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Babelon, E. Traitť des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
Bellinger, A. R. Troy, The Coins. (Princeton, 1961).
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber. (1922 - 1929).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Lindgren, H & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coinage of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
MŁller, Ludwig. Numismatique díAlexandre le Grand; Appendice les monnaies de Philippe II et III, et Lysimaque. (Copenhagen, 1855-58).
Price, M. J. The Coinage of in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeusr. (London, 1991).
Sear, David. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Volume 4: Bosporus - Lesbos (Parts 18 - 21). (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, MŁnchen Staatlische MŁnzsammlung, Part 19: Troas-Lesbos. (Berlin, 1991).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 1: Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Mysia, Troas, Aiolis, Lesbos, Ionia. (Berlin, 1957).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, MŁnzsammlung Universitšt TŁbingen, Part 4: Mysien-Ionien. (Berlin, 1989).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum Turkey 3, Canakkale Museum Vol. 1, Roman Provincial Coins of Mysia, Troas, etc. (Istanbul, 2009).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum Turkey 4, Ancient Coins from Mysia, Troad, and Aeolis in the Collection of Selcuk Tanrikulu. (Istanbul, 2010).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum Turkey 9, The ÷zkan ArıkantŁrk Collection, Vol. 1: Troas. (Istanbul, 2015).
Thompson, M. "The Mints of Lysimachus," in Essays Robinson.
Waggoner, N. M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen (ANS ACNAC 5). (New York, 1983).
Wroth, W. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Troas, Aeolis, and Lesbos. (London, 1894).
The Troad or Troas is the historical name of the Biga Yarimadasi peninsula in the northwestern Turkey. Bounded by the Dardanelles to the northwest, by the Aegean Sea to the west and separated from the rest of Anatolia by the massif that forms Mount Ida, the Troad is drained by two main rivers, the Scamander (Karamenderes) and the Simois, which join near the ruins of Troy. The Kingdom of Pergamum ceded the territory to the Roman Republic.
Abydus, on the Hellespont, a colony of Miletus, has been thought to have been one of the places of mintage, in the sixth century B.C., of some of the early electrum staters of the Milesian standard, but as we have no inscriptions to guide us, the attribution of the following specimens is rather doubtful; see infra, Ionia.
|Eagle, with closed wings, looking back; in field, dolphin.||Rough incuse square. [Numismatic Chronicle, 1875, Pl. VII. 7.]|
EL. 217 grs.
|Similar, but eagle standing on a hare, and no dolphin.||Quadripartite incuse square. [BMC Ionia, Pl. I. 23.]|
EL. 217.5 grs.
|ΑΒΥΔΗΝΟΝ or ΑΒΥ Eagle.||Gorgoneion: incuse square.|
AR 82 grs.-2 grs. (Persic standard).
In B.C. 411 Abydus revolted from Athens and remained the Spartan military station on the Hellespont till circ. B.C. 387. The finest coins belong to this period. The gold was probably derived from mines in the territory of Abydus (BMC Troas, p. xl. f.).
|Nike kneeling, stabbing ram.
[BMC Troas, p. xl.]
|Eagle; in front, aplustre; incuse square. |
|Artemis riding on stag.
[Z. f. N., xvii, p. 169, No. 2; Invent. Wadd., No. 1028.]
|Eagle; incuse square. |
|Head of Apollo. [BMC Troas, Pl. I. 8.]||ΑΒΥ Eagle; incuse square. Magistratesí names|
AR 232 grs.
|Head of Apollo.
[BMC Troas, p. 2 f.]
|ΑΒΥ Eagle standing. Numerous magistratesí names and symbols.|
AR 164 grs.; 44 grs.
Inscr., ΑΒΥ; ΑΒΥΔΗ. Obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Eagle; Head of Artemis; Stag; Torch and quiver; Two torches; Lyre; Eagle, etc.
