Classical Numismatics Discussion
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register. Hanukkah Sameach!!! Everything on our Hanukkah Gifts page is 10% off!!! Please Call Us If You Have Questions 252-646-1958 Welcome Guest. Please login or register. Merry Christmas!!! Expert Authentication - Accurate Descriptions - Reasonable Prices - Coins From Under $10 To Museum Quality Rarities Support Our Efforts To Serve The Classical Numismatics Community - Shop At Forum Ancient Coins!!!

Recent Additions to Forum's Shop


Author Topic: Arrow & Bolt Head References  (Read 2724 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Arrow & Bolt Head References
« on: April 25, 2020, 01:53:46 pm »
I am starting another new topic.

This is for information on ancient arrowheads and catapult bolt heads from academic studies and excavation reports.

Please do not post from auction catalogues, dealer sites, detector finds or personal collections.

If you wish to post, you must include the reference details.  Also, please include lengths possible and materials if it is not clear.

Here is the first.  This image is from: Deschler-Erb, Eckhard.  Ad arma! Romisches Militar des 1. Jahrhunderts n.Chr. in Augusta Raurica, 1999.

All items are described as iron arrowheads and assumed to be Roman and 1st century AD from the context.  Lengths, from the catalogue, are:

85. 70 mm, socketed pyramidal head
86. 63 mm, socketed pyramidal head
87. 51 mm, socketed pyramidal head
88. 74 mm, socketed pyramidal head
89. 69 mm, socketed pyramidal head
90. 50 mm, socketed pyramidal head
91. 74 mm, socketed leaf head
92. 64 mm, socketed leaf head
93. 75 mm, tanged pyramidal head

SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #1 on: April 25, 2020, 02:02:55 pm »
Another image from: Deschler-Erb, Eckhard.  Ad arma! Romisches Militar des 1. Jahrhunderts n.Chr. in Augusta Raurica, 1999.

34-40 are described as iron catapult bolt heads; 42-47 as iron plum heads. All are assumed to be Roman and 1st century AD from the context.  Lengths, from the catalogue, are:

34. 97 mm, socketed pyramidal head
35. 78 mm, socketed pyramidal head
36. 47 mm, socketed pyramidal head
37. 97 mm, tanged pyramidal head
38. 79 mm, tanged pyramidal head
39. 80 mm, tanged pyramidal head
40. 75 mm, tanged pyramidal head

42. 298 mm
43. 145 mm
44. 136 mm
45. 107 mm
46. 94 mm
47. 152 mm
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline Robert L3

  • Caesar
  • ****
  • Posts: 564
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #2 on: April 25, 2020, 03:27:41 pm »
Bronze arrowheads from ancient Persia.
Source: Catalogue of The Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum by P. R. S. Moorey, 1971. Moorey Ashmolean


Late second to early first millennium BC:
64. 122 mm, deltoid blade, square-sectioned tang
65. 117 mm, deltoid blade, square-sectioned tang
66. 113 mm, deltoid blade, square-sectioned tang
67. 102 mm, barbed deltoid blade, rounded tang
68. 110 mm, barbed deltoid blade, square-sectioned tang
69. 155 mm, ovate blade, square-sectioned tang
70. 125 mm, ovate blade, square-sectioned tang
71. 163 mm, pointed ovate blade, square-sectioned tang
72. 139 mm, ovate blade, square-sectioned tang
73. 119 mm, pointed ovate blade, square-sectioned tang
74. 135 mm, lanceolate blade, square-sectioned tang
75. 134 mm, lanceolate blade, square-sectioned tang
76. 125 mm, lanceolate blade, square-sectioned tang
77. 59 mm, head of tapering pyramidal form, square-sectioned tang (broken)
78. 88 mm, tapering pyramidal form, square-sectioned tang
79. 114 mm, tapering pyramidal form, square-sectioned tang
80. 146 mm, tapering pyramidal form, square-sectioned tang

Mid-to-late first millennium BC:
81. 34 mm, Trilobate, socketed
82. 35 mm, trilobate, socketed
83. 46 mm, trilobate, socketed


Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #3 on: April 25, 2020, 04:18:20 pm »
From: Vujovic, Miroslav B. and Jelena Lj. Cvijetic.  The Slings and Arrows of Outrageous Fortune: Long-range Fighting Units on the Roman Limes in Serbia, in Vivere Military East, Vol. I, 2018. Vujovic and Cvijetic - PDF

Iron arrowheads from a Germanic grave circa 430-450 AD.  No measurements but note 2 cm scale in bottom right.

