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Babelon, E. Les Perses Achménides, pp. lxxxix-cxiii, 63-82, 1893.
Babelon, E. Inventaire de la Coll. Waddington, pp. 153-177, 1898.
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
Cohen, E. Dated Coins of Antiquity: A comprehensive catalogue of the coins and how their numbers came about. (Lancaster, PA, 2011).
Fellows, C. Coins of Ancient Lycia. (London, 1855).
Heipp-Tamer, C. Die Münzprägung der lykischen Stadt Phaselis in griechischer Zeit. (Saarbrücker, 1993).
Hill, G. A Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, Lycia, Pamphylia, and Pisidia. (London, 1897).
Hurter, S. "A New Lycian Coin Type: Kherêi, Not Kuperlis" in INJ 14 (2000-2).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Lindgren, H & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coinage of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
Noe, S. "A Lycian Hoard" in Centennial Publication of the American Numismatic Society. (New York, 1958).
Mionnet, T. Description de Médailles antiques grecques et romaines, Supp. VII. Lycia. (Paris, 1809).
Mørkholm, O. "The Classification of Lycian coins before Alexander the Great" in JNG XIV (1964).
Müseler, W. Lykische Münzen in europäischen Privatsammlungen. (Istanbul, 2016).
Olçay, N. & O. Mørkholm. "The Coin Hoard from Podalia" in NC 1971.
Price, M. The Coinage of in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. (London, 1991).
Price, M. & N. Waggoner. Archaic Greek Silver Coinage, The "Asyut" Hoard. (London, 1975).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
Six, J. Monnaies lyciennes, R. N., 1886, 1887.
Spier, J. "Lycian coins in the 'Decadrachm hoard '" in I. Carradice, ed. Coinage and Administration in the Athenian and Persian Empires. BAR 343 (Oxford, 1987).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Volume 6: Phrygia to Cilicia. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 6: Phrygien-Kappadokien; Römische Provinzprägungen in Kleinasien. (Berlin, 1998).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia. (Berlin, 1962).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part II: Asia Minor except Karia. (Helsinki, 1999).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Leake and General Collections, Part 7: Asia Minor: Lycia-Cappadocia. (London, 1967).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey 1: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, United States, Burton Y. Berry Collection. (New York, 1961-1962).
Troxell, H. The Coinage of the Lycian League, NNM 162. (New York, 1982).
Vismara, N. Monetazione arcaica in elettro dell 'Asia Minore nelle Civiche Raccolte Numismatiche, donazione Winsemann Falghera. (Milan, 1993).
Waggoner, N. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen (ANS ACNAC 5). (New York, 1983).
The coinage of Lycia confirms in a most striking manner the testimony of ancient writers, especially Strabo, with regard to the Federal constitution of the country. Among no other ancient people do we find Federal institutions so wisely framed and so firmly rooted as among the Lycians. Although the majority of the early coins represent individual dynasts, it is clear that there existed some sort of federation between these rulers, more or less under Persian suzerainty. The abundant coinage testifies to the great prosperity of the country in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. The distinctive symbol on the money of the various cities which took part in this Federal coinage is the Triskeles or so-called Triquetra, which sometimes takes the form of a tetraskeles or of a diskeles. Various hypotheses have been advanced as to the intention of this strange symbol (Bab., Tr., ii. 510 f.). The most reasonable is that which has been put forward by L. Müller, that it is a solar emblem symbolizing rotatory motion. In this case it would refer to the worship of the
1 Det saakaldte Hagekors 's Anvendelse og Betydning, Copenhagen, 1877.national Lycian deity, Apollo Αυκιος, the God of Light. The animal types—Boars, Winged lions, Griffins, Bulls, &c.—must remain for the most part unexplained. (but the boar was associated with Apollo). The Lycian silver money falls into the following classes. The weight-standard is the Babylonic, but shows considerable irregularity, and a tendency to fall to the Euboïc standard, the staters weighing from about 155 to under 120 grains. The staters are divided into thirds (tetrobols), sixths (diobols), &c., but also occasionally into halves (drachms).
