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Help ID Roman medal

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Despite the slight similarities in appearance there are huge differences between the two items from a mechanical perspective. 

The lower one appears to be struck.  The design is raised above the fields because it was struck from a die or a matrix with the design engraved in reverse.  This was the way almost all Roman coins were made as well as many other decorative items - belt parts, harness parts, furniture studs, etc.

The original item appears to be directly hand made - the design is formed by engraving, or chasing, - removing thin lines of metal to create a design. I can't tell from the image whether any of the design is actually raised above the fields - it doesn't look it in the photo.  As djmacdo noted this is not really an ancient technique.  It was used sometimes for plastic (that is 3-D) items created via the lost-wax casting method.  The lines were engraved on the wax model.  But the Roman simply didn't carve metal away from the actual final piece whereas this is common for makers of fake antiquities - at least in central and east Europe where I have some experience.


Thank you for these explanations. But in my opinion, looking at the attached photo, the technique used in image 1 looks more like that of image 2 than that of image 3 which is a hand made chiseled plate.
By the way this medal or brooch was not purchased. It's a metal detector find. Initially it was completely green and black like image 2 but it was unfortunately cleaned.
Based on the region where it was found it is possible that this is a vandal brooch. Image 2 is of a visigoth brooch.


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