The Age of Gallienus
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Class A Folles
Armenian Numismatics Page
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Denarii of Otho
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC - Rarity Tables
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Facing Portrait of Augustus
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
Julius Caesar - The Funeral Speech
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Maps of the Ancient World
Museum Collections Available Online
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Excellence Award
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Research and Drawings by Kevin Davis (with special thanks to Byzantiumcoins, Yafet Rasnal and Simon for information).
Some entries are illustrated with images from the catalog of FORVM ANCIENT COINS. Others may be illustrated with photos from other sources; these are acknowledged in the "Notes" section. Click the hyperlinked numbers in the "No." columns to access these images.
Hint: You can use the individual URLs of the images below (the ornaments are transparent .gifs) to illustrate coins on the Classical Numismatics Discussion Board. Usually, you can click your mouse 's right button and copy the URL from the 'Properties ' screen.
|Listing in both Bellinger and Grierson tables|
|Listing in Grierson that corrects/updates (plain #) or adds to (a, b) Bellinger|
|Listing only in Bellinger (unresolved issue or likely error of nearby entry)|
|Listing in Bellinger that is actually correct versus Grierson|
|Book has jeweled border around the ornament|
|Additional variety found and documented in this FORVM effort|
"Class A-1 is unornamented, but Classes A-2 and A-3 comprise many varieties, of which Bellinger listed fifty-one on the basis of their ornaments or secret-marks. His classification is summarized in Fig. 3. The varieties can be grouped according to their fabric, style, detail, and metrology,8 as follows:
— 'Metropolitan ' coins, struck on very large flans, include numerous formal varieties (Bellinger vars. 1, 6, 10-19, 21-3, 30, 36-8, and 48-50) but they seem all to be inter-related in style. Although the weights of individual specimens range widely, the average for most varieties is the same, perhaps originally 18 g (18 to the pound). The Corinth finds, from which the metrology of the series has been studied, give a lower figure of just under 15 g, which can be put down to loss of weight by wear, corrosion, and cleaning.9
— 'Central Greek ' varieties, so called because they predominate in the Corinth and Athens finds (B. 2-5, 8, 20, and probably also 7, 9, and an unlisted variety with the mark — —). The averages at Corinth are lower than for the 'metropolitan ' varieties, namely 12½ - 14 g.10
— B. 31 and 32, which are related by their secret-marks and style, are apparently on different weight-standards. It seems that B. 31 belongs with Class A-2 and B. 32 with A-3. If so, they may be consecutive issues from a provincial mint, bridging the reduction in the weight-standard.
— B. 29/41 and 42-7. The weights are quite closely controlled at about 10 g. Class A-3.
— B. 24, 33, 39, and 40 are mostly around 9 g, but varieties 39 and 40 include some larger coins weighing around 15 g. There is very little overlap in the two ranges of weights, and this group, also, may bridge A-2 and A-3.
— B. 51. Scarce, and possibly provincial like B. 34.
It will be seen that this scheme leaves open the question of the number of mints. Apart from Constantinople, it postulates one major mint in the Balkans."
Notes on Integrating the Bellinger and Grierson Tables:
— Jeweled borders on book ornaments not noted in Bellinger; borders are noted in Grierson and examples in the Byzantiumcoins Collection with the latter even correcting a few entries of the former.
19: Grierson notes book ornament unknown in Bellinger.
25-27: Grierson corrects Bellinger book ornament: adds square and four corner dots; however, the square is actually the book itself and not part of the ornament (see "Notes for Updates, Corrections and Variations Not Listed in the Original Tables").
27: Grierson confirms Bellinger book ornament but with corrections above.
41: Grierson corrects book ornament in Bellinger.
43: Grierson corrects Bellinger book ornament: adds square and a dot in middle of each side.
45: Grierson notes book ornament unknown in Bellinger.
49: Bellinger is actually correct versus Grierson: two dots exist outside the cross of the nimbus and is confirmed on a coin in the Byzantiumcoins Collection.
51: Grierson notes nimbus and book ornaments unknown in Bellinger.
Notes for Updates, Corrections and Variants Not Listed in the Original Tables:
F1b: Orthodoxcoins Collection
F1c: Forum Ancient Coins, BZ86497, 3 Feb 2018
F14c: Abu Galyon Collection
F17a: Byzantiumcoins Collection
F17b: Ancient Numismatic Enterprise (VCoins - 23 September 2007) - Item #1529 (34 mm, 18.04 gm)*
F20a: Scotvs Capitis Collection
24a: Book ornament unknown in Grierson noted on a coin in the Craig Collection.
F24a2: Byzantiumcoins Collection - crude book and reverse ornaments; crude legends too; likely from a provincial mint according to Byzantiumcoins.
F24b2: Byzantiumcoins Collection
F24c: Museo Bottacin, Padova, Italy, cat n. 429
25-27: Square border around book ornament noted in Grierson is actually the book itself, noted on a #25 in the Byzantiumcoins Collection and #26s in FORVM 's Sold Catalog, CoinArchives.com, and in the Byzantiumcoins Collection. #27 most likely has no separate square border around the book ornament either.
F33b: Byzantiumcoins Collection
F33c: Discussion board post by Kevin P, 2/17/2018.
34: Book ornament unknown in Bellinger and Grierson noted on a coin in the Byzantiumcoins Collection.
40: Jeweled border around book ornament noted on a coin in the Byzantiumcoins Collection, corrects Grierson table.
40b: Jeweled border around book ornament noted on a coin in the Byzantiumcoins Collection, corrects Grierson table.
F42c: Byzantiumcoins Collection; The Mardin Hoard, by N.M. Lowick, S. Bendall, and P. D. Whitting, published A.H. Baldwin & Sons Ltd. London 1977 (plate 1.3; 6.99g, 29.5mm); Barber Institute, Birmingham
F47a: Dea Moneta - Artemide aste, asta per corrispondenza 11 December 2006, lot n.1513
F47b: The Mardin Hoard (plate 1.4; 7.35g, 25mm).
F-I1: Byzantiumcoins Collection
Numbering of variants not listed in the original tables is native to this effort on FORVM 's NumisWiki to document additional finds.
* photo included
10: Are the Bellinger and Grierson reverse ornaments the same? What is the proper length of the vertical lines and is the ornament confirmed?
11: Does Grierson correct Bellinger?
29: Is the Bellinger reverse ornament actually correct versus Grierson? Latter just seems to be an incomplete version of the former.
30: May be just an artistic interpretation but which reverse ornament is more accurate?
31 and 33a: Is 33a the same as 31? See Discussion.
42: Which "A" on the reverse ornament is the proper design?
Sources for the Original Tables:
(Bellinger): Metcalf, D. M., Coinage in South-Eastern Europe 820-1396 (London: Royal Numismatic Society, Special Publication No. 11, 1979), 55-62.
Grierson, Philip, Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection, Volume 3, Leo III to Nicephorus III, 717-1081 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973), 645.