43-45  Tanged rhomboid.
36-40  Tanged trilobate.
41-42  Tanged triangular cross-section.

 

 
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #4 on: April 25, 2020, 04:21:18 pm »
More from: Vujovic, Miroslav B. and Jelena Lj. Cvijetic.  The Slings and Arrows of Outrageous Fortune: Long-range Fighting Units on the Roman Limes in Serbia, in Vivere Military East, Vol. I, 2018. Vujovic and Cvijetic - PDF

Iron arrowheads, Roman finds, circa 350-425 AD.  No measurements but note 5 cm scale in bottom right.

All tanged trilobate.
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #5 on: April 25, 2020, 04:23:19 pm »
From: Vujovic, Miroslav B. and Jelena Lj. Cvijetic.  The Slings and Arrows of Outrageous Fortune: Long-range Fighting Units on the Roman Limes in Serbia, in Vivere Military East, Vol. I, 2018. Vujovic and Cvijetic - PDF

Iron arrowheads from Roman finds circa 3rd-4th century AD.  No measurements provided.

All tanged square cross-section, aka bodkin arrowheads.
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #6 on: April 25, 2020, 04:26:31 pm »
From: Vujovic, Miroslav B. and Jelena Lj. Cvijetic.  The Slings and Arrows of Outrageous Fortune: Long-range Fighting Units on the Roman Limes in Serbia, in Vivere Military East, Vol. I, 2018. Vujovic and Cvijetic - PDF

Iron arrowheads from Roman finds circa 3rd-4th century AD.  No measurements for fig. 10, not 2 cm scale in fig. 11.

Fig. 10, socketed flat leaf blade.

Fig. 11, fire arrow, 8.5 cm long, only such find from Serbia.
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline Robert L3

  • Caesar
  • ****
  • Posts: 564
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #7 on: April 25, 2020, 06:49:45 pm »
From Tools and Weapons by W. M. Flinders Petrie, 1917. Sizes are not provided. Further information may be gleaned from pp. 33 - 35: Petrie Tools - PDF


Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #8 on: April 25, 2020, 06:58:20 pm »
Images from Radman-Livaja, Ivan.  Militaria Sisciensia: Nalazi rimske vojne opreme iz Siska u fundusu Arheoloskoga muzeja u Zagrebu, 2004.

From Roman context finds at Siscia

Iron tanged trilobate arrowhead
63.  2.8 cm

Iron tanged square cross-section (aka bodkin) arrowhead
64.  5.9 cm
65.  5.7 cm
66.  5.3 cm
67.  5.8 cm
68.  7.7 cm
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #9 on: April 25, 2020, 06:58:52 pm »
Images from Radman-Livaja, Ivan.  Militaria Sisciensia: Nalazi rimske vojne opreme iz Siska u fundusu Arheoloskoga muzeja u Zagrebu, 2004.

From Roman context finds at Siscia

Iron socketed square cross-section (aka bodkin) arrowhead
69.  9.8 cm
70.  6.5 cm
71.  4.8 cm
72.  6.1 cm

Iron socketed flat barbed arrowhead
73.  6.2 cm
74.  6.1 cm
75.  6.1 cm
76.  6.4 cm
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #10 on: April 25, 2020, 07:00:07 pm »
Images from Radman-Livaja, Ivan.  Militaria Sisciensia: Nalazi rimske vojne opreme iz Siska u fundusu Arheoloskoga muzeja u Zagrebu, 2004.