AR Staters and diobols. Rev. Inc. sq., at first rude, then decorated with lines, letters, and in one case with bull 's head within radiating pattern (Babelon, Perses Achém, Pl. XI. 6). Obv. types: Boar, Forepart or Head of boar, Forepart of winged boar; on shoulder, sometimes, Greek letters (ΠV, ΜΘ, ΚVΒ), the last of which probably represent Κυ βερνις, son of Kossikas (Hdt. vii. 98). Babelon, Traité, ii. Pl. XXI.
AR Staters, tetrobols, diobols. Obv. types: Boar, Forepart of boar, Bull kneeling, Lion standing with head reverted, Sphinx, Winged female figure, Helmeted head. Rev. Inc. sq.; Lion 's head in profile or facing, Eagle 's Head, Tortoise, Forepart of kneeling bull, Head and neck of bull, Bull 's head facing between + +, Ram 's head, Crab, Forepart of griffin, Head of Ares, Bearded head. Babelon, Tr., ii. Pl. XXII.
AR Staters, tetrobols, diobols. Obv. types: Boar, Forepart of boar, Two foreparts of boars conjoined, Crab. Rev. Inc. sq.; Triskeles, Triskeles on shield, behind which two diskeles crossed. A small triskeles, or Lycian letters (Χ, ΠΟ, &c.) often occur on the animal 's flank or in field. Babelon, Tr., ii. Pl. XXII.
This series includes the remaining coins with the triskeles or its modifications (except those given in Series V), and a series with heads of deities and dynasts. A number of the Lycian inscriptions which now appear have been identified as the names of cities or dynasts. The legends are frequently retrograde. Vol. I of the Tituli Asiae Minoris (ed. Kalinka, Vienna 1901) contains a nearly complete vocabulary and all the latest material for the study of the language; for many of the dynasts mentioned on the coins see especially the account of the Xanthian stele (op. cit., p. 46). Only a selection of the types, without reference to denominations, can be given here. The rev. is, unless otherwise stated, in an incuse square.
|Head of Athena (showing Attic influence).||Inc. sq. or circle: Head of bearded dynast in Persian dress, inscr. ↓↑ΡΕ, ↓↑Ρ+↑, or ↓↑ΡΕ ΡΞΝ+↑ (Arñnahä, 'of Xanthus '), sometimes with symbol ; Bull; Forepart of man-headed bull; Large , inscr. ↓↑Ρ ΤΛFΕ (Tlavi, 'Tlos ').|
|between two cocks on shield.||↓↑Ρ or ↓ΑΡΕ Eagle and .|
|Head of Aphrodite.||↓↑ΡΕ Owl.|
|Winged and horned lion (from die used also by Kuprlli).||↓ΑΙDΕVΑ Triskeles (Maonald, Hunter Cat., ii.
497. 1). |
|Head of Athena.||↓↑ΡΕ Bearded head of Ares; or Head of Athena.|
|Id.||↓↑ΡΕ ΡΞΝ+↑ (Arñnahä, 'of Xanthus ') Athena seated on rock.|
|Head of Aphrodite.||↓↑ΡΕ F↑+ΞΤ↑ΖΕ (Vähñtäzi, 'of Antiphellus ') Owl in ring of tetraskeles.|
The later style and fabric of the following coins induce me to class them to a more recent period than any of those which I have described above. They are characterized by their flatter and larger flans, and by the gradual disappearance of the well-marked incuse square, which is present on all the earlier Lycian series. The coinage doubtless ended with the acquisition of Lycia by Mausolus in 362 B.C. The silver does not show the degradation towards the Attic weight which is found in Series IV, but conforms more rigidly to the Babylonic standard. Bronze now first appears. The following are the more important varieties :—
|Lion 's scalp.||Inc. sq. or circle, Π↑ΡΕΚΛ↑ Triskeles with symbols in field. |
AR Staters, Tetrobols.
|Head of young Pan, Goat, or Forepart of goat.||Π↑ΡΕΚΛ Triskeles. |
On his march from Caria into Pisidia Alexander reduced Lycia under his sway, and from this time down to the date of the defeat of Antiochus by the Romans, B.C. 190, the country was subject successively to the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae.
