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Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia
Kayseri, Turkey was originally named Mazaca. It was renamed Eusebia by Ariarathes V Eusebes, King of Cappadocia, 163 - 130 B.C. The last king of Cappadocia, King Archelaus, renamed it "Caesarea in Cappadocia" to honor Caesar Augustus upon his death in 14 A.D. Muslim Arabs slightly modified the name into Kaisariyah, which became Kayseri when the Seljuk Turks took control, c. 1080 A.D. RP92844. Silver drachm, RPC III 3052 (3 spec.), BMC Galatia 86, Metcalf 77b, Metcalf Hoard 492-7 & pl. 27, Sydenham Caesarea 221, SNG Cop -, SGICV -, SNGvA -, F, well centered, light marks, porous, weight 2.864 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 0o, Cappadocia, Caesarea (Kayseri, Turkey) mint, 114 - 116 A.D.; obverse AYTOKP KAIC NEP TPAIANΩ APICTΩ CEB ΓEPM ∆AK, laureate and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞ YΠATOς (holder of Tribunitian power, consul), clasped hands holding legionary standard on prow; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00
Arse-Saguntum, Hispania Citerior, c. 170 - 130 B.C.
Saguntum was built by Edetani Iberians in 5th century B.C. In 218 B.C., after enduring eight months of siege, the Saguntines' last defenses were finally overrun. Hannibal offered to spare the population if they were "willing to depart from Saguntum, unarmed, each with two garments." When they declined the offer and began to sabotage the town's wealth and possessions, every adult was put to death. Seven years later, the town was taken by Rome and made a Roman municipium. Saguntum grew to a city of about 50,000 inhabitants, with a great circus, a theater seating 8,000 and an amphitheater. CE92736. Bronze sextans, Villaronga-Benages 1979, Alvarez-Burgos 2064, Villaronga CNH 35; SNG BM Spain 1113 ff., VF, green patina, area of corrosion reverse center, earthen deposits, weight 1.018 g, maximum diameter 12.4 mm, die axis 0o, Saguntum (Sagunto, Valencia, Spain) mint, c. 170 - 130 B.C.; obverse scallop shell; reverse dolphin right, crescent with horns upward above, Iberian A and star below; ex Lusitania Ancient Coins; $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00
Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.
Felicitas was the goddess or personification of happiness, good fortune, and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire. RB92964. Copper as, RIC IV S870 (S), BMCRE V S781, SRCV II 6636, Cohen IV 19, Hunter III -, aF, rough with corrosion, edge flaws, weight 9.350 g, maximum diameter 25.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 196 - 211 A.D.; obverse IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right with hair waved and coiled at back; reverse CERES, Ceres standing front, head to left, holding grain-ears over modius with her right hand and scepter with her left, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field below center; $20.00 SALE |PRICE| $18.00
Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.
Fides is the Roman goddess or deification of good faith, fidelity, loyalty, and honesty. RS92973. Silver denarius, RIC IV 8 (S); RSC III 83; BMCRE V p. 54, - (notes 7 specimens in Reka-Devnia hoard); SRCV II -; Hunter III -, VF, well centered, nice youth portrait, flow lines, edge split, weight 2.664 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 198 A.D.; obverse M AVR ANTON CAES PONTIF, boy's bare head and draped bust right, seen from behind; reverse FIDES PVBLICA, Fides standing half left, heads of grain in right hand, raising basket of fruit in left hand; ex Quadriga Ancients; scarce; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. The Roman's believed as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored emperors and kings, those in positions of authority similar to his own. RA92978. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 175, Hunter IV 57, SRCV IV 11986, Cohen VI 305, VF, full border centering, much silvering, areas of weak strike, weight 4.362 g, maximum diameter 21.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 280 - 281 A.D.; obverse PROBVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse IOVI CONS PROB AVG (to Jove protector of emperor Probus), Jupiter standing slightly left, head left, nude but for thunderbolt in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, R thunderbolt B in exergue; $60.00 SALE |PRICE| $54.00
Gallic Empire, Tetricus I, mid 271 - Spring 274 A.D.
Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus. RB92992. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 146, SRCV III 11256, Cohen VI 200, Hunter IV - (p. ciii), VF, under-size flan, weight 1.773 g, maximum diameter 15.3 mm, die axis 180o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 272 - 273 A.D.; obverse IMP TETRICVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVG (valor of the emperor), helmeted soldier (Virtus or Mars?) standing left, resting right hand on grounded shield, spear vertical behind in left hand; ex Quadriga Ancients (2002); rare; $30.00 SALE |PRICE| $27.00
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms. RS94132. Silver denarius, RIC IV 118; RSC III 357; BMCRE V p. 61, W253; SRCV II 6319; Hunter III -, F, light corrosion and marks, edge cracks, weight 2.739 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 198 A.D.; obverse L SEP SEV PERT AVG IMP X, laureate head right; reverse PACI AETERNAE (eternal peace), Pax seated left, olive branch in extended right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand; $40.00 SALE |PRICE| $36.00
Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.
Lucifer means lightbringer, from the Latin lux light and ferre to bear or bring. The word Lucifer is found in only one place in the Bible -- Isaiah 14:12 -- but only in the King James and related versions: How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! The King James Version is based on the Vulgate, the Latin translation of Jerome. Jerome translated the Hebrew helel (bright or brilliant one) as lucifer, which was a reasonable Latin equivalent. And yet it is this lucifer, the bright one or lightbearer, that came to be understood by so many as the name for Satan, Lord of Darkness. RS94134. Silver denarius, RIC IV C373a; RSC III 32; BMCRE V p. 430, C1; Hunter III p. 98, C1; SRCV II 7100, aF, dark tone, rough, weight 2.407 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, reign of Caracalla, c. 214 A.D.; obverse IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right; reverse DIANA LVCIFERA (light bringing Diana), Diana Lucifera standing facing, head left, holding flaming long torch transverse left with both hands; $36.00 SALE |PRICE| $32.00
Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
Imperator was the Roman title for the military commander-in-chief. There are no records that Antoninus Pius ever personally participated in any military acts. The scholar J. J. Wilkes wrote, "It is almost certain not only that at no time in his life did he ever see, let alone command, a Roman army, but that, throughout the twenty-three years of his reign, he never went within five hundred miles of a legion." RS94135. Silver denarius, RIC III 111b, BMCRE IV 496, RSC II 437, SRCV II 4087, F, nice portrait for the grade, bumps and scratches, edge cracks and splits, weight 2.976 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 143 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right; reverse IMPERATOR II, Victory standing slightly left, head left, raising wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand; $40.00 SALE |PRICE| $36.00
Marcus Aurelius, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D., Edessa(?), Mesopotamia
This coin is from of a series of rare drachms with portraits of Marcus Aurelius, Faustina II, Lucius Verus, and Lucilla, along with a small bronze of Commodus, struck in Mesopotamia, c. 165 A.D. The series commemorated the Roman victory, as this coin does with the reverse legend VΠEP NIKHC RΩMAIΩN. All have Roma reverse types, but for many, like this coin, the goddess intended and her attributes are uncertain. They were most likely struck at Edessa, but Carrhae or another mint is possible. All the types are very rare. This is the only example of this variety known to FORVM and the only coin known to Forum from this series with obverse legend ending in APM (Armeniacus - victor over the Armenians). RS94121. Silver drachm, unpublished variety, cf. BMC Arabia p. 137, 3 and pl. XIX, 7 (AVT K M AV...NTΩNIN...), RPC online IV.3 T10747 (...ANTΩNINOC CEB), aF, toned, slightly off center, legend not fully struck, scratches, edge split, weight 2.561 g, maximum diameter 16.8 mm, die axis 0o, Mesopotamia, Edessa(?) mint, c. 165 A.D.; obverse AVTO K M AVPHΛ ANTΩNINOC APM, bare-headed, bearded bust right, drapery on shoulder; reverse VΠEP NIKHC RΩMAIΩN (for the victory of the Romans), goddess standing facing, head left, wearing tunic and mantle, globe or apple in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; extremely rare and possibly unique - the only specimen with this obverse legend known to FORVM; $240.00 SALE |PRICE| $216.00
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