From Roman context finds at Siscia

Iron socketed flat barbed arrowhead
77.  4.8 cm
78.  5 cm
79.  5.4 cm
80.  5.5 cm
81.  5.9 cm
82.  6.3 cm
83.  5.4 cm
84.  6.7 cm
85.  6.8 cm

SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #11 on: April 25, 2020, 07:05:14 pm »
Images from Radman-Livaja, Ivan.  Militaria Sisciensia: Nalazi rimske vojne opreme iz Siska u fundusu Arheoloskoga muzeja u Zagrebu, 2004.

From Roman context finds at Siscia

Iron socketed square cross-section (aka bodkin) catapult bolt head
95.  7.5 cm
96.  8 cm
97.  8.2 cm
98.  8.4 cm
99.  8.9 cm
100.  11.5 cm
101.  9 cm
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #12 on: April 25, 2020, 07:05:53 pm »
Images from Radman-Livaja, Ivan.  Militaria Sisciensia: Nalazi rimske vojne opreme iz Siska u fundusu Arheoloskoga muzeja u Zagrebu, 2004.

From Roman context finds at Siscia

Iron socketed square cross-section (aka bodkin) catapult bolt head
102.  12.4 cm
103.  14 cm
104.  9.5 cm
105.  8.6 cm
106.  10 cm
107.  5.8 cm
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline Robert L3

  • Caesar
  • ****
  • Posts: 564
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #13 on: April 25, 2020, 07:07:12 pm »
From Art of Ancient Iran by Houshang Mahboubian, 1997. The page devoted to ancient Iranian arrowheads neither differentiates types nor provides specific sizes. As stated in the caption, with the exception of the two iron arrowheads in the center, all are bronze, with an average length of 80 mm. These are typically dated late second to early first millennium BC.

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #14 on: April 25, 2020, 07:13:11 pm »
Images from Radman-Livaja, Ivan.  Militaria Sisciensia: Nalazi rimske vojne opreme iz Siska u fundusu Arheoloskoga muzeja u Zagrebu, 2004.

From Roman context finds at Siscia

Iron socketed square cross-section (aka bodkin) catapult bolt head
114.  11.7 cm
115.  15.1 cm
116.  13.4 cm

Iron tanged square cross-section (aka bodkin) catapult bolt head
117.  10.9 cm
118.  14 cm
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #15 on: April 25, 2020, 07:13:51 pm »
Images from Radman-Livaja, Ivan.  Militaria Sisciensia: Nalazi rimske vojne opreme iz Siska u fundusu Arheoloskoga muzeja u Zagrebu, 2004.

From Roman context finds at Siscia

Iron tanged square cross-section (aka bodkin) catapult bolt head
119.  12 cm
120.  9.7 cm
121.  9.5 cm
122.  8.6 cm
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline Joe Sermarini

  • Owner, President
  • FORVM STAFF
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 10806
  • All Coins Guaranteed for Eternity.
    • FORVM ANCIENT COINS
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #16 on: April 26, 2020, 11:42:51 am »
Nice.  Thanks.  Eventually I will work these into the NumisWiki Ancient Metal Arrowheads page. (Or someone else can - it is a wiki).
Joseph Sermarini
Owner, President
FORVM ANCIENT COINS

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #17 on: April 26, 2020, 12:16:16 pm »
From Christopher Unz and Eckhard Deschler-Erb, Katalog der Militaria aus Vindonissa, 1997.

All are iron unless otherwise noted and are Roman from context.  1st to 4th century unless otherwise noted.  Length not given as illustrated 1/3 scale.  However actual page size is unknown in digital format.

336-340 = bronze arrowheads; 2.9g – 6g
336, 338-340, 341, 343-358 = tanged, trefoil;  0.6 – 2.4g (except 336 2.9g, 338-339 6g)
337 = socketed, barbed; 3.9g
342 = tanged, flat triangular leaf; 8.1g
359-371 = socketed, flat triangular leaf; 1.9 – 8.1g
372-378 = socketed single-barb; 3.4 – 7.7g
379-382 = tanged, square cross-section (aka bodkin); 3.8 – 4.8g
383-384 = socketed, flat cross-section; 9.5g/9.6g
385-387 = socketed, square cross-section (aka bodkin); 5.3g/5.4g/10.6g
388-398 = wooden arrow shaft fragments
399-406 = iron reinforcements for ends of bows
407-420 = bone reinforcements for ends of bows

SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline quadrans

  • Tribunus Plebis 2019
  • Procurator Monetae
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 10396
  • Ad perpetuam rei memoriam. Ars longa, vita brevis.
    • my albums
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #18 on: April 26, 2020, 12:19:43 pm »
Great work both of you ... +++

 Joe/Q.

