Classical Numismatics Discussion
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register. All Items Purchased From Forum Ancient Coins Are Guaranteed Authentic For Eternity!!! Explore Our Website And Find Joy In The History, Numismatics, Art, Mythology, And Geography Of Coins!!! Expert Authentication - Accurate Descriptions - Reasonable Prices - Coins From Under $10 To Museum Quality Rarities Welcome Guest. Please login or register. Internet challenged? We Are Happy To Take Your Order Over The Phone 252-646-1958 Explore Our Website And Find Joy In The History, Numismatics, Art, Mythology, And Geography Of Coins!!! Support Our Efforts To Serve The Classical Numismatics Community - Shop At Forum Ancient Coins


FORVM`s Classical Numismatics Discussion Board  |  Numismatic and History Discussions  |  Biblical & Judean Coins (Moderators: Salem Alshdaifat, Aarmale)  |  Topic: Learn Ancient Hebrew on ancient coins - Now on NumisWiki 0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic. « previous next »
Pages: [1] 2 3  All Go Down Print
Author Topic: Learn Ancient Hebrew on ancient coins - Now on NumisWiki  (Read 44009 times)
Salem Alshdaifat
IMPERATOR
Caesar
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 1215


I am coincoholic ,I need help plzzzzz.


WWW
« on: November 06, 2006, 10:07:49 pm »

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Most of the Classical Numismatic Discussion Board posts on learning to read ancient Hebrew on coins have been combined, updated and enhanced in a NumisWiki article. See:

Reading Judean Coins

Below in this thread there are additional examples in that are not in the article, including some Yehud coins. After finishing the article, you might want to go through the posts in this thread to test how much you have learned.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Hi all Judaean coins lovers.
in this section I will put coins from time to time to help identifying the Cornucopia Judaean types
which is consider as very hard to identify for most dealers and collectors, I notice many mistakes in those coins on line, and hope this will be a guide to all those who have hard time to identify these coins.
regards
Salem Alshdaifat


Judah Aristobulus I (Yehudah), 104 - 103 B.C.

Bronze prutah, Hendin 1143 (465), gVF, 2g, 13.0mm, Jerusalem mint,obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, an excellent example for scarce coin and Priest.

Please note that ancient Hebrew read from right to left.
See the additional photo.
YHODH (Judah) , KHN (priest) , GDOL (High) , W (and) , HABAR (Council) , H (the) , YHWD (Jews)

ADMIN NOTE:  See Reading Judean Coins on NumisWiki.



* judah1.JPG (32.27 KB, 300x297 - viewed 1270 times.)

* judah2.JPG (18.73 KB, 300x200 - viewed 1269 times.)
Logged

Salem Alshdaifat
IMPERATOR
Caesar
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 1215


I am coincoholic ,I need help plzzzzz.


WWW
« Reply #1 on: November 06, 2006, 10:09:51 pm »

Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C.

Bronze prutah, TJC type Q, Hendin 1144 (474), EF , nice center with full script !!!, 2.6g, 15mm,Jerusalem mint, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, very rare in this condition and with full script.

the script says
YHONTN   (Yehonatan)
KH           (Priest)
GDOL       (High)
W           (and)
(HH)BR   (Council)
H            (the)
YHWDM   (Jews)


* Jannaius1.JPG (42.22 KB, 300x313 - viewed 1090 times.)

* Jannaius2.JPG (24.74 KB, 300x209 - viewed 1090 times.)
Logged

Salem Alshdaifat
IMPERATOR
Caesar
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 1215


I am coincoholic ,I need help plzzzzz.


WWW
« Reply #2 on: November 07, 2006, 03:38:07 am »

Alexander Jannaeus, 103 -76 B.C.

AE prutah, Hendin 1150 (469), EF with full script between Rays!!!!, 16mm; obverse Star of eight pellets within diadem, ancient Hebrew legend (YHONATHAN H MALEK) = king Alexander; reverse  BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, around anchor.


* Alexander1.JPG (35.19 KB, 300x279 - viewed 1083 times.)

* alexander2.JPG (20.74 KB, 300x186 - viewed 1076 times.)
Logged

Salem Alshdaifat
IMPERATOR
Caesar
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 1215


I am coincoholic ,I need help plzzzzz.


