The Age of Gallienus
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Class A Folles
Armenian Numismatics Page
Augustus - Facing Portrait
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Denarii of Otho
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC - Rarity Tables
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Holy Land Antiquities
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
Julius Caesar - The Funeral Speech
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Maps of the Ancient World
Museum Collections Available Online
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Excellence Award
Paleo-Hebrew Script Styles
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Roman Military Belts
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Latin: Empress (usually the wife, sometimes the daughter of the emperor). It was also an epithet applied to colonies settled under the direction of Augustus.
Augusta was the female equivalent of Augustus, and had similar origins as an obscure descriptor with vaguely religious overtones. It was bestowed on some women of the Imperial dynasties, as an indicator of worldly power and influence and a status near to divinity. There was no qualification with higher prestige. The title or honorific was shared by state goddesses associated with the Imperial regime's generosity and provision, such as Ceres, Bona Dea, Juno, Minerva, and Ops, and by local or minor goddesses around the empire. Other personifications perceived as essentially female and given the title Augusta include Pax (peace) and Victoria (victory).
The first woman to receive the honorific Augusta was Livia Drusilla, by the last will of her husband Augustus. From his death (14 AD) she was known as Julia Augusta, until her own death in AD 29.
A list of Roman women on coins, and their lifespans (if known) and the years they were Augustae (if known):
Fulvia -- Died 40 BC. Third wife of Marc Antony.
Octavia -- Died 11 BC. Fourth wife of Marc Antony.
Cleopatra VII -- 69-30 BC. Queen of Egypt, 51-30 BC.
Julia -- 39 BC-14 AD. Daughter of Augustus.
Livia -- 58 BC-AD 29. Wife of Augustus, mother of Tiberius. Augusta, 14-29 AD.
Livilla -- c. 13 BC-AD 31. Wife of Drusus.
Antonia -- 36 BC-AD 37. Daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, mother of Claudius. Augusta, 37 and 41 AD.
Agrippina Senior -- 14 BC-AD 33. Wife of Germanicus, mother of Caligula.
Caesonia -- Died AD 41. Wife of Caligula.
Drusilla Minor -- AD 39-41. Daughter of Caligula.
Drusilla -- AD 16-38. Sister of Caligula.
Julia Livilla -- AD 17/18-42. Sister of Caligula.
Claudia Antonia -- AD 27-66. Daughter of Claudius.
Valeria Messalina -- AD 25-48. Third wife of Claudius. Augusta, AD 41-48.
Agrippina the Younger -- AD 15-59. Sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius, mother of Nero. Augusta, AD 50-59.
Claudia Octavia -- AD 40(?)-62. Daughter of Claudius and Valeria Messalina, first wife of Nero. Augusta, AD 54-62.
Poppaea Sabina -- AD 31-65. Second wife of Nero. Augusta, AD 62-65.
Claudia Neronis --Lived 4 months. Daughter of Nero and Poppaea. Augusta, AD 63.
Statilia Messalina -- Lifespan unknown. Third wife of Nero. Augusta, AD 66-68.
Vitellia -- Lifespan unknown. Daughter of Vitellius.
Domitilla the Elder -- Died before AD 69. First wife of Vespasian, mother of Titus and Domitian.
Domitilla the Younger -- Died before AD 69. Daughter of Vespasian. Augusta Posthumously.
Julia Titi -- AD 64/65-90/91. Daughter of Titus, lived for a time with her uncle Domitian as his wife. Augusta, c. 79-90/91.
Domitia -- c. AD 50-55-c. 140. Wife of Domitian. Augusta, AD 82-96.
Plotina -- c. AD 70-122(?). Wife of Trajan, Augusta, c. AD 105-122(?).
Marciana -- Sister of Trajan, Augusta, c. AD 105-112/4(?).
Matidia -- c. AD 68-119. Daughter of Marciana. Augusta, AD 112/4(?)-119.
Sabina -- Died AD 136. Wife of Hadrian. Augusta, AD 128(?)-136.
Faustina Senior -- AD 98/105-140/1. Wife of Antoninus Pius. Augusta AD 138-140/1.
Faustina Junior -- Died 175/6. Wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, AD 147-175/6.
Lucilla -- AD 148/9-182/3. Wife of Lucius Verus, sister of Commodus. Augusta, AD 164-182/3 AD.
Crispina -- Died AD 182/3. Wife of Commodus. Augusta, AD 177-182/3.
