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Identification Help / Provincial issue to id
« Last post by Mateusz W on Today at 07:04:49 pm »

More like autonomous issue (perhaps head of Demos?) ?
Identification Help / Struggling to id with a lion/sphinx
« Last post by Mateusz W on Today at 07:01:48 pm »

once again asking this wonderful community to help me out with a coin, this time i'm not sure what there really is on the reverse at all
Identification Help / Struggling to id a bronze
« Last post by Mateusz W on Today at 06:50:30 pm »
Identification Help / Provincial coin, Claudius, Phrygia?
« Last post by Mateusz W on Today at 04:56:21 pm »
Philomelium maybe?

Reading For the Advanced Collector / Manius Aquillius (consul 101 BC)
« Last post by Jochen on Today at 04:11:06 pm »
The History of Manius Aquillius (consul 101 BC)

The coin:
Roman Republic, Mn. Aquillius Mn. f. Mn. n., gens Aquillia
AR - denarius (serratus), 3.96g, 20.01mm, 180°
         Rome, ca. 71 BC
Av.: Bust of Virtus with helmet and cuirass to r.
        behind III VIR, before from below VIRTVS
Rv: Soldier in short war dress and with large shield in his left hand, standing to the   
       left, head to the right, helping up a fallen female figure with his right hand.
       in the left field from above MNF.MNN
       in the right field from below MNAQVIL
       in ex. SICIL
Ref.: Crawford 401/1; Sydenham 798; Kestner 3297; BMCRR Rome 3364; SRCV
         336; Albert 1303; Aquillia 2

About the coin:
(1) This denarius commemorates the defeat of the 2nd slave war in Sicily by the mint master's grandfather and his virtus. The legionary on the reverse probably represents Manius Aqilllius, consul in 101 BC, who is helping the personified Sicilia.
(2) The title III VIR appears on this coin for the first time.

The gens Aquillia
The Aquillia, sometimes also spelled Aquilia (Lat. aquila = eagle), were an ancient plebeian noble family of probable Etruscan descent. 2 of their members are said to have been involved in bringing the Tarquinians back to Rome. In 487 BC, Gaius Aquillius Tuscus was consul and waged war against the Hernicians, an Italic tribe south-east of Rome, for which he received an ovatio.

When Attalus III of Pergamon died in 133 BC and, as he had no descendants, bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans, a revolt broke out. Only Manius Aquillius, who had become consul in 129 BC, succeeded in ending this war. He then reorganized the province of Asia as proconsul. However, he played an inglorious role when he handed over one of the fiefdoms of Pergamon to the kings of Bithynia and Pontus in exchange for bribes.

The Manius Aquillius mentioned on our coin (died 88 BC in Pergamon) was probably the son of this Manius Aquillius, the consul of 129 BC. He fought with Gaius Marius against the Cimbri and was his legatus. He played a major role in the victory over the Teutones and Ambrons at Aquae Sextiae. In 103 BC Marius appointed him commander-in-chief of the army and in 101 BC he became consul together with Marius. The Senate commissioned him to finally put an end to the 2nd slave revolt in Sicily, which had been going on for 3 years.

The slave wars in Sicily:
The revolt of the slaves under the gladiator Spartacus is probably known to all, especially through the famous movie by Stanley Kubrick starring Kirk Douglas. However, the fact that there were slave revolts before that is less well known. The first slave revolts took place in Sicily.

The 1st slave war took place from 136-132 BC. The rebels had previously mostly been free citizens and were mercilessly exploited, especially in the mines. They were not considered human beings. Varro called them instrumenti genus vocale (= talking tools). In the end, the uprising was bloodily suppressed. 20000 insurgents were crucified or thrown to their deaths from rocks.

The 2nd slave war:
In 104 BC, the Roman Senate decided to free the slaves who came from countries allied with Rome. But Sicilian slave owners (domini) sabotaged the measures and the second great slave revolt in Sicily began. It was very similar to the first: this revolt also started from two groups, that of Athenion and that of Salvius (sometimes also called Tryphon). The number of their followers rose to 30,000. Athenion (died 101 BC) came from Cilicia and was the overseer of 200 other slaves in western Sicily. At the outbreak of the revolt, he assumed the title of king, but then served Salvius, who had been proclaimed king in eastern Sicily, as commander of the army. After the latter's death, he became his successor. His plan was to expropriate the large landowners and turn their land into common property. In the long run, however, the rebels were no match for Rome's military superiority. In a battle, Athenion was killed by Manius Aquillius in a duel. Aquillius then remained in Sicily as pro-consul until 100/99 and celebrated an ovatio.