On the conclusion of the war with Philip V of Macedon, the Romans conferred freedom upon Abydus and other Asiatic towns (Livy xxxiii. 30). Then, or perhaps somewhat later, it began, like most of the other seaports of Western Asia Minor, to strike large spread tetradrachms of Attic weight.
|Bust of Artemis.||ΑΒΥΔΗΝΩΝ Eagle; laurel-wreath. Various magistratesí names and symbols.|
AR Attic Tetradrachm
Imperialó Augustus to Maximinus. Inscr., ΑΒΥΔΗΝΩΝ or abbrev. Types: Several relating to Artemis; Leander swimming to the light-house of Sestos, from which Hero holds out lamp; above, Eros with torch (Fig. 285) (BMC Troas, p. 7 n.); Dioskuri; Dionysos riding lion; Poseidon; Hero (Abydos?) near prow (Imhoof MG, p. 622, No. 203); Bust of ΑΒVΔΟC (Imhoof-Blumer KM, i. p. 33). Magistrate, Archon.
Achilleion, a small fortified town near Sigeium, with the tomb of Achilles.
|Helmet. [Imhoof-Blumer KM, i, p. 33.]|| (= ΑΧ).|
|Head of Athena, in helmet.
[Ib., p. 34.]
|Id. in wreath.|
Alexandria Troas (Eski Stambul), founded under the name Antigoneia, circ. B.C. 310, by Antigonus, who brought thither the inhabitants of Cebren, Colone, Hamaxitus, Neandria, and Scepsis. About B.C. 300 it was improved by Lysimachus, and re-named Alexandreia.
|Head of Apollo.||ΑΛΕΞ Apollo Smintheus, holding bow and phiale; at his feet, mouse.|
|Head of Apollo.||ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΩΝ Horse feeding.|
Cf. ∆ of Hamaxitus (p. 546) and Neandria (p. 547).
For Alexandrine and Seleucid coins attributed to this mint see MŁller Alexander 923, 924; BMC Troas, p. xiv; Maonald, Hunter Cat., iii. p. 21; and J. H. S., 1903, pp. 94 ff.
|Head of Apollo.||ΑΛΕΞΑΝ or ΑΛΕ Horse feeding; in ex., fulmen.|
|Head of Apollo. (Fig. 286.)||ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΩΝ (in ex.); ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ ΣΜΙΘΕΩΣ Apollo Smintheus, standing with bow and phiale. Magistratesí names, and dates, apparently reckoned from the Seleucid Era and equivalent to B.C. 176-B.C. 77 [N. C., 1898, p. 109; BMC Troas, p. xv].|
AR Attic Tetradrachms and Drachms.
∆ Inscr., ΑΛΕΞΑΝ; ΑΛΕΞ. Types: Head of Apollo; Lyre; Tripod.
Colonial Coinage. Commodus to Gallienus; also quasi-autonomous, Caracalla to Gallienus. Inscr., COL AVG TROAD; COL TROA; COL ALEXAND AVG. Types: Chiefly relating to Apollo Smintheus, whose temple lay south of Alexandreia Troas. His cultus-statue represents him holding bow and phiale (on this type and its relation to the Apollo Smintheus of Scopas, represented with a mouse at his feet, see BMC Troas, p. xvi and ref. there). Other types probably connected with this Apollo are:óHerdsman and feeding horse; Herdsman standing before a cavern in which is a statue of the Apollo (cf. Imhoof KM, i. p. 36); Herdsman with Apollo (BMC Troas, pp. xvii, xviii; N. C., 1899, p. 98). Also Eagle holding bullís head (BMC Troas, p. xviii); Nine men seated on platform, probably the local Senate, Curia decurionum (BMC Troas, p. 27); Triumphal arch (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 507). On the quasi-autonomous is a head of the Tyche of the city with inscr. COL ALEX TRO. Also the usual Colonial types:óMarsyas statue; Genius standing; Drunken Herakles, Pan and Satyrs, etc.
