian state with a preeminence in political affairs. Leo eagerly led his kingdom alongside the armies of the Third Crusade and provided the crusaders with provisions, guides, pack animals and all manner of aid. Under his rule, Armenian power in Cilicia was at its apogee: his kingdom extended from Isauria to the Amanus Mountains CR89016. Silver tram, Nercessian 282 ff., gVF, toned, weight 2.869 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 270o, Armenia mint, obverse Armenian legend: Levon King of the Armenians, king seated on throne ornamented with lions, his feet resting on a footstool, wearing a crown and royal mantle on his shoulders, cross in right hand, fleur-de-lis in left hand; reverse Armenian legend: By the will of God, long cross with two bars, between two rampant lions facing outward, heads regardant; ex Münzenhandlung Brom (Berlin, Germany); $120.00 (€105.60)
Ilium (Troy), Troas, 29 B.C. - 14 A.D.
Ilion (Troy) became an ally of Rome in the 1st century BC. In 48 B.C., Julius Caesar bestowed benefactions on the city, recalling the city's loyalty during the Mithridatic Wars, the city's connection with his cousin L. Julius Caesar, and the family's claim that they were ultimately descended from Venus through the Trojan prince Aeneas and therefore shared a kinship with the Ilians. In 20 B.C., Augustus visited Ilion and financed the restoration and rebuilding of the sanctuary of Athena Ilias, the bouleuterion, and the theater. GB89286. Bronze AE 13, RPC I 2302; Bellinger T108; SNG München 220; SNG Cop 359; SNGvA 7605 var. (controls); BMC Troas p. 59, 19 Athena standing right, controls), aVF, uneven patina, porous, weight 2.522 g, maximum diameter 12.6 mm, die axis 0o, Ilium (Troy) mint, 29 B.C. - 14 A.D.; obverse facing helmeted head of Athena turned half right; reverse Athena Ilias standing right, lance in left hand over left shoulder, distaff(?) in right hand, IΛI upward above palm frond (control) left, ∆I monogram (control) lower right; $70.00 (€61.60)
Kings of Galatia, Deiotaros, Tetrarch 63 - 59 B.C., King 59 - 40 B.C.
Deiotarus was chief of the Celtic Tolistobogii tribe in western Galatia and became King of Galatia. He was a faithful ally of Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus, for which he was rewarded by Pompey. Caesar pardoned him for siding with Pompey in the civil war but he was deprived of some of his dominions. After Caesar's death, Mark Antony, for a large payment, publicly announced that, in accordance with instructions left by Caesar, Deiotarus was to resume possession of all the territory of which he had been deprived. When civil war broke out again, Deiotarus supported the anti-Caesarian party of Brutus and Cassius, but after the Battle of Philippi in 42 B.C., he went over to the triumvirs. He retained his kingdom until his death at a very advanced age. GB89293. Bronze AE 25, SNGvA 6103 (same countermark); Arslan K4; SNG BnF 2333; BMC Galatia p. 1, 1; HGC 7 774 (R2); see RPC I p. 536, aF, corrosion, reverse off center, weight 10.539 g, maximum diameter 24.9 mm, die axis 315o, uncertain Phrygian mint, 59 - 40 B.C.; obverse bust of winged Nike right, hair in a bunch behind; reverse eagle standing right on a sheathed sword, wings open, head turned back left, flanked by pilei of the Dioscuri each with a star above, BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, ∆HIOTAPOV below; very rare; $90.00 (€79.20)
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