Of coins of Alexander 's types few, if any, seem to have been struck in this district except at Phaselis, q. v. The triskeles is, however, found on bronze coins of the types of Alexander and of the Macedonian interregnum, which provenance shows to be Lycian. Telmessus also issued a bronze coin in the time of Ptolemy I. Coins of Rhodes and of the Ptolemies, &c., circulated (cf. J. H. S., xv, p. 114). After the defeat of Antiochus the Romans in 188 gave Lycia (except Telmessus) to the Rhodians. A few of the cities may have begun to issue small bronze coins early in the second century, but with the exceptions noted no coins were produced in the country during all this period.
In B.C. 168 the Romans restored to the Lycians their full freedom, and the Lycian towns now formed themselves into an independent League under Roman auspices (Livy, xliv. 15; Polyb., xxx. 5), which lasted until the reign of Claudius, A. D. 43, who made the country into a province with Pamphylia.
The coinage of this new Lycian League has much in common with the contemporary coinage of the Achaean League in Peloponnesus. It consists of silver drachms (κιθαρηφοροι) and hemidrachms (?) of degraded Rhodian weight—characterized by the reappearance of a sharply defined incuse square on the reverse—and of several varieties of bronze.
|Head of Apollo Αυκιος, laureate (or sometimes wearing taenia), bow and quiver at shoulder; after about B.C. 81 the hair is in formal curls; on either side usually Λ—Υ.||Flat, sharply defined incuse square, within which a lyre and, usually, initials of mint with ΛΥΚΙΩΝ (or abbreviation). |
AR Drachms 45 grs.(usually much lighter)
|Head of Artemis, with bow and quiver at her shoulder.||Similar, but quiver instead of lyre.
AR ½ drachm (?) 13 grs.
The Federal bronze coinage is more varied than the silver, the prevalent types being, on the obv., Heads of Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, &c.; on rev., Apollo standing, Lyre, Tripod, Stag, Bow and quiver crossed, Quiver, Caduceus, &c. The inscription consists of the initials of the city or district, with or without ΛΥΚΙΩΝ. The coins without any indication of mint were probably struck at Xanthus. The two great districts, Cragus and Masicytes, were united for monetary purposes and struck coins for general circulation; the initials of the various cities were also often combined with those of Cragus or Masicytes according to the district to which they belonged. The following 22 cities are known to have taken part in the currency of the League: in the Cragus district, Telmessus, Pinara, Sidyma, Tlos, Xanthus, Patara, Dias; in the Masicytes district, Myra, Cyaneae, Ty(benissus) or Ty(mena), Arycanda, Antiphellus, Phellus, Aperlae, Apollonia; in other districts, Limyra. Gagae, Rhodiapolis, Olympus (?), Trebenna, Oenoanda, Bubon (?). Strabo (xiv. 664) says that there were twenty-three towns in the confederacy. A change in the style of the coins is noticeable about B.C. 81, when Murena reorganized the country, and some new cities were added to the League. The last coinage of the League includes light Rhodian drachms and denarii, with the portraits of Augustus and Claudius; inscr., ΛΥ; types—one or two lyres, Apollo, Artemis, &c.; also bronze of Claudius, without ΛΥ; types—Goddess of Myra in temple, Apollo standing, &c. (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, pp. 21 f., 170). The coinage of denarii was even continued, after the dissolution of the League by Claudius, under Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan, with the Emperors ' titles in Greek, ΥΠΑΤΟΥ ΙΖ, ΔΗΜ. ЄΞ. ΥΠΑΤ. Β., &c. The Imperial coinage of the Lycian towns belongs almost exclusively to the reign of Gordian and Tranquillina.
Acalissus (Giauristan-lik). Imperial of Gordian. Inscr., ΑΚΑΛΙCCЄWΝ, Horseman galloping (Rev. Num., 1853, 90). Helen between Dioskuri; Herakles standing.
Antiphellus (Andifilo), on the coast opposite Megiste. Æ of second century B.C.; inscr., ΑΝΤΙΦΕΛΛΙΤΩΝ or ΑΝΤ; Head of Apollo, Veiled head, Dolphin. Federal Æ. ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΑΝ, and Imperial of Gordian, ΑΝΤΙΦЄΛΛЄΙΤΩΝ, Tyche.
Arycanda (Aruf). Æ of second century; inscr., ΑΡ; Radiate head (Sozou ?), Apollo sacrificing. Federal AR (?) and Æ. ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΑΡ or ΑΡΥ. Imperial—Gordian, Tranquillina, ΑΡΥΚΑΝΔЄWΝ, Tyche, Herakles, Horseman-deity (Sozon ?), Naked Warrior, Eagle on boar 's head, &c.
