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21

Umbria

ancient_Umbria.jpg

Ancient Coins (other than Roman) from Italy including Magna Graecia in the Forum Ancient Coins shop

Little is known of the early history of this district. The coinage is wholly of bronze, and belongs almost entirely to the series of aes grave.

There are only three towns which issued coins: Ariminum, Iguvium, and Tuder.

Ariminum (Rimini). The money of this town is of the rudest possible style and execution. It is distinguished by its type, the head of a Gaulish warrior wearing the national torques round his neck, recalling the fact that the Senones, a Gaulish tribe, after expelling the Etruscans, made themselves masters of Ariminum early in the fourth century. About B.C. 268 the Romans sent a Latin colony to Ariminum (Liv. xv. 8), but the aes grave is probably not much later than circ. B.C. 300. [1]

AES GRAVE. (The As weighs about 6,000 grs.)
As. Head of Gaul. Horse’s head.
Quincunx. „ „ Shield.
•••••
Triens. „ Sword and sheath.
••••
Quadrans. „ „ Trident.
•••
Sextans. „ „ Dolphin.
••
Uncia. „ „ Rostrum.
•
Semuncia. „ „ Cockle-shell.

The following large oblong Bars have also been attributed to Ariminum. Haeberlin, however (op. cit., p. 67), gives reasons for supposing them to have been cast by Rome at her Capuan mint, circ. B.C. 312-286 (see infra, p. 25). They weigh about 1,620 grm. = 25,000 grs.

Oval shield. Inner side of oval shield (BMC Italy, p. 27).
Sword. Sheath (Id., p. 28).

STRUCK COIN.
Head of Vulcan (B. M. C., Italy, p. 25). ARIMN Gaulish warrior armed with oval shield and spear.
Ζ Size .9

Iguvium (Gubbio) was a strong place on the western slope of the Apennines. The coinage follows the standard of that of Tuder, and is anterior to B.C. 268. The inscr. in Umbrian characters = Ikuvins (?) (Conway, Ital. dial., p. 435). It is usually on the reverse.

1 Lenormant (La Monnaie dans l'Antiquitι, 1863, p. 113), differing from Mommsen, assigns the aes grave of Ariminum to the time of the alliance between Gauls, Etruscans, Samnites, and Umbrians, which was crushed by the Romans at the battle of Sentinum, B.C. 295.


22

AES GRAVE. (The libral As weighs about 213 grm. = 3,300 grs.)
As. Star. Crescent and Stars
Semis. „ „ „
)
Triens. Tongs. Cornucopia
••••
Quadrans. „ „
•••
Sextans. Cornucopia. „
Uncia. „ „
Semis. Corn-grain and two stars. Crescent, astragalos.
„ Helmet. Cornucopia
)
Quadrans. Wheel. Wheel
•••
Sextans. Cornucopia. Branch
••
„ Branch. Mark of value
••
Uncia. Grapes. Cornucopiae
•

Tuder (Todi) must have been a town of some importance. It stood on the left bank of the Tiber, on the confines of Etruria. The coins are well executed, the earliest series commencing about B.C. 320. The weights show that the aes grave of Tuder, like that of Rome, passed through several reductions. Inscr. tVEtDE in Umbrian characters = Tutere, usually on obv., abbreviated on smaller denominations.

AES GRAVE. (The libral As weighs about 250 grm. = 3,900 grs.)
As. Wheel. Three crescents.
„ Eagle. Cornucopia.
Semis. „ „
„ Dog sleeping. Lyre.
Triens. Eagle. •••• Cornucopiae. ••••
„ Two clubs. •••• Hand in cestus. ••••
Quadrans. Anchor. ••• Toad. •••
Trident. •• Cicada. ••
Uncia. Spear-head. • Vase. •
„ Toad. Tortoise.

ALMOND-SHAPED COINS. (Not certainly of Tuder.)
Semis. Club (or branch ?). ••••••
Quadrans. „ •••
Sextans. „ ••
Uncia. „ •

STRUCK COINS.
Young male head in pilos with flat top. Sow and pigs (BMC Italy, p. 397)
Ζ .95
Head of Seilenos (Berlin Catalog, III. i. Pl. I. 11). Eagle (Ib., p. 39).
Ζ .75
Head of Pan. Cornucopia.
Ζ .65

The following oblong bars, and smaller divisions, are, by some, also attributed to Tuder, on account of their having been discovered there:—

Club. Fish-spine (BMC Italy, p. 36).
Dolphin. „
Fish-spine. „
Branch. Branch.


Dictionary of Roman Coins


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Umbria. - One of the principal divisions of Central Italy, situated to the east of Etruria. Coins principally of the aes grave class have been attributed to the following towns of Umbria - Ariminum, Iguvium, and Tuder. (Cat, of Greek Coins in Brit. Mus., Italy, pp. 25-39; ef. Mommesen, Mon. Rom., vol. i., pp. 360-362; 389-400.)

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