When this denarius was minted in 71 BC, the 3rd slave war, the Spartacus revolt, had just been ended by Licinius Crassus, a consul from another family. It therefore stands to reason that the coinage in this period, characterized by strong competition between the senatorial families, was intended to commemorate the success of the mint master's family 30 years earlier.

But his successes in the slave war in Sicily already showed that Aquillius had a dark side, which was finally to be his undoing in the war against Mithridates: As early as 98 BC, he was accused by Lucius Rufus of mismanagement in Sicily. To put it simply: he had enriched himself there. He was defended by Marcus Antonius Orator, the grandfather of Marcus Antonius, and although there was strong evidence of his guilt, he was acquitted because of his bravery in war (Plutarch, Life of Marius).

The later fate of the ancestor in the war against Mithridates is of course not mentioned. I want to make up for that here.

The war against Mithridates
When Nicomedes III, king of Bithynia, died in 94 BC, his son Nicomedes IV Philopator succeeded him on the throne. Shortly after his accession, however, he was expelled from Pontus by his half-brother Socrates Chrestus with the support of Mithridates IV and fled to Rome, asking the Senate for help. As a result, Manius Aquillius was sent as an envoy to Asia in 91 BC to reinstate Nicomedes IV. Even with military pressure on Mithridates, Nicomedes was reinstated as king in 90 BC, when Socrates Chrestos was killed.

Appian, the most accurate describer of these wars, attributes the responsibility for the outbreak of the subsequent 1st Mithridatic War primarily to Aquillius. In 88 BC, he incited Nicomedes to invade Pontus and plunder it. In doing so, he clearly overstepped his authority as an envoy. When the Senate rejected Mithridates' attempts at peaceful mediation, Mithridates' generals quickly seized the initiative and crushed Nicomedes in Paphlagonia. A second army of just one legion under Manius Aquillius faced an army of 100,000 Pontic infantrymen at Protopachium. Aquillius was defeated and fled. He made it as far as Lesbos, where the inhabitants of Mytilene captured him and handed him over to Mithridates. He was put on a donkey and taken to Pergamon. On the way there, he was constantly forced to confess his crimes against the Anatolian population. As his father was already known as an exploiter and he was accused of the same, he was killed by having liquid gold poured down his throat. He died in 88 BC. This method of execution became popular and Crassus was also killed in this way by the Parthians after the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC.

I have added a pic of the bust of Mithridates IV of Pontus as Heracles, 1st century AD, Louvre. He was the last great Hellenistic ruler (Wikimedia)

(1) Plutarch, Marius
(2) Diodor, Bibliotheke historike
(3) Cicero, Deoratore
(4) Iustinus Epitoma  historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi
(5) Appian, Mithridateios
(6) Velleius Paterculus, Historia Romana
(7) Plinius, Naturalis historia

(1) Theodor Mommsen, Römische Geschichte
(2) Der Kleine Pauly

Online Sources:
(1) Wikipedia, Manius Aquillius (Consul 101 v. Chr.)
(2) Wikipedia, Mithridates VI. of Pontos

Best regards
Identification Help / Help ID - Sestertius?
« Last post by Crassus on Today at 03:47:06 pm »
Hi friends

Need help to id, please?

29mm - 13 grs
Identification Help / Help ID - Marcus Aurelius?
« Last post by Crassus on Today at 03:44:52 pm »
Hi friends

Need help to id, please?

27mm. - 10 grs

Thank you for your help
Identification Help / Re: Provincial with cult statue
« Last post by Mark Fox on Today at 02:12:01 pm »
Dear Board,

Sorry, but I think Abydus is a better fit, both epigraphically and icongraphically.  A match:

But beware!  Even in the list above, there is an error I noticed, with a Domitian lurking under coin specimen #4...

Hope this helps.

Best regards,

Mark Fox
Roman Provincial Coins / Re: Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov Nikopolis Addenda #10
« Last post by Jochen on Today at 02:08:28 pm »

A new rev. type for Severus

Septimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 18, 2.73g, 180°
         Bust, cuirassed, laureate, r.
Rev.: Legend in 4 lines in laurel wreaath
         NIKO / POLIT / PROC I / CTR
Ref.: a) not in AMNG
        b) not in Varbanov
             cf. #2419 (different bust)
        c) not in Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov (2023):
            Rev.: not yet listed
            Obv.: e.g. No. (different die)
coll. Hoeft

The obverse of the coin with the conspicuously raised V of Severus is from a previously unlisted stamp

Best regards
Roman Coins / Re: Interesting imitative
« Last post by Flav V on Today at 01:46:58 pm »
I have the confirmation that this coin is an imitative. And i search for the obverse die that we already saw somewhere.
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