Antandrus, on the north of the Gulf of Adramyteum. The goddess on its coins is doubtless the Artemis Astyrene, whose temple in a grove at the neighboring Astyra was under the administration of Antandrus (BMC Troas, p. xxxvii). The goat seems to have been the παρασημον of the town (see N. C., 1899, p. 1 f.).
|Head of Artemis Astyrene.||ΑΝΤΑΝ Goat standing: incuse square.|
|Head of Artemis Astyrene.||ΑΝΤΑΝ Goat standing before fir-tree; one leg raised: incuse square.|
AR Wt. 41 grs.
|Head of Artemis Astyrene.||ΑΝΤΑΝ Goat standing: incuse square|
AR Wt. 19 grs.
|Id.||ΑΝ Lionís head.|
AR Wt. 7 grs.[Imhoof KM, p. 507.]
|Head of Apollo.||ΑΝΤΑΝ Lionís head.|
∆ Size .75-.45
Imperial. Titus to Sept. Severus. Also quasi-autonomous. Inscr. ΑΝΤΑΝΔΡΕΩΝ; ΑΝΤΑΝΔΡΙΩΝ. Types: Archaic statue of Artemis ΑCΤΥΡΗΝΗ (Z. f. N., vii. p. 24); Asklepios; Hephaestos standing; Goat; Apollo with name Schizanos Σχιζανος or Schizaios Σχιζαιος (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 507).
Assus (Bekhram), a flourishing stronghold of southern Troas, incorporated with the kingdom of Pergamum in B.C. 241. Athena Polias was the principal goddess (BMC Troas, p. xxxv f.).
|Griffin recumbent; fore-paw raised.||Lionís head: incuse square.|
AR 55 grs.; 24 grs.; 13 grs.
|Head of Athena wearing helmet ornamented with griffin (fine style).||ΑΣΣΙΟ[Ν] Archaic statue of Athena holding spear and fillets: incuse square. [Inv. Wadd., No. 655.]|
AR 232 grs.
|Head of Athena.
[Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 76.]
|ΑΣΣΟΟΝ (sic) Lionís head: incuse square|
AR 48 grs.
|Head of Athena.||ΑΣΣΙΟΝ Bullís head facing.|
AR 45 grs.
AR 24 grs.; also ∆ size .4
|Id.||ΑΣΣΙ Griffin recumbent.|
∆ size .85-.4
|Female head in stephane.||ΑΣΣΙ Fulmen.|
∆ size .5[N. Z., xvi. p. 264.]
|Head of Athena to front.||ΑΣΣΙ Griffin standing.|
∆ size .8
Imperial. Augustus to Severus Alexander. Inscr. ΑΣΣΙ; ΑCCΙΩΝ. Types: Athena; Zeus; Asklepios; Serpent on altar; Griffin; male, or female, figure holding vase (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 37, No. 1).
Magistrate. Strategos; sometimes, Archon (Imhoof KM, p. 508).
Birytis. Coins of end of fourth century B.C., and beginning of third century.
|Head of Herakles facing.||Head of beardless Kabeiros in pilos, between two stars.|
|Head of beardless Kabeiros in pilos; above, two stars.||ΒΙΡΥ Club in wreath.|
|Head of bearded Kabeiros in pilos.||ΒΙΡΥ Club in wreath.|
|Head of bearded Kabeiros in pilos.||ΒΙΡΥ Triskeles of crescents.|
Cebren. The principal type is a ram, which may, perhaps, refer to some cultus of the Kabeiri at this town (von Fritze, Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 115).
|Head of ram.|
[BMC Troas, p. xix and p. 42, No. 1.]
|Rude incuse square.|
AR 217 grs.
|Head of ram.||Quadripartite incuse square.|
AR 30 grs. and smaller coins.
|ΚΕΒRΕ Head of ram.||Quadripartite incuse square.|
AR 19 grs., etc.
|ΚΕΒRΕΝΕ retrograde. Forepart of ram.||Quadripartite incuse square.|
AR 9 grs.