Balbura (Katara). Autonomous Æ of second century B.C. Inscr. ΒΑΛΒΟΥΡΕΩΝ. Types: Head of Demeter, rev. Ear of corn; Head of Athena, rev. Owl on helmet; Head of Zeus, rev. Club; Eagle on thunderbolt; Caduceus; &c. Imperial of Caligula, ΒΑΛΒΟΥΡΕWΝ, Herakles, Hermes.
Cadyanda (Üzümlü). Autonomous Æ. Inscr., ΚΑΔΥ. Xoanon; and federal Æ; ΛΥΚΙ ΚΑ (this may belong to Calynda or Candyba).
Choma in the Milyas. Autonomous Æ of first century B.C., ΧΩ or ΧΩΜ, Head of Zeus and horseman; and Imperial of Gordian, ΧWΜΑΤЄΙΤWΝ, Armed horseman (Sozon ?).
Cragus (District). Federal AR and Æ. ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΚΡΑΓ or abbreviations, often combined with initials of Dias (ΔΙ), Patara (ΠΑ), Telmessus (ΤΕΛ), Tlos (ΤΛ or ΤΛW) or Xanthus (ΞΑΝ).
Limyra on the Limyrus (Duden-Su). Æ of early second century, ΛΙ or ΛΙΜΥΡΕΩΝ; Head of Apollo, Thunderbolt. Federal AR and AE ΛΥΚΙΩΝ (or ΛΥΚΙ) ΛΙ. Imperial of Gordian and Tranquillina, ΛΙΜΥΡЄWΝ, Zeus seated, Athena, Tyche, Bull and dog at oracular fountain, ΧΡΗCΜΟC (cf. Plin., N. H., xxxi. 22), River-god ΛΙΜΥΡΟC.
Olympus, on the east coast at the foot of Mount Olympus. Federal (?) AR, ΟΛΥΜ or ΟΛΥΜΠΗ; Æ, Head of Athena and thunderbolt; Imperial of Gordian and Tranquillina, ΟΛΥΜΠΗΝWΝ. Hephaestos forging shield; Apollo resting on column.
Patara (Gelemish). Federal AR and Æ, ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΠΑ, ΠΑ ΚΡ, ΠΑΤΑΡΕΩΝ. Imperial of Gordian and Tranquillina: Nymph seated and Dionysos (?) standing; Apollo shooting; Apollo with eagle and serpent twining round tripod; Herakles and Antaeos, &c. Alliance coins of Gordian with Myra: ΠΑΤΑΡЄWΝ ΜΥΡЄWΝ ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ, Temple of Apollo and Artemis; or of Tyche.
Phaselis (Tekirova), a town of Dorian origin on the east coast, has a history and coinage distinct from the rest of Lycia. Its chief type, the galley, may be a type parlant (see Forcellini, s. v. phaselus).
|Prow of galley, in shape of forepart of boar.||Inc. sq. [Maonald, Hunter Cat., ii,
Pl. LVII. 19] sometimes divided by
irregular bands and divisions.
AR Persic stater and divisions.
|Θ Male figure wrestling with human-headed bull (Herakles and Acheloos ?).||Prow of galley; below, dolphin; incuse square |
AR Persic stater.
|..... ΙΤ.. Lyre.||Id. |
AR Persic stater.
|Prow of galley in shape of forepart of boar.||ΦΑΣ Stern of galley. Inc. sq.
AR Persic stater and third.
|Forepart of Pegasos.||Prow of galley. Inc. sq. |
AR 12.3 grs.
During its membership of the Athenian confederacy, Phaselis appears to have issued no coins.
|Prow of galley. [Maonald, Hunter Cat., Pl. LVII. 21.]||ΦΑΣΗ Stern of galley and magistrate 's
AR Stater 153.2 grs.
|Prow of galley.||ΦΑΣΗ Stern of galley. |
|Id. ΦΑΣΗ [Imhoof, Kl. M., Pl. X. 7.]||Φ Palladium to front. |
During the earlier part of this period, until 204, Phaselis belonged to the Ptolemies; towards the end it probably issued the Alexandrine tetradrachms with Φ, dated Α to ΛΑ (Müller, 1178-1195; Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 308).
|Head of Apollo.