WWW
« Reply #3 on: November 08, 2006, 04:16:52 am »

John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C.
this is one of the finest full script I have ever seen from this type, EX Forum

Bronze prutah, TJC I 62, AJC I group N, Hendin 1133 (456), choice VF+, 2.88g, 13.9mm, 0o, Jerusalem mint, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehohanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, AP monogram below left; very rare full script
The ancient Hebrew script says
NN(HUH)WHY     =   Yehohanan
H          =   the
NHK     =    Priest
LDGH   =     high
H         =     the     ( ancient Hebrew mostly use W = and, in this coin mistakinly they used the !!
RB(HUH) =  Consel
H      = the
MYDHY = Jews.


* 13158p00.jpg (10.27 KB, 300x150 - viewed 1047 times.)

* 13158q00.jpg (29.34 KB, 500x250 - viewed 1047 times.)
Logged

Carolus Magnus
Praetorian
**
Offline Offline

Posts: 88


« Reply #4 on: November 18, 2006, 03:31:44 am »

I hate to say it, but this is one hard language to understand. At least for me. Most of the judean coins I have seen in hand, are pretty hard to make out the letters, let alone translate them. I am really thankfull that Salem is taking the time to do this. In time I may get better at it, but not without the help I have recieved here. Heck, sometimes I have problems with English!!!!!!!!!!!! Grin
                                                         Best Regards, and thanks again Salem

                                                                                         Chuck T
Logged
Salem Alshdaifat
IMPERATOR
Caesar
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 1215


I am coincoholic ,I need help plzzzzz.


WWW
« Reply #5 on: December 10, 2006, 05:29:16 am »

John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C.

Bronze prutah, Hendin 1132 (454), gVF, 2.1g, 15mm, Jerusalem mint, obverse Greek letter A above Hebrew inscription, Yehonanan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, border of dots.

Full script with very nice clear Ancient Hebrew script

A monogram
YHO(HH)NN =(Yehonanan)
H = the
KHN = Priest
H = the
GDOL = high
W = and
(HH)BR = Council
H = the
YHWDYM = Jews

 


* hyrcanus5.JPG (39.06 KB, 300x287 - viewed 976 times.)

* hyrcanus6.JPG (21.79 KB, 300x191 - viewed 980 times.)
Logged

Salem Alshdaifat
IMPERATOR
Caesar
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 1215


I am coincoholic ,I need help plzzzzz.


WWW
« Reply #6 on: December 10, 2006, 05:30:14 am »

John Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), King 67 B.C., Ethnarch 63 - 40 B.C., amazing??

Bronze prutah, Hendin 1159 (479), gVF, 1.4g, 13mm, Jerusalem mint, obverse Crude illegible Hebrew inscription, Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns.

an amazing example for the type with full Hebrew script.

YNTN  (Yonatan)
H (the)
KHN (Priest)
GDOL (high)
W (and)
(HH)BR (Council)
YHDYM (Jews)


* hyrcanus3.JPG (31.16 KB, 300x296 - viewed 1151 times.)

* hyrcanus4.JPG (19.08 KB, 300x198 - viewed 1154 times.)
Logged

Salem Alshdaifat
IMPERATOR
Caesar
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 1215


I am coincoholic ,I need help plzzzzz.


WWW
« Reply #7 on: December 10, 2006, 05:31:24 am »

John Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), King 67 B.C., Ethnarch 63 - 40 B.C. [ADMIN NOTE:  This type is attributed to Alexander Jannaeus in Hendin's 5th Edition]

Bronze prutah, Hendin 1149 (478), VF, 2.6g, 17mm,Jerusalem mint, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns; overstruck on an earlier prutah, and it is clearly over Alexander Jannaeus, Hendin 1148 (467) since we can read ALEXANDROY BAC, around circle.
 the Hebrew script says
YNTN (Yonatan)
H (the)
KHN (Priest)
GDL (High)
W (and)
(HH)BR (Council)
H (the)
DY (Jews)


* hyrcanus1.JPG (36.45 KB, 300x302 - viewed 1163 times.)