After the overthrow of the Athenian domination that had prevailed in the fifth century, Cebren fell (circ. B.C. 400) under Persian influence, and was governed by the satrap, Zenis of Dardanus, and by Mania, his widow. About B.C. 310 Antigonus removed the inhabitants to his new town, Antigoneia (Alexandreia Troas).
|ΚΕΒΡΗΝΙ Two ramsí heads; between them, floral device.||Quadripartite incuse square.|
AR ll grs.
|Two ramsí heads; between them, floral device.||ΚΕ (in monogram).|
|Young male head in Persian head-dress hound with laurel-wreath.||ΚΕ (in monogram).|
|Head of Apollo.||Κ Head of ram.|
|Head of Apollo; beneath, eagle.||ΚΕ (in monogram).|
|ΚΕ Head of Apollo.||Head of ram; beneath, usually, eagle.|
The following coins closely resemble the latest bronze pieces with the name of Cebren, and it may be inferred from them that in B.C. 310, or later, Cebren was re-peopled under the auspices of a Seleucid king, and restored with the name of Antiocheia (BMC Troas, p. xx; Imhoof KM, p. 43).
|Head of Apollo (sometimes with Κ).||ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ Head of ram; beneath, symbol (Imhoof KM, p. 41).|
Colone, incorporated with Antigoneia (Alexandreia Troas) circ. B.C. 310. It had a cultus of Apollo Killaeos (BMC Troas, p. xxi).
|Head of Athena.||ΚΟΛΩΝΑΩΝ between the rays of a star.|
Dardanus (Maltepť), on the Hellespont. The usual type of the autonomous coins is a cock or cock-fight (cf. Pollux ix. 84 to nomismati enecharaxanto ... Dardaneis de alektruonon machaenτω νομισματι ενεχαραξαντο ... Δαρδανεισ δε αλεκτρυονων μαχην). Concerning the early electrum coins dating from the latter half of the seventh century B.C., with this type, see Hogarth, Archaic Artemisia, 1908, p. 89. They were probably struck in Lydia.
The following electrum stater, with the cock as type, has been assigned to Dardanus: see BMC Troas, p. xlii.
|Cock; above, floral ornament.||Quadripartite incuse square (Fig. 287).|
EL. Stater, 215 grs.
The attribution of this stater is, however, doubtful: see Ionia, infra.
|Horseman.||ΔΑΡ Cock, and ΖΗ in monogram (prob. not the name of the satrap Zenis as De Luynes suggested; see BMC Troas, p. xlii).|
AR 72.7 grs.
[Imhoof MG, p. 262, No. 170.]
|ΔΑΡ and ΖΗ in monogram Two cocks in fighting attitude.|
AR 16 grs.
AR 39 grs.
|Horseman.||ΔΑΡ (ΔΑΡΔΑΝ, etc.) Cock, sometimes in fighting attitude; various symbols.|
|Cock.||ΔΑΡ within border.|
|Male head (Zeus ?).||ΔΑΡ Horseman.|
Imperial. Augustus to Sept. Severus and family. Inscr. ΔΑΡΔΑΝΙΩΝ. Types: Chiefly Trojan. Rape of Ganymede; Flight of Aeneas; Naked warrior (Dardanos) standing (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 38); Caracalla on horse holding Palladium (Imhoof MG, p. 626, No. 221); Bull approaching altar, and bird on column (N. C., 1900, p. 17); River-god ΡΟΔΙΟC (BMC Troas, p. 51); Athena.
Gargara. Famous in antiquity for its fertile soil. Its principal coins are earlier than the establishment of the Pergamene Kingdom in B.C. 284.
|Young male head (Apollo (?)).||ΓΑΡΓ Bull feeding: incuse square.|
AR 49 grs.
|Id.||ΓΑΡ Horse galloping: incuse square.|
AR 22 grs.
|Id.||ΓΑΡΓ between spokes of wheel.|
AR 7 grs.[Imhoof KM, p. 38, No. 1.]
|Id.||ΓΑΡ Ramís head: incuse square.|
AR 9 grs.[Z. f. N., xxi. p. 219.]
|Head of Apollo, laureate||ΓΑΡΓ Bull feeding: incuse square.|
AR 46 grs.
|Id.||ΓΑΡ Ramís head.|
AR 8 grs.[Imhoof KM, p. 38, No. 3.]
|Id.||ΓΑΡ Horse galloping; various symbols.|
∆ sizes .7-.35
|Head of Apollo, laureate||ΓΑΡ Horse with fore-leg raised.|
∆ .5[Imhoof KM, p. 39.]
|Head of Zeus.||ΓΑΡΓΑΡΕΩΝ Bull rushing.|
∆ .7[Wadd., Voy. Num., p. 72.]
|Turreted head (Kybele).||ΓΑΡ Lion standing, looking back.|
∆ .5[Imhoof MG, p. 245.]
