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scarab translation



is there somebody who can translate one of my private scarabs?

Kind regards,

Hi Snofru,

     Sorry, I can't help you on this one, you need someone who has an extensive vocabulary and knows the finer rules of grammar.

     If the hieroglyph on the bottom is a triangle with a short line in the middle of the base, it may say in part "Given life." with the ankh (?) above and to its left.If it is not the sign for "given" perhaps it is walking legs...
     Could the inscription have been written by a non-Egyptian? Do you know if the scarab was found in Egypt or further afield - like Israel, Lebanon, Jordan or Syria?
     I thought it might date from the Middle Kingdom to early First Intermediate Period, so I checked the following publications but found nothing parallel or similar:
1.     James, T.G.H. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Inscription in the Brooklyn Museum, Volume I, from Dynasty I to the end of Dynasty XVIII. Brooklyn: Brooklyn Museum, 1974.
2.     Leibovitch, J. "Description of the Scarabs in a Cemetery Near Tel Aviv" in Atiqot, Journal of the Israel Department of Antiquities, Volume I. Jerusalem, 1955: pages 13 to 18.
3.     Martin, G. T. Egyptian Administrative and Private-Name Seals, Principally of the Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period. Oxford: Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum, 1971.
4.     Niccacci, Alviero. Hyksos Scarabs. trans. Godfrey Kloetzli. Studium Biblicum Franciscanum 2. Jerusalem, 1980.
5.     Petrie, W.M. Flinders. Scarabs and Cylinders with Names. London, 1917.
     Can you post a photo of the scarab's back? It may help date this scarab which seemingly looks authentic.


Hi Russ,

Thank you very much for the informations.
Unfortunately i do not know where the scarab
was found. I will make some more research
about the hieroglyphics and when i get some
more informations about them, i will post it.

All the best,

Hi Snofru,

     The back of the scarab points to the Hyksos Period.

     Kindly note the following: There is a type of Hyksos scarab inscription that buries the base line of the "given" hieroglyph in the border line as is seen on your scarab. Unfortunately, I could not find this publication online but if you can find a copy to use, see :Weill, Raymond. “XIIe Dynastie, Royaute de Haute-Egypte et Domination Hyksos dans le    Nord” in IFAO, Bibliotheque d’etude, XXVI, Cairo, 1953: Chapter 3, pp. 86-146.    Chapitre III. Les scarabees de la periode XIIe dynasty – XIIIe Dynastie – Hyksos dans    le Cadre de l’histoire reconstruite. pages 133 and 134, Numbers 268 to 271 and 273 to 279. This may be a place to start.

     I also checked the following but found nothing:
1.     Mace, Arthur C. "A Group of Hitherto Un-published Scarabs in the Metropolitan Museum", New York; Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume VII, Parts I-II, April 1921.    London: The Egypt Exploration Society, 1921: 36-38.
2.     Mace, Arthur C. "A Group of Scarabs Found at Lisht", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume VIII, Parts I – II, April 1922.  London: The Egypt Exploration Society, 1922:   13-15.
3.     Stock, Hanns. Studien zur Geschichte und Archäologie der 13. Bis 17. Dynastie Ägyptens,    unter besonderer berücksichtigung der skarabäen dieser zwischenzeit.    Āgyptologische Forschungen herausgegeben von Alexander Scharff, Professor der Āgyptologie an der Universität München. Heft 12. Glückstadt-Hamburg-New York:    Verlag J.J. Augustin, 1942. This is online at:
4.     Tufnell, Olga. "Hyksos Scarabs from Canaan" in Anatolian Studies, Journal of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Vol. VI, 1956: 67-73.
5,     Petrie, W.M. Flinders and B.D. Duncan. Hyksos & Israelite Cities, BSAE & ERA, Twelfth Year, 1906, London, 1906.


Hi Russ,

Thank you so much!



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