Titiana -- Lifespan unknown. Wife of Pertinax. Augusta, AD 193.
Manilia Scantilla -- Lifespan unknown. Wife of Didius Julianus, Augusta, AD 193.
Didia Clara -- Born AD 153. Daughter of Didius Julianus, Augusta, AD 193.
Julia Domna -- c. AD 170-217. Wife of Septimius Severus, Augusta, AD 193-217.
Plautilla -- Wife of Caracalla, killed 211.
Julia Maesa -- Died AD 224/5. Sister of Julia Domna, grandmother of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander. Augusta, AD 218-224/5.
Julia Soaemias -- Died AD 222. Mother of Elagabalus. Augusta AD 218-222.
Julia Paula -- Lifespan unknown. First wife of Elagabalus. Augusta, AD 219-220.
Aquilia Severa -- Lifespan unknown. Second and fourth wife of Elagabalus. Augusta, AD 220-221 & 221-222.
Annia Faustina -- Born c.AD 175 or c. 185. Third wife of Elagabalus. Augusta, AD 221.
Julia Mamaea -- Died AD 235. Mother of Severus Alexander. Augusta, AD 222-235.
Orbiana -- Lifespan unknown. Third wife of Severus Alexander. Augusta, AD 225-227.
Paulina -- Died c. AD 235 or before. Wife of Maximinus I.
Tranquillina -- Wife of Gordian III, married him 241 AD.
Otacilia Severa -- Died AD 249(?). Wife of Philip I. Augusta, AD 244-49.
Herennia Etruscilla -- Lifespan unknown. Wife of Trajan Decius. Augusta, AD 249-253(?).
Cornelia Supera -- Lifespan unknown. Wife of Aemelian. Augusta, AD 253.
Mariniana -- Died c. AD 253(?). Wife of Valerian I.
Salonina -- Died AD 268. Wife of Gallienus. Augusta, AD 254-268.
Dryantilla -- Died AD 260/261(?). Wife of Regalianus. Augusta, AD 260.
Severina -- Lifespan unknown. Wife of Aurelian. Augusta, AD 274-275.
Magnia Urbica -- Died AD 285(?). Wife of Carinus. Augusta, AD 283-285.
Zenobia -- Born c. AD 241(?). Queen of Palmyra, captured and brought to Rome by Aurelian. Queen, AD 267-270/1. Augusta, AD 270/1-272.
Galeria Valeria -- Died AD 315. Daughter of Diocletian, wife of Galerius. Augusta, AD 293(?)-311.
Helena -- c. AD 248/50-c. 328/330. First (?) wife of Constantius I, mother of Constantine the Great. Augusta, AD 324-328/30.
Theodora -- Lifespan unknown. Second wife of Constantius I. Augusta, Posthumously(?).
Constantia -- c. AD 295(?)-c. 330. Wife of Licinius I. Augusta, AD 313-324.
Fausta -- Died AD 326. Wife of Constantine I (the Great) daughter of Maximian. Augusta, AD 324-326.
The Western Roman Empire AD 364-480
Gallia Plaucidia -- AD 388/90-450. Daughter of Theodosius the Great. Augusta, AD 421-450.
Honoria -- AD 417/8-454. Sister of Valentinian III. Augusta, AD 426(?)-450(?).
Licinia Eudoxia -- AD 422/3-c. 490. Daughter of Theodosius II, wife of Valentinian III. Augusta, AD 439-c. 490.
Aelia Euphemia -- Lifespan unknown. Wife of Anthemius. Augusta, AD 467-472(?).
Alypia -- Lifespan unknown. Daughter of Anthemius and Aelia Euphemia. Augusta(?), AD 467(?)-472(?).
The Eastern Roman Empire AD 364-491.
Aelia Flaccilla -- Died 386/8 AD. Wife of Theodosius I (the Great). Augusta, AD 379-386/8.
Aelia Eudoxia -- Died 404 AD. Wife of Arcadius. Augusta, AD 400-404.
Aelia Pulcheria -- AD 399-453. Sister of Theodosius II. Augusta, AD 414-453.
Aelia Eudocia -- Died AD 460. Wife of Theodosius II. Augusta, AD 423-460.
Aelia Verina -- Died 484 AD. wife of Leo I. Augusta, AD 457-484.
Aelia Ariadne -- Died AD 515. Wife of Zeno. Augusta, AD 474(?)-515.
Aelia Zenonis -- Died AD 477. Wife of Basiliscus. Augusta, AD 475-476.
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