* hyrcanus2.JPG (21.51 KB, 300x201 - viewed 1153 times.)
Logged

Salem Alshdaifat
IMPERATOR
Caesar
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 1215


I am coincoholic ,I need help plzzzzz.


WWW
« Reply #8 on: December 10, 2006, 05:33:06 am »

Judah Aristobulus I (Yehudah), 104 - 103 B.C.

Bronze prutah, Hendin 1143 (465), gVF, 2g, 13.0mm, Jerusalem mint,obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, an excellent example for scarce coin and Priest.

Please note that ancient Hebrew read from right to left.
See the additional photo.

YHODH (Judah), KHN (Priest), GDOL (High), W (and), HABAR (Council), H (the), YHWD (Jews)


* judah1.JPG (28.16 KB, 300x282 - viewed 1147 times.)

* judah2.JPG (17.36 KB, 300x163 - viewed 1152 times.)
Logged

Salem Alshdaifat
IMPERATOR
Caesar
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 1215


I am coincoholic ,I need help plzzzzz.


WWW
« Reply #9 on: December 10, 2006, 05:33:50 am »

Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C.

Bronze prutah, TJC P17, Hendin 1145 (473), gVF, 2.4g, 14mm, Jerusalem mint, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.

very nice example with full Hebrew script, which is very rare for the type.

the script says (read from right to left)
YHONTN ( Yehonatan)
 H (the)
KOHN (priest)
 H (the)
 GDOL  (high)
W (and)
 (HH)BR (consil)
 H (the)
 YHDM (Jews)


* jannaius1.JPG (41.54 KB, 300x320 - viewed 1151 times.)

* jannaius2.JPG (23.5 KB, 300x213 - viewed 1144 times.)
Logged

John K
Consul
***
Offline Offline

Posts: 104


« Reply #10 on: June 17, 2008, 03:21:07 am »

I am now trying to read my own coins using this guide - so first Thanks for the guide!!!

I am having trouble seeing the difference between the letter "R" and the letter "D"

To me they look exactly alike... what is the "difference" that I am missing?
Logged
Ecgțeow
Consul
***
Offline Offline

Posts: 383



WWW
« Reply #11 on: June 17, 2008, 08:09:16 am »

The resh ("R") has a rounded shape, while the dalet ("D") has strictly straight lines.  I know it is very hard to see that on the coins since they are so small, but context is key.  Judaean coins follow a relatively rigid pattern, with a very small corpus of words appearing.  If you ever see  Judean_shin_1 Judean_alef_1 Judean_rosh_2 on a coin, you'd know it was rosh - "head" and not dosh, since dosh is meaningless.  luckily, the names are the most important part, and there is only one name with one of these - Yehudah -  Judean_hey Judean_daleth Judean_waw_1 Judean_hey Judean_yad_2, and none with a resh.  So if you see one of these letters in a name and can't tell the difference, it is a dalet.
hope that helps
~Zach
Logged

John K
Consul
***
Offline Offline

Posts: 104


« Reply #12 on: June 17, 2008, 01:59:47 pm »

Zach!

This is most helpful!  I must say being able to notice whether the letter is rounded or pointed is going to be some accomplishment.  Your comment about seeking to understand the letter in context definitely seems like the way to go when in doubt to the shape of the letter.

Now to get a more powerful magnifying glass!!!

Thanks
John
Logged
Salem Alshdaifat
IMPERATOR
Caesar
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 1215


I am coincoholic ,I need help plzzzzz.


WWW
« Reply #13 on: June 17, 2008, 04:08:58 pm »

Hi John
some times in Judaean coins the script is not realy prefect, you might recognize the R from D and some times  you wont, you have to be familiar with the script at the Judaean coins, but as Zach said when you see a cercle on the stick then it is R, and when you see a traingle then it is D.
but the script ingravers did so many mistakes on Ancient Judaean coins, and some times you cant recognize the R from the D, but you have to read the script to tell, and that is commen too with th K and N some times they look samiler.
try to write the letters on a paper and by the time you will be able to read these coins prefectly.


my friend Zach ROSH comes with W and not Alef    Judean_shin_1 Judean_vau_1 Judean_rosh_2
all the best
 Judean_mah_3 Judean_lam_2 Judean_alef_1 Judean_shin_1
Logged