ImperialóAugustus to Sept. Severus (cf. BMC Troas, p. xxxviii). Inscr. ΓΑΡΓΑΡΕΩΝ. Types: Kybele seated (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 39, No. 6); Bull rushing. Mag. (on some) Strategos (Invent. Wadd.).
Gentinus (Steph. Byz. s. v.). ∆ of the fourth century B.C.
|Female head (Artemis ?).||ΓΕΝ Bee; in field, palm-tree.|
|Head (Artemis ?) in mural crown.||ΓΕΝΤΙ Bee.|
∆ .4[Z. f. N., xxi. p. 219.]
|Head of Apollo.||ΓΕΝΤ Bee; laurel-wreath.|
Gergis. (On site see Klio, 1909, p. 10.) Attalus I, King of Pergamum (B.C. 241-197), removed the inhabitants of Gergis to a new town. A Sibyl was said to have been born near Gergis, at Marpessus, and her tomb was in the temple of the Apollo of Gergis. Phlegon (ap. Steph. Byz. s. v. GergisΓεργις) describes the coin-types:ó Gergithia ae chraesmologos Sibulla, aetis kai etetupoto en to nomismati ton Gergithion, autae te kai ae sphigxΓεργιθια η χρησμολογος Σιβυλλα, ητις και ετετυποτο εν το νομισματι τον Γεργιθιον, αυτη τε και η σφιγξ.
|Head of the Sibyl Herophile, laureate facing.||ΓΕΡ Sphinx seated.|
AR 6.2 grs.
|Id.|| Ą Id.|
|Head of the Sibyl, facing; wears laurel-wreath and ear-rings.||ΓΕΡ Sphinx seated; in ex., ear of corn.|
Hamaxitus. The temple of Apollo Smintheus lay within its territory. In B.C. 310 the inhabitants were removed to Antigoneia (Alexandreia Troas).
Circ. B.C. 400-310.
|Head of Apollo.||ΑΜΑΞΙ Lyre.|
|Id.|| Ą Apollo Smintheus with quiver, standing holding bow and phiale.|
Ilium (Hissarlik). This city was treated with honor by Alexander the Great, and was enlarged by Lysimachus, who built there a temple of Athena. After the peace with Antiochus in B.C. 189 the Romans confirmed the liberties of Ilium.
The types of its autonomous coins relate to Athena Ilias and her remarkable statue. The Imperial coins chiefly refer to Athena and to Hektor, and other (Asiatic) heroes of the Trojan war. (See especially H. von Fritzeís MŁnzen von Ilion, a section of DŲrpfeldís Troja und Ilion, Athens, 1902; cf. BMC Troas, p. xxv f.)
|Head of Athena.||ΙΛΙ Athena Ilias, wearing kalathos and long chiton, standing; holds distaff and spear, filleted.|
AR 36 grs.
On Seleucid coins attributable to Ilium see von Fritze, p. 480; Maonald in J. H. S., 1903, p. 102.
|Head of Athena.||ΙΛΙ, Vase.|
∆ size .4
|Id.|| Ą Athena Ilias standing, or advancing (often the cultus-statue on basis).|
|Head of Athena, facing.|| Ą Athena Ilias with spear, advancing.|
|Head of Athena.||ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΙΛΙΑΔΟΣ Athena Ilias standing with distaff and spear. Magistratesí names, and symbols.|
|Id.||ΙΛΙ Athena Ilias advancing.|
∆ Various sizes.
