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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Medieval & Modern Coins| ▸ |Crusaders||View Options:  |  |  |   

Coins of the Crusaders

The crusades were military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part in these enterprises. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th and 13th century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Sicily, Greece, Asia Minor, and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area. Politics were complicated, including a Christian alliance with the Islamic Sultanate of Rm during the Fifth Crusade. The Crusaders ravaged the countries they marched through, killed 8,000 Jews in the Rhineland in the first of Europe's pogroms, devastated the Mediterranean ports, fought amongst themselves as much as the "Infidel" and fleeced their subjects to fill their coffers. Murder and massacre in the service of the Gospel was commonplace. Seventy thousand civilians were butchered in the sack of Jerusalem. The end came in 1291 with the fall of Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. Near East 1135

Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Bohemond IV, 1201 - 1233

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Bohemond| |IV,| |1201| |-| |1233||fractional| |denier|
Bohemond IV the One-Eyed, was Count of Tripoli from 1187 to 1233, and Prince of Antioch from 1201 to 1216 and from 1219 to 1233. The dying Raymond III of Tripoli offered his county to Bohemond's elder brother, Raymond, but their father Bohemond III of Antioch sent Bohemond to Tripoli in late 1187. Saladin, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt and Syria, conquered the County in summer 1188, save for the capital and two fortresses. The county was returned in the truce that Bohemond's father made with Saladin in 1192. After his father died Bohemond seized Antioch. He made an alliance with Ayyubid emir of Aleppo and the Seljuq sultan of Rum, who often invaded Cilicia in the following years, preventing Leo I of Cilicia from attacking Antioch. Leo I supported a rebellion in Tripoli, which Bohemond crushed, but he lost an eye fighting. Bohemond confiscated the property of the Hospitallers, for which he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX. He tried to secure Cilicia for his younger son, Philip, but Constantine of Baberon, who had administered Cilicia, imprisoned Philip and Philip was murdered the following year. Bohemond's excommunication was lifted shortly before his death when he made an agreement with the Hospitallers.
CR111856. Bronze fractional denier, Malloy Crusaders p. 222, 88a, VF, nice green patina, highlighting red earthen deposits, weight 1.011 g, maximum diameter 16.2 mm, die axis 270o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, probably first reign, 1201 - 1216; obverse +AIITIOCHE, large B, dotted inner and outer borders; reverse +AIITIOCHIA, cross patte, dotted inner border; very rare; $250.00 (230.00)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Tancred,| |Regent,| |March| |1101| |-| |May| |1103| |and| |Late| |1104| |-| |December| |1112||follis|
Tancred, a Norman leader of the 1st Crusade, became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch when his uncle Bohemund was taken prisoner. He later took the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was captured, but Baldwin was released, defeated him and took it back. Tancred was made regent of Antioch again when Bohemund went to Europe to recruit more Crusaders. Tancred refused to honor a treaty in of fealty to the Byzantine Emperor, making Antioch independent, and ruled until his death in a typhoid epidemic.
CR111245. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades pl. 5, 82; Malloy Crusaders p. 199, 5; Schlumberger pl. II, 8, gF, well centered, green patina, light earthen deposits, scratches, edge splits, overstruck, weight 2.921 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, Mar 1101 - Dec 1112; obverse facing bust of Christ, wears nimbus cruciger ornamented with one pellet in each limb of cross, pallium, and colobium, Gospels in both hands, IC-XC (Greek abbreviation: IHΣOUΣ XPIΣTOΣ - Jesus Christ) across field; reverse cross pomme, fleuronne at base, TA-NK/P-H in quarters; ex Morton & Eden auction 119 (6 Dec 2022), lot 333 (part of); $200.00 (184.00)


|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Roger| |of| |Salerno,| |Regent,| |1112| |-| |1119||follis|
Roger of was regent of the Principality of Antioch from 1112 until his death on 28 June 1119. Roger became regent of Antioch when Tancred died. The prince, Bohemund II, was still a child. Like Tancred, Roger was almost constantly at war with the nearby Muslim states such as Aleppo. In 1114 an earthquake destroyed many of his fortifications but Roger took great care to rebuild them. The Artquids allied with Aleppo and invaded in 1119. Despite the urging of the Patriarch, Roger did not wait for reinforcements from Jerusalem or Tripoli. Roger and nearly all of his 700 knights and 3000 foot soldiers were killed. Artquids forces plundered the land but did not attack Antioch itself. Baldwin II of Jerusalem came north to take over the regency.
CR111252. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades pl. 6, 97; Malloy Crusaders p. 201, 9; Schlumberger pl. II, 12, gF, well centered, heavy earthen deposits, weight 3.622 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 30o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, Roger's 3rd issue; obverse St. George riding on horseback right, nimbate, spearing dragon below, Θ upper left, ΓWI upper right; reverse POT3EP / ΠPIΓKΠ/OC ANT/OXI in four lines; ex Morton & Eden auction 119 (6 Dec 2022), lot 333 (part of); $200.00 (184.00)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Bohemond IV, 1201 - 1233

