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Haeberlin, E. J. Aes Grave. Das Schwergeld Roms und Mittelitaliens. (Frankfurt, 1910).
Sydenham, Edward A. Aes Grave, a Study of the Cast Coinages of Rome and Central Italy. (London, 1926).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Bibliothθque Nationale, Cabinet des Mιdailles, Vol. 6, Part 1: Italy (Etruria - Calabria). (Paris, 2003).
Thurlow, B. and I. Vecchi. Italian Cast Coinage. (Dorchester, 1979).
Vecchi, I. Italian Cast Coinage. (London, 2013).
The coinage of Latium may be divided into two classes: 1st, Cast coins, consisting of aes grave uninscribed but usually found in Central Italy and chiefly in Latium; 2nd, Struck coins, AR of the towns of Alba Fucens and Signia, and Ζ of Aquinum.
According to Haeberlin (op. cit.) it comprises the following series:