Ecgțeow
Consul
***
Offline Offline

Posts: 383



WWW
« Reply #14 on: June 17, 2008, 06:26:42 pm »


my friend Zach ROSH comes with W and not Alef    Judean_shin_1 Judean_vau_1 Judean_rosh_2


Hi Salem!
I'm pretty sure rosh is usually spelled with an aleph.  It is a strange word, but throughout the Bible and on the coins, it is spelled ראש.  If you look up Genesis 40:20, rosh is used in the same sense as on the coins - head of a group of people.  Here (as well as all other examples in the Bible) it is spelled ראש, or  Judean_shin_1 Judean_alef_1 Judean_rosh_2 in Old Hebrew. 

And that's good advice about writing it out on paper!  That's probably the best way to learn it - by actually writing it yourself over and over again. 

and glad I could be of help, John!  good luck!

 Judean_quph_1 Judean_alef_1 Judean_zayin_1
Logged

Robert_Brenchley
Procurator Caesaris
Caesar
****
Offline Offline

Posts: 7314

Honi soit qui mal y pense.


WWW
« Reply #15 on: June 17, 2008, 10:50:51 pm »

Modern Hebrew spells it with aleph. A quick look at Kaufman shows that aleph is normal on the coins as well, but that doesn't rule out the odd one with waw.
Logged

Robert Brenchley

My gallery: https://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/index.php?cat=10405
Fiat justitia ruat caelum
Ecgțeow
Consul
***
Offline Offline

Posts: 383



WWW
« Reply #16 on: June 17, 2008, 11:28:51 pm »

Biblical Hebrew uses exclusively aleph, as well.  That doesn't mean that some coins could use a waw, but I think if there is a 'pure' spelling of the word, it is with an aleph.  All Biblical authors use the aleph spelling.  It has to do with the fact that the word was committed to writing before the shift occurred that changed the word from rash (as in Aramaic and Arabic) to rosh.  I will try to dig up my notes on the word from one of my classes a little later.
~Zach
Logged

Robert_Brenchley
Procurator Caesaris
Caesar
****
Offline Offline

Posts: 7314

Honi soit qui mal y pense.


WWW
« Reply #17 on: June 18, 2008, 10:57:28 pm »

The Masoretic Text is medieval, hence effectively modern. Do you have anything on the spelling in the Dead Sea Scrolls? I could check it out at a pinch, but since they're around the Hasmonean period, give or take, I'd expect it to be aleph, the same as the coins.
Logged

Robert Brenchley

My gallery: https://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/index.php?cat=10405
Fiat justitia ruat caelum
Ecgțeow
Consul
***
Offline Offline

Posts: 383



WWW
« Reply #18 on: June 19, 2008, 02:02:48 am »

The Masoretic Text is medieval, hence effectively modern.

I wouldn't say that... Modern Hebrew (revived in the 1880s) is very distinct from the Hebrew of Ancient Israel.  They are Medieval, but they have a much closer link with Israelite Hebrew than with Modern. 

Also, the Masoretes may have fooled around a bit with vowels, but they left the consonants alone.  The texts were not written by the masoretes, merely pointed with vowels where there had not previously been any in use.  The aleph is an archaism that snuck into Hebrew writing.

I've found the notes from the class -

(* indicates stress of previous syllable, š indicates SH sound, ‘ indicates aleph, CAPS indicate a long vowel)

Proto-Semitic original word - ra‘*šu
aleph elides, a lengthens to A - rA*šu
Canaanite shift of A to O - rO*šu
final case ending drops - rOš*


so, the word was committed to writing before the elision of the aleph in Canaanite/Phoenician times, and did not change after that.  The common spoken word did change, as can be seen by the Masoretic insertion of an O vowel.

As for early spellings of Rosh, there is an example of the word spelled with an aleph in the Siloam/Hezekiah's Tunnel inscription, from sometime before 701 BCE.  Line six.  http://www.kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/westsem/siloam.html


wow... we've gotten a bit off topic... maybe this would make a good separate thread?