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Bohemond| |IV,| |1201| |-| |1233||fractional| |denier|
Bohemond IV the One-Eyed, was Count of Tripoli from 1187 to 1233, and Prince of Antioch from 1201 to 1216 and from 1219 to 1233. The dying Raymond III of Tripoli offered his county to Bohemond's elder brother, Raymond, but their father Bohemond III of Antioch sent Bohemond to Tripoli in late 1187. Saladin, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt and Syria, conquered the County in summer 1188, save for the capital and two fortresses. The county was returned in the truce that Bohemond's father made with Saladin in 1192. After his father died Bohemond seized Antioch. He made an alliance with Ayyubid emir of Aleppo and the Seljuq sultan of Rum, who often invaded Cilicia in the following years, preventing Leo I of Cilicia from attacking Antioch. Leo I supported a rebellion in Tripoli, which Bohemond crushed, but he lost an eye fighting. Bohemond confiscated the property of the Hospitallers, for which he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX. He tried to secure Cilicia for his younger son, Philip, but Constantine of Baberon, who had administered Cilicia, imprisoned Philip and Philip was murdered the following year. Bohemond's excommunication was lifted shortly before his death when he made an agreement with the Hospitallers.
CR112304. Bronze fractional denier, Malloy Crusaders p. 222, 88b (described as obv. legend retrograde., VF, earthen encrustations, scratches, weight 0.948 g, maximum diameter 16.6 mm, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, probably first reign, 1201 - 1216; obverse +AIITIOCHE, large reversed B, dotted inner and outer borders; reverse +AIITIOCHIA, cross patte, dotted inner border; very rare; $200.00 (184.00)


Crusaders, Principality of Achaea, William II of Villehardouin, 1245 - 1278

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |William| |II| |of| |Villehardouin,| |1245| |-| |1278||denier|NEW
William of Villehardouin became Prince of Achaea when his brother Geoffrey II died. He conquered the remaining territory of the Peloponnese and built the fortress of Mistra near Sparta. In 1249 he accompanied Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade, joining him in Cyprus with 400 knights and 28 ships. Louis gave him a license to mint coins in the style of royal French money. William defeated Venice in the War of the Euboeote Succession and defeated the Duke of Athens in 1258, reaffirming his power over the duchy. In 1259 he formed an alliance with the Byzantine Despotate of Epirus against Nicaea. He led the Achaean forces against the Nicaeans, but the Epirote army deserted and William was defeated. He fled and hid under a haystack, but was captured. He remained captive until 1262 and permanently lost all his power.
CR112805. Bronze denier, Malloy Crusaders p. 356, 3; Metcalf Crusades pl. 38, 877; Schlumberger p. 313 & pl. 12, 7; Tzamalis F56, aVF, centered, tight flan, center weak, edge ragged with splits, weight 0.702 g, maximum diameter 16.9 mm, Corinth mint, 1245 - 1278; obverse G•Π•AC-CA-IE•, long cross patte, extending beyond inner circular border and dividing legend, right arm shorter making space for •; reverse COR/INT/Vm (squared legend, clockwise from 2:00, N appears as H, m appears as ligate on), fortified gateway with central tower surmounted by cross patte flanked by pellets; $200.00 (184.00)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Roger of Salerno, Regent, 1112 - 1119

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Roger| |of| |Salerno,| |Regent,| |1112| |-| |1119||follis|
Roger of was regent of the Principality of Antioch from 1112 until his death on 28 June 1119. Roger became regent of Antioch when Tancred died. The prince, Bohemund II, was still a child. Like Tancred, Roger was almost constantly at war with the nearby Muslim states such as Aleppo. In 1114 an earthquake destroyed many of his fortifications but Roger took great care to rebuild them. The Artquids allied with Aleppo and invaded in 1119. Despite the urging of the Patriarch, Roger did not wait for reinforcements from Jerusalem or Tripoli. Roger and nearly all of his 700 knights and 3000 foot soldiers were killed. Artquids forces plundered the land but did not attack Antioch itself. Baldwin II of Jerusalem came north to take over the regency.
CR111249. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades pl. 5, 90; Malloy Crusaders p. 200, 8; Schlumberger pl. II, 11, F, earthen deposits, overstruck, rev. off center, weight 2.956 g, maximum diameter 23.2 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, Roger's 3rd issue; obverse the Virgin Mary, standing orans, nimbate, MH monogram - ΘV (Greek abbreviation: MHTHP ΘEOY; - Mother of God); reverse + KE BOH Θ / EITWCW / ΔOVλWP / OTSEPI (Lord, help your servant Roger); ex Morton & Eden auction 119 (6 Dec 2022), lot 333 (part of); $180.00 (165.60)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Tancred,| |Regent,| |March| |1101| |-| |May| |1103| |and| |Late| |1104| |-| |December| |1112||follis|
Tancred, a Norman leader of the 1st Crusade, became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch when his uncle Bohemund was taken prisoner. He later took the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was captured, but Baldwin was released, defeated him and took it back. Tancred was made regent of Antioch again when Bohemund went to Europe to recruit more Crusaders. Tancred refused to honor a treaty in of fealty to the Byzantine Emperor, making Antioch independent, and ruled until his death in a typhoid epidemic.
CR111233. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades pl. III, 50; Malloy Crusaders p. 199, 3a; Schlumberger pl. II, 6, aVF, dark patina, highlighting earthen deposits, weight 4.799 g, maximum diameter 22.7 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, c. 1101 - 1103; obverse nimbate bust of St. Peter (patron saint of Antioch) facing, short curly hair and curly beard, scroll in right hand, cross in left hand, O / ΠE-TP/O/C (TP ligate) divided across field; reverse + / KE BOI /ΘH TO ΔV / ΛO COV T/ANKPI (O Lord, help your servant Tancred) in five lines; ex Morton & Eden auction 119 (6 Dec 2022), lot 333 (part of); $110.00 (101.20)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Tancred,| |Regent,| |March| |1101| |-| |May| |1103| |and| |Late| |1104| |-| |December| |1112||follis|
Tancred, a Norman leader of the 1st Crusade, became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch when his uncle Bohemund was taken prisoner. He later took the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was captured, but Baldwin was released, defeated him and took it back. Tancred was made regent of Antioch again when Bohemund went to Europe to recruit more Crusaders. Tancred refused to honor a treaty in of fealty to the Byzantine Emperor, making Antioch independent, and ruled until his death in a typhoid epidemic.
CR111241. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades pl. 4, 63 - 70; Malloy Crusaders p. 199, 4a, aVF, dark patina, earthen deposits, off center, weight 3.318 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 1104 - 1112 A.D.; obverse bearded facing bust of Tancred, wearing turban and chain armor, sword in right hand; reverse cross pommee, fleuronne at base, IC - XC / NI-KA (Jesus Christ Conquers) in angles; ex Morton & Eden auction 119 (6 Dec 2022), lot 333 (part of); $110.00 (101.20)