ImperialóAugustus to Valerian. Also quasi-autonomous. Inscr. ΙΛΙ, ΙΛΙΕΩΝ. Types: Athena Ilias. Statue of Athena Ilias in temple (von Fritze, No. 58). Man stabbing ox, which is suspended from tree; in front, statue of Athena (a sacrificial ceremonyóairesthai kai trachaelxeinαιρεσθαι και τραχηλξειν: see von Fritze, p. 514). Ox approaching statue of Athena. ΕΚΤΩΡ (Hektor) in chariot; trampling on Patroklos; advancing with torch. Aphrodite and Anchises. Flight of Aeneas. ΠΡΙΑΜΟC seated. ΔΑΡΔΑΝΟC seated, and maiden (Bateia). ΔΙΑ ΙΔΑΙΟΝ ΙΛΙΕΙC Zeus Idaios holding statue of Athena Ilias. Ganymede. Judgment of Paris. ΕΙΛΟC sacrificing to Athena Ilias. Apollo ΕΚΑΤΟΣ leaning on tripod, holding branch. River-god CΚΑΜΑΝΔΡΟC. Wolf and Twins. Busts of ΘΕΑ ΡΩΜΗ and the Senate. Some of these types may represent monuments that actually existed in Ilium: see Kubitschek, in Jahreshefte oesterr. arch. Inst., i. 184.
Lamponeia. In the neighborhood of Assus and Gargara (BMC Troas, p. xxxviii).
|Head of bearded Dionysos.||ΛΑΜ Bullís head facing.|
AR 59 grs.
|Id.|| Ą Id.|
AR 29 grs.
|Id.|| Ą Id.|
AR 9 grs.
|Head of bearded Dionysos.||ΛΑΜ Id.; above, kantharos or grapes.|
Neandria, on Mount Chigri (BMC Troas, p. xxiii). Its inhabitants were transplanted to Antigoneia (Alexandreia Troas), circ. B.C. 310.
|Head of Apollo. [N. C., 1902, p. 331.]||ΝΕΑΝ Altar, behind which, laurel-tree: inc. sq.|
AR 28.9 grs.
|Id. [N. C., 1896, p. 93.]|| Ą Ram standing, biting leaves o f laurel-branch: inc. sq.|
AR 30 grs.
|Id.|| Ą Ram standing: inc. sq.|
AR 7.6 grs.
|Id.|| Ą Horse feeding: inc. sq.|
AR 28.8 grs.
|Id. [Indent. Wadd., No. 1192.]||ΝΕΑ Triskeles.|
AR 24 grs.
|Crested helmet (?).||ΝΕΑΝ Corn-grain: incuse circle.|
AR 5.5 grs.
|Head of Apollo.|| Ą Corn-grain and grapes.|
|Id.|| Ą Corn-grain.|
|Id.|| Ą Horse feeding; in ex., corn-grain.|
Ophrynium (Renkioi), a small town between Dardanus and Rhoeteium, with a grove sacred to Hektor. (BMC Troas, p. xxx f.)
|Head of Hektor, in crested helmet, facing.||ΟΦΡΥΝΕΩΝ Naked youth on horse, holding branch.|
AR 44 and 21 grs., and ∆ .6
|Id.||ΟΦΡΥ Infant Dionysos holding grapes.|
|Bearded head (Zeus ?).||ΟΦΡΥ Hektor advancing; also crouching behind shield.|
Pionia, founded by Pionis, one of the Herakleidae. Imperialó Hadrian to Sept. Severus and family. Also quasi-autonomous, Hadrian to Caracalla. Inscr. ΠΙΟΝΙΤΩΝ. Types: Herakles; Artemis; Athena; Asklepios; Serpent on altar (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 509; cf. p. 41); Emperor crowned by Nike. Magistrate: Strategos.
Rhoeteium stood at the entrance of the Hellespont, north of Ilium. (BMC Troas, p. xxxi f.)
|Head of Apollo.
[Invent. Wadd., No. 1198.]
|ΡΟ ΙΤ ΕΙ in the spaces between three crescents, arranged in the form of a triskeles.|
AR 48 grs.
Scamandria, a small place on the Scamander, which river took its rise in Mount Ida. (BMC Troas, p. xxxii; Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 42 f.)
|Head of mountain-nymph, Ide, wreathed with fir.||ΣΚΑ Fir-tree.|
|Head of Ide; sometimes with ΙΔΗ.|| Ą Pine-cone.|
|Head of Apollo (?).