[Babelon, Inv. Wadd., Pl. VII. 10.]
|ΦΑ ΑΡΚΕΣΙΛΑΟΣ Athena holding
AR Attic stater.
|Id.||Φ Athena with thunderbolt, aegis, and serpent, standing on prow; magistrates ' names.
AR Staters 171 grs. or less.
|Id. [Brandis, p. 492.]||Stern of galley; magistrate 's name ΜΝΑΣΙ. |
AR Stater 167 grs.
|Prow, surmounted by head of Helios, or jugate busts of Ptolemy IV and Arsinoë (?). [Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 327.]||ΦΑΣΗ Stern of galley, and magistrates '
AR Staters 152 grs., &c.
|Owl on prow.||Φ Athena with thunderbolt and aegis;
magistrates ' names.
AR Drachm 88 grs.
|Head of Athena.||ΦΑ Prow. |
AR ½ Drachm 37.3 grs.
|Id.||ΦΑ Prow; monogram. |
During the earliest period of the League, Phaselis, like Olympus, struck coins of Federal types, reading ΦΑΣΗΛΙ, but without ΛΥΚΙΩΝ; it was probably, however, not a member of the League (Strabo, xiv. 667).
To the same period belong the following :—
|Prow.||ΦΑΣΗ Stern of galley. Inc. sq.
AR 40.1 grs.
|Id.||Φ Athena with thunderbolt and aegis, letters Α, Β, Є. |
Imperial of Gordian; inscr., ΦΑCΗΛ(Є)ΙΤWΝ. Types—Female cultus-figure, veil supported by Erotes, with small figure at her feet; Athena; Galley; etc.
Phellus (Baindyr ?). Federal Æ, ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΦΕ, and Imperial of Gordian. ΦЄΛΛЄΙΤWΝ, Female figure holding flower; Aphrodite, veiled, holding apple.
Podalia (in the Milyas). Imperial of Tranquillina, ΠΟΔΑΛΙWΤWΝ, Ares standing.Sidyma (Dodurgar-Assari). Federal AR: ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΣΙ [Rev. Num., 1902, p. 81].
|Head of Alexander the Great with ram 's horn. [Brit. Mus.]||ΤΕΛΕΜΗΣΣΕΩΝ Panther; above, monogram of ΠΤ (for Ptolemy?). |
Antiochus III possessed the city from about B.C. 196 to 189. To this time belongs the following coin :—
|Head of Helios, radiate, facing.||ΤΕΛΜΗΣ or ΤΕΛΕΜΗΣ Apollo seated on omphalos, holding arrow and bow. |
After belonging to Pergamum from B.C. 189 to 133, it became independent, and struck small Æ (size .45) with head of Hermes, rev. ΤΕΛ, Fly in incuse square. It probably joined the League about B.C. 81. Federal AR, inscr., ΛΥ ΤΕ ΚΡ, and Æ, inscr., ΛΥ ΤΕΛ ΚΡ or ΤΕΛ ΛΥ.
Termessus Minor (ad Oenoanda), a colony of the Pisidian Termessus. (See N. Chr., 1897, pp. 25 ff.)
|Bust of Hermes.||Eagle on caduceus. |
|Bust of Artemis.||Hermes standing. |
|Id.||Humped bull. |
|Head of Apollo.||Lyre. |
|Head of Zeus with sceptre.||Winged thunderbolt. |
Tlos (Duver). Federal AR (ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΤΛ, ΤΛΩ ΚΡ, ΤΛ ΚΡ) and AE (ΤΛΩΕΩΝ, ΤΛ or ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΤΛ, ΛΥ ΚΡ ΤΛΩ). Imperial of Gordian; inscr., ΤΛWЄWΝ. Types—Nike; Tyche; Warrior fighting or sacrificing; Mounted deity.
Xanthus. Æ of second century B.C. Head of Apollo, rev. ΞΑΝΘΙΩΝ Lyre. The federal coins without mint-name were probably struck here : AR kitharephoroi, &c., and Æ Head of Helios facing, rev. ΛΥΚΙΩΝ Chimaera, &c.; also ordinary federal AR and Æ: ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΞΑ, ΛΥ ΚΡΞΑΝ, ΞΑΝ ΚΡ.