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Bohemond III, 1163 - 1201

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Bohemond| |III,| |1163| |-| |1201||denier|
Bohemond III of Antioch, also known as the Stammerer or the Stutterer, was Prince of Antioch from 1163 to his death. He was a son of Constance of Antioch by her first husband Raymond of Poitiers. His name is sometimes spelled Bohemund. As a child, Bohemond III's mother ruled as regent. Then her second husband Raynald of Chtillon ruled as Prince of Antioch until he was captured. Bohemond was then of legal age to succeed, but Constance refused. King Baldwin III of Jerusalem intervened and declared Bohemond ruler of the principality. Constance asked the he Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia to help her keep rule, but the citizens of Antioch rioted. She was exiled, Bohemond took control, and she died later that year.1165_Map
CR111251. Billon denier, Metcalf Crusades pl. 15, 345; Malloy Crusaders p. 206, 24; Metcalf NC 1969 13, F, near centered on a tight flan, toned, light deposits, weight 0.857 g, maximum diameter 16.2 mm, die axis 15o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, minority under regents, 1149 - 1163; obverse + BOAMVNDVS (square A and V's), bare head right, linear portrait,; reverse + ANTIOCHIA (square A's), cross patte, square A and V; ex Morton & Eden auction 119 (6 Dec 2022), lot 333 (part of); $100.00 (92.00)


Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, James I, 1382 - 1398

|Cyprus|, |Crusaders,| |Kingdom| |of| |Cyprus,| |James| |I,| |1382| |-| |1398||carzia|
The Lusignan Kingdom of Cyprus was founded after the Third Crusade, ruling from 1192 until 1489. The Parliament of Cyprus named James king while he was captive in Genoa. To gain his release James agreed to new privileges for Genoese merchants and accepted Genoese sovereignty over the captured city of Famagusta, something that no previous king had conceded. Until he was released, Cyprus was governed by 12 nobles. Some of them opposed his return. In April 1385, James returned to Cyprus and was welcomed at Nicosia with great enthusiasm. He was crowned in May 1385 in Saint Sophia Cathedral. After his crowning, his opponents were arrested and punished. He was crowned King of Jerusalem in 1389. In 1393, Leo VI of Armenia died, and James assumed the title of King of Armenia. He was formally given the title in 1396. That kingdom was by now reduced to the city of Korikos, which had been in Cypriot hands since its conquest by Peter I of Cyprus. Upon his death, James was succeeded by his son Janus.
CR111260. Billon carzia, Malloy Crusaders 113a (denier); Metcalf Crusades 797 (denier), aVF, toned, earthen deposits, weight 0.508 g, maximum diameter 15.9 mm, die axis 0o, Nicosia mint, May 1385 - 9 Sep 1398; obverse + IAQVE ROI DE (or similar), lion of Cyprus rampant left; reverse + IERV3ALEm D (or similar), cross patte; ex Morton & Eden auction 119 (6 Dec 2022), lot 333 (part of); $100.00 (92.00)




  



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REFERENCES

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Metcalf, D. Coinage of the Crusaders and the Latin East in the Ashmolean Museum Oxford. (London, 1995).
Metcalf, D. "Coinage of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in the name of Baudouin" in NC 1978.
Metcalf, D. "Billon Coinage of th Crusading Principality of Antioch" in NC 1969. (London, 1969).
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