[Imhoof-Blumer KM p. 43.]
|ΣΚΑ Apollo standing; in front, boar's head; behind, fir.|
Scepsis (Kourshounli-tepeh) on the Scamander. In B.C. 310 its inhabitants were removed to Antigoneia (Alexandreia Troas), but were afterwards allowed to return home by Lysimachus. (Imhoof-Blumer KM, pp. 42-46, with reference to Judeichís ĎScepsisí in Kiepert-Festschrift, p. 225 f.; BMC Troas, p. xxiii.)
|ΣΚΑΨΙΟΝ Forepart of horse.||Fir-tree in dotted square, sometimes with inscr. ΝΕ (= neaνεα, New Scepsis?):|
all in incuse square.
AR 12.2 grs.
|Ą Forepart of winged Pegasos.||ΝΕ Fir-tree in square: incuse square.|
AR 33 grs.
|ΣΚΗΨΙΟΝ Id.||Ν Id.|
AR 58.8 grs.; also 99 grs. (cf. Imhoof MG, p. 265).
|ΣΚΗΨΙ Pegasos flying.
[Imhoof MG, p. 627.]
|Ν Fir-tree in linear and dotted square: incuse square.|
AR 15 grs.
|Fir-tree.|| in incuse square.|
|Forepart of winged Pegasos.||Fir-tree in linear and dotted square: incuse square.|
|Forepart of winged Pegasus.||ΣΚΗΨΙΩΝ Fir-tree in linear square: Incuse square. |
AR 49 grs.
|Forepart of winged Pegasos ending in horn.||ΣΚΗ Fir-tree.|
AR 19 grs.
|Id.||Fir-tree within square.|
|Id.||ΣΚΗ or ΣΚ Fir-tree within square: various symbols.|
|Head of Dionysos.||ΣΚ Thyrsos.|
|Head of Dionysos, horned, bearded, and wearing kalathos.||ΣΚΗ Eagle: all in oak-wreath.|
|Similar head. [Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 45.]||ΑΝΤΗΝΟΡΟΣ Head of horse.|
ImperialóAugustus to Maximinus. Also quasi-autonomous. Inscr. CΚΗΨΙΩΝ; CΚΗΨΙΩΝ ΔΑΡΔΑΝΙΩΝ, or abbreviation. Types: Bust of Dionysos in kalathos holding kantharos and pomegranate; Same Dionysos seated on throne between two oxen (Imhoof MG, p. 629); Young Dionysos; Forepart of winged Pegasos; ΖЄVC ЄΙΔΑΙΟC standing; Aphrodite and Eros; Nike; Flight of Aeneas; Judgment of Paris on Mount ΙΔΗ (Z. f. N., x. p. 155; Imh., Gr. M., p. 630); ΑCΚΑΝΙΟC standing (Invent. Wadd.); CΚΑΜΑΝΔΡΟC reclining. Tree and eagle (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 46). Magistrate, (rarely) Strategos.
Sigeium, at the entrance of the Hellespont, belonged in early times to Athens, and had a temple of Athena. Its coins chiefly date from the period B.C. 355-334, when the Athenian general Chares, son of Theochares, was despot of the place, and the types of the coins are unmistakably Athenian. (Six, in N. C., 1894, p. 306 f.) In the second century B.C., or earlier, Sigeium had ceased to have an independent existence (BMC Troas, xxxiii f.).
|Head of Athena facing.||ΣΙΓΕ Owl; behind, crescent.|
AR 39.6 grs.
|Id.|| Ą Id.|
|Id.|| Ą Owl with double body, and crescent.|
|Head of Athena r.|| Ą Owl facing: also with rev. crescent.|
|Head of Zeus.|| Ą Owl.|
∆ .4[Leake, Num Hell., p. 115.]
On Alexandrine tetradrachms attributed by MŁller to Sigeium, see BMC Troas, p. xxxiii.
Thymbra, south-east of Ilium, with a temple of Apollo Thymbraeos (BMC Troas, p. xxxiv).
|Head of Zeus Ammon, bearded.||ΘΥ between rays of a star.|
|Head of Athena. [N. C., 1896, p. 23.]||ΘΥ Torch; all in olive-wreath.|
Zeleia, on the river Aesepus. Artemis and the temple of Apollo are mentioned in an inscription (BMC Troas, p. xliv).
|Head of Artemis, wearing stephanos.||ΖΕΛΕ Stag standing.|
|Id.|| Ą and : whole in corn-wreath.|
∆ .4[Cat. Allier, Pl. XIII. 20.]