~Zach

Logged

Danny S. Jones
Procurator Caesaris
Caesar
****
Offline Offline

Posts: 994


Danny Jones


WWW
« Reply #19 on: July 18, 2009, 04:56:05 pm »

Here's another example, in the style of Salem's illustrations of a prutah of Alexander Jannaeus. This is my best prutah, with a full, readable inscription. I've noticed on many of these coins the various renderings of the letters resembling the older Phoenician script. Of course the two alphabets are virtually identical, having the same names for characters, and possessing very subtle differences in writing style during their evolution over time. (i.e. Kaf)

Anyway, this thread got me to dust off my Hebrew books and take a closer look at my Judaean coin collection.


* Prutah Inscription.jpg (105.93 KB, 864x348 - viewed 109 times.)
Logged

Danny S. Jones
Procurator Caesaris
Caesar
****
Offline Offline

Posts: 994


Danny Jones


WWW
« Reply #20 on: July 18, 2009, 05:02:16 pm »

Here's a chart of the Aramaic / Proto-Hebrew Alphabet that I put together for reference.


* proto-hebrew.gif (21 KB, 586x404 - viewed 23920 times.)
Logged

Danny S. Jones
Procurator Caesaris
Caesar
****
Offline Offline

Posts: 994


Danny Jones


WWW
« Reply #21 on: July 18, 2009, 05:08:50 pm »

Also, here is a chart of the old Phoenician alphabet, from omniglot.com. Compare the writing style with Proto-Hebrew / Aramaic

(Permission is given on the website to use photos and information for educational and reference purposes.)


* phonecian.gif (9.43 KB, 563x254 - viewed 2183 times.)
Logged

Aarmale
IMPERATOR
Caesar
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 1534


Quando Omni Flunkus Moritati


« Reply #22 on: September 09, 2009, 12:55:56 am »

Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C.


YHONTN   (Yehonatan)
 KH           (Priest)
GDOL       (High)
 W           (and)
 (HH)BR   (Council)
 H            (the)
YHWDM   (Jews)

I'm pretty sure hachaver (HHBR) means lit. "The friend".    The hebrew is יונתן הכהן, חבר של היהודים, Yonatan the High Kohen (like the last name Smiley), and the friend of the Jews.  
Logged

Gallery: http://tinyurl.com/aarmale
היינו דאמרי אינשי: טבא חדא פילפלתא חריפתא ממלי צנא קרי
Robert_Brenchley
Procurator Caesaris
Caesar
****
Offline Offline

Posts: 7314

Honi soit qui mal y pense.


WWW
« Reply #23 on: September 09, 2009, 11:03:54 pm »

It means 'the Council of the Jews'. It's probably a safe bet that this is the Hebrew equivalent of the Greek sunedrion, or sanhedrin.
Logged

Robert Brenchley

My gallery: https://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/index.php?cat=10405
Fiat justitia ruat caelum
Aarmale
IMPERATOR
Caesar
*****
Offline Offline

Posts: 1534


Quando Omni Flunkus Moritati


« Reply #24 on: September 24, 2009, 01:10:21 am »

Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C.

Bronze prutah, TJC type Q, Hendin 474, EF , nice center with full script !!!, 2.6g, 15mm,Jerusalem mint, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, very rare in this condetion and with full script.

the script says
YHONTN   (Yehonatan)
 KH           (Priest)
GDOL       (High)
 W           (and)
 (HH)BR   (Council)
 H            (the)
YHWDM   (Jews)

How does KH mean Kohen? Is'nt that just "ka"?
Logged

Gallery: http://tinyurl.com/aarmale
היינו דאמרי אינשי: טבא חדא פילפלתא חריפתא ממלי צנא קרי
Pages: [1] 2 3  All Go Up Print 
FORVM`s Classical Numismatics Discussion Board  |  Numismatic and History Discussions  |  Biblical & Judean Coins (Moderators: Salem Alshdaifat, Aarmale)  |  Topic: Learn Ancient Hebrew on ancient coins - Now on NumisWiki « previous next »
Jump to:  

Recent Price Reductions in Forum's Shop


Powered by MySQL Powered by PHP Powered by SMF 1.1.21 | SMF © 2015, Simple Machines Valid XHTML 1.0! Valid CSS!
Page created in 1.629 seconds with 72 queries.
All coins are guaranteed for eternity
zoom.asp