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Antioch

Antioch, Seleukis and Pieria, Syria (Antakya, Turkey).

Antioch on the Orontes.

Antioch on the Orontes was an ancient Greek city on the eastern side of the Orontes River. Its ruins lie near the current city of Antakya, Turkey, to which the ancient city lends its name. Antioch was founded near the end of the fourth century B.C. by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals. The city's geographical, military, and economic location benefited its occupants, particularly such features as the spice trade, the Silk Road, and the Royal Road. It eventually rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East. The city was the capital of the Seleucid Empire until 63 B.C., when the Romans took control, making it the seat of the governor of the province of Syria. From the early fourth century, the city was the seat of the Count of the Orient, head of the regional administration of sixteen provinces. It was also the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. Antioch was one of the most important cities in the eastern Mediterranean half of the Roman Empire. It covered almost 1,100 acres (4.5 km2) within the walls of which one quarter was mountain, leaving 750 acres (3.0 km2) about one-fifth the area of Rome within the Aurelian Walls. Antioch was called "the cradle of Christianity" as a result of its longevity and the pivotal role that it played in the emergence of both Hellenistic Judaism and early Christianity. The Christian New Testament asserts that the name "Christian" first emerged in Antioch. It was one of the four cities of Seleucis of Syria, and its residents were known as Antiochenes. The city may have had up to 250,000 people during Augustan times, but it declined to relative insignificance during the Middle Ages because of warfare, repeated earthquakes, and a change in trade routes, which no longer passed through Antioch from the far east following the Mongol invasions and conquests.



Antiocheia, Pisidia
(near Yalvaç, Turkey).

Antiochia Pisidia; Pisidian Antioch; Antioch of Pisidia; Antiochia in Phrygia; Latin: Antiochia Caesareia; Antiochia Colonia Caesarea.

Antioch in Pisidia, alternatively Antiochia in Pisidia or Pisidian Antioch and in Roman Empire, Latin: Antiochia Caesareia or Antiochia Colonia Caesarea, is a city in the Turkish Lakes Region, which is at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, Aegean and Central Anatolian regions, and formerly on the border of Pisidia and Phrygia, hence also known as Antiochia in Phrygia. The site lies approximately 1 km northeast of Yalvaç, the modern town of Isparta Province. The city is on a hill with its highest point of 1236 m in the north.



Antioch on the Maeander, Caria
(near Başaran, Turkey)

Antiochia on the Maeander; earlier: Pythopolis; Latin: Antiochia ad Maeandrum.

Antioch on the Maeander or Antiochia on the Maeander, Latin: Antiochia ad Maeandrum, earlier Pythopolis, was a city of ancient Caria, in Anatolia. The city was situated between the Maeander and Orsinus rivers near their confluence. Though it was the site of a bridge over the Maeander, it had "little or no individual history". The scanty ruins are located on a hill (named, in Turkish, Yenişer) a few km southeast of Kuyucak, Aydın Province, Turkey, near the modern city of Başaran, or the village of Aliağaçiftliği. The city already existed when Antiochus I enlarged and renamed it. It was home to the sophist Diotrephes. It has not been excavated, although Christopher Ratte and others visited the site in 1994 and produced a sketch plan.



Antiochia ad Cragum
, Cilicia (Güneyköy, Turkey).

Antiochetta or Latin: Antiochia Parva (meaning "Little Antiochia")

Antiochia ad Cragum also known as Antiochetta or Latin: Antiochia Parva (meaning "Little Antiochia") is an ancient Hellenistic city on Mount Cragus overlooking the Mediterranean coast, in the region of Cilicia, in Anatolia. In modern-day Turkey the site is encompassed in the village of Güneyköy, District of Gazipaşa, Antalya Province. The city was founded by Antiochus IV Epiphanes around 170 BC. It minted coins from the mid-first to the mid-second centuries, the last known of which were issued under Roman Emperor Valerian. The city became part of the kingdom of Lesser Armenia in the 12th century. In 1332, the Knights Hospitallers took the city, after which it was known variously as Antiochetta, Antiocheta, Antiocheta in Rufine (Papal bull of Pope John XXII), and Antiochia Parva. Ruins of the city remain, and include fortifications, baths, chapels, the Roman necropolis, a wine press, and the largest Roman mosaic found in Turkey. In 2018, latrine mosaics with dirty jokes about Narcissus and Ganymede were discovered in Antiochia ad Cragum.



Antioch on the Cydnus, Tarsus, Cilicia (Tarsus, Turkey)

With a history going back over 6,000 years, Tarsus has long been an important stop for traders and a focal point of many civilizations. During the Roman Empire, Tarsus was the capital of the province of Cilicia. It was the scene of the first meeting between Mark Antony and Cleopatra, and the birthplace of Paul the Apostle.



Antioch Mygdonia; Nisibis, Mesopotamia (Nusaybin, Turkey).

The Seleucids re-founded the city Naṣibina as Antiochia Mygdonia mentioned for the first time in Polybius' description of the march of Antiochus III the Great against Molon (Polybius, V, 51). The Greek historian Plutarch suggested that the city was populated by descendants of Spartans. The Seleukid name dis not last and the ancient city was called Nisibis in later Hellenistic and Roman times.



Antiochia ad Sarum; Adana, Cilicia (Adana, Turkey)

Adana, Antioch on Sarus, Antioch in Cilicia

One of the oldest continuously inhabited settlements of the world and with a name unchanged (despite the short-lived Seleukid attempt to change it) for at least four millennia, Adana was a market town at the Cilicia plain and one of the gateways from Europe to the Middle East.



Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antioch_(disambiguation) and Wikipedia pages linked from that page.

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