See also an electrum stater of earlier date, described under Unattributed Electrum (infra).
Tenedos. The island of Tenedos appears to have been from very early times a mint of considerable importance. The series of its silver coinage begins before the Persian wars, and follows, apparently, at first the Phocaic standard, which tends to assimilate itself to the EuboÔc.
|Janiform head (male and female).||Quadripartite incuse square|
AR 28.7 grs.[Tenedos ?; cf. BMC Troas, p. 91, note.]
|Janiform head (male and female).
[BMC Troas, cf. Z. f. N., xx. p. 275.]
|ΤΕNΕ or ΤΕNΕΔΙΟN Double-axe (pelekus πελεκυς): incuse square.|
AR 138 grs.; 29 grs.; 8 grs.
|Janiform head (male and female).
[Z. f. N., xx. p. 274, No. 1.]
|ΤΕΝΕΔΙΟΝ Double-axe; on r., amphora attached to the axe by a taenia: incuse square.|
AR 243 grs.
|Id. [Z. f. N., xx. p. 274, No. 2; Hunter Cat., ii. p. 304.]||ΤΕΝΕ Double-axe upright on three steps and resting on supports: incuse square.|
AR 118 grs.
|Janiform head, beardless (male and female). [BMC Troas, Pl. XVII. 4.]||ΤΕNΕ Head of Athena: incuse square.|
AR 125.2 grs.
|Janiform head (female and male); fine style.||ΤΕΝΕ Double-axe: incuse square.|
AR 26 grs.
|Janiform head (male, laureate, and female).||ΤΕΝΕΔΙΟΝ Double-axe; in field, grapes and various symbols: incuse square.|
AR 228 grs.; 55 grs.
|Female head (Artemis ?).||ΤΕ Double-axe.|
∆ Size .4-.3
|Janiform head (male, laur., and female in stephane). (Fig. 288.)||ΤΕΝΕΔΙΩΝ Double-axe; on l., grapes; on r., various symbols: whole in laurel-wreath.|
AR 258 grs.; 62 grs.
ImperialóAugustus. Obv. Head of Augustus; symbol, double-axe. Rev. ΤΕΝΕ Head of Apollo (Imhoof MG, p. 270).
The double-axe, pelekus πελεκυς, was the well-known badge of Tenedos, but its significance was much disputed in antiquity (see Maonald, Coin Types, p. 68, and BMC Troas, p. xlvi f.). Aristotleís explanation (ap. Steph. Byz. s. v. Τενεδος) of the Tenedian coin-types as representing the axe with which a royal law-giver of Tenedos punished adulterersó and his own sonóis not now likely to find acceptance. (On Professor Ridgewayís view that the axe on the coins is the representative of a primitive barter-currency of axes conjectured by him to have existed at Tenedos, see BMC Troas, p. xlvii note.) It will he noticed that on the coins, from circ. B.C. 420, the double-axe is accompanied by a bunch of grapes as a constant symbol (once an amphora is attached by a fillet to the axe), a circumstance that suggests that at any rate from the fifth century B.C. the double-axe at Tenedos was regarded as an attribute or cultus-object of Dionysos who may have been worshipped as at Pherae in Thessaly (see supra, p. 308) as Dionysos Peleko sΠελεκος (see Wroth, BMC Troas, p. xlvii; N. C., 1897, p. 113 f.; cf. Rhein. Mus., 1897, p. 203; cf. also p. 406). A similar inference may be drawn from the coins on which the axe appears upon a basis. With regard to the janiform head of the obverse, it may be remarked that such heads are not peculiar to Tenedos (cf. Lampsacus, etc.), and their explanation is difficult. Here, perhaps, Zeus and Hera are intended, at any rate on the later coins (BMC Troas, p. xlviii). On the Tenedian coin-types see also Babelon, Traitť, p. 370 ff.
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Troas - a Roman colony.
See Alexandria Troas.