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Magnesia ad Sipylum

Magnesia ad Sipylum was a city of Lydia, situated about 65 km northeast of Smyrna (now İzmir) on the river Hermus (now Gediz) at the foot of Spil Mount. Nowadays this is the location of Manisa in Turkey. No mention of the town is found till 190 BC, when Antiochus the Great was defeated in the battle of Magnesia by the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus. It became a city of importance under the Roman dominion and, though nearly destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius, was restored by that emperor and flourished through the Roman empire. It was one of the few towns in this part of Anatolia which remained prosperous under the Turkish rule. The most famous relic of antiquity is the Niobe of Sipylus (Suratlu Tash) on the lowest slopes of the mountain about 6 km east of the town. This is a colossal seated image cut in a niche of the rock, of Hittite origin, and perhaps that called by Pausanias the very ancient statue of the Mother of the Gods, carved by Broteas, son of Tantalus, and sung by Homer. Near it lie many remains of a primitive city, and about a kilometer east is the rock-seat conjecturally identified with Pausanias ' Throne of Pelops. There are also hot springs and a sacred grotto of Apollo. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesia_on_the_Sipylum


Magnesia ad Sipylum. The modern Manisa on the north slope of Mount Sipylus, overlooking the plain of the lower Hermus (BMC Lydia, p. lxix). Magnesia belonged to the Seleucidae down to the defeat of Antiochus under its walls in B.C. 190. It then passed under Attalid rule, and its earliest coins, characterized by various monograms, seem to belong to this period. Inscr., ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ ΣΙΠΥΛΟΥ, Heads of Zeus, Apollo, Kybele, Artemis, Herakles, etc. Rev. Serpent twined round omphalos; Grapes; Zeus Lydios; Zeus and Hermes (?) joining hands; Athena Nikephoros; Horse; Tripod; Demeter standing; etc. Interval, till about B.C. 30, when coins were struck with the portrait of the Proconsul M. Tullius Cicero Junior. Inscr., ΜΑΡΚΟΣ ΤΥΛΛΙΟΣ ΚΙΚΕΡΩΝ. Rev. ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΑΠΟ ΣΙΠΥΛΟΥ, Hand holding wreath, corn, and vine. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial—Augustus to Salonina. Under Tiberius with inscription CЄΒΑCΤΟΝ ΚΤΙCΤΗΝ, in recognition of his restoration of the city after the great earthquake in A. D. 17 (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 122). Magistrates ' names frequent down to the age of the Antonines (apparently) in the nominative case, and afterwards in the genitive, with επι, title Strategos. There occurs also a ΙΕΡΕΥΣ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΥ on coins of Augustus and Livia, and one of the Strategoi under Philip has the additional title ΙΠΠΙΚΟC. Inscriptions on Imperial coins— ΜΑΓΝΗΤΕΣ ΑΠΟ ΣΙΠΥΛΟΥ, ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ ΑΠΟ CΙΠΥΛΟΥ, or ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ CΙΠΥΛΟΥ, etc. Chief types—obv. Busts of Zeus or Mount Sipylus; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Herakles; CΙΠΥΛΟC bearded; Kybele; City-goddess ΜΑΓΝΗCΙΑ; ΘΕΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ, ΘЄΑΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ, &c.; rev. ЄΡΜΟC recumbent; Demeter standing; Temple of Tyche; Asklepios; Homonoia (?); Hero Magnes (?) holding his horse; Child (Ploutos ?); Temple of Kybele; Kybele seated or in lion chariot; Apollo seated; Zeus standing; with many others of less interest. Games—ΑΔΡΙΑΝΑ ΑΝΤΩΝЄΙΑ ЄΝΜΟΝΙΔЄΙΑ (Sev. Alex.); ΑΔΡΙΑΝΑ ΑΝΤΩΝΗΑ ЄΝΜΟΝΙΔЄΙΑ (Philip), and ЄΝΜΟΝΙΔЄΙΑ alone on various other coins. On a coin of Crispina (Imh., Lyd. Stadtm., 90) the form ЄΜΜΟΝΙΑCΙΑ occurs. This word has not been quite satisfactorily explained (see BMC Lydia, p. lxxiii note).  Alliance coins with Smyrna, under Valerian. Type—The Kybele of Magnesia and the two Nemeses of Smyrna. --

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