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #19 on: April 26, 2020, 12:56:13 pm »
From Christopher Unz and Eckhard Deschler-Erb, Katalog der Militaria aus Vindonissa, 1997.

All are iron unless otherwise noted and are Roman from context.  1st to 4th century unless otherwise noted.  Length not given as illustrated 1/3 scale.  However actual page size is unknown in digital format.

421-426 = tanged, round cross-section catapult bolt head; 8-22g, avg. 13g.
427-458 = tanged, square cross-section catapult bolt head; 16-33g, avg. 22-24g.
459-486 = socketed, square cross-section catapult bolt head; 12-40g, avg. 16g & 25g.
487-494, 498 = socketed, double-conic head catapult bolt; 13-25g, avg. 20g.
495-497, 502 = socketed, hexagonal cross-section catapult bolt head; 26g/22g/14g/21g.
499-501 = socketed, tapering with no clear head, catapult bolt; 21g/17g/26g.
503-505 = socketed, with clearly defined short square cross-section head, catapult bolt; 36g.
506-510 = socketed, with very long square cross-section head, catapult bolt; 25g-65g.
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #20 on: April 26, 2020, 01:04:16 pm »
From Christopher Unz and Eckhard Deschler-Erb, Katalog der Militaria aus Vindonissa, 1997.

All are iron unless otherwise noted and are Roman from context.  1st to 4th century unless otherwise noted.  Length not given as illustrated 1/3 scale.  However actual page size is unknown in digital format.

511 = socketed, rhomboid cross-section catapult bolt head; 132g.
512-517 = socketed, triangular cross-section catapult bolt head; 25g - 122g.
518 =  square cross-section socket, square cross-section head; 84g.
519-546 = socketed, tapering with no clear head, crossbow bolt; 44-194g, avg. 70g & 90g & 150g.
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #21 on: April 26, 2020, 01:06:28 pm »
As with the spearheads I think that this pretty much covers Roman arrowheads and catapult bolt heads.

We need to find info on the so-called Scythian bronze arrowheads that seem to have been used for over 1000 years, Greek, Steppe Nomads, Medieval, etc.

SC
SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

Offline Robert L3

  • Caesar
  • ****
  • Posts: 564
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #22 on: April 26, 2020, 01:42:23 pm »
We need to find info on the so-called Scythian bronze arrowheads...

I have on occasion used Marina Daragan's Arrowheads of Prescythian and Early Scythian Time: Manufacturing Techniques, Metrology, and Marks, available on academia.edu.

Offline Joe Sermarini

  • Owner, President
  • FORVM STAFF
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 10806
  • All Coins Guaranteed for Eternity.
    • FORVM ANCIENT COINS
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #23 on: June 09, 2020, 10:53:30 am »
I believe the trilobate bladed arrowheads are all bronze not iron (I modified the posts above). Iron arrowheads are hammered, not cast. It is almost impossible to hammer iron to make a trilobate bladed (bladed being the important distinction) arrowhead.

The Ancient Metal Arrowheads page on NumisWiki has additional references.

I just added NumisWiki pages for the references above.
Joseph Sermarini
Owner, President
FORVM ANCIENT COINS

Offline otlichnik

  • Tribunus Plebis Perpetuus
  • IMPERATOR
  • Caesar
  • *****
  • Posts: 5373
Re: Arrow & Bolt Head References
« Reply #24 on: June 09, 2020, 12:18:09 pm »
The tiny so-called scythian trilobite or triangular cross-section arrowheads are all cast bronze, but the standard Roman arrowhead is an iron trilobate arrowhead.  These larger Roman ones are never bronze.

This was no problem for Romans to forge these from iron as has been shown be re-enacators / living archaeology.

SC


SC
(Shawn Caza, Ottawa)

 

All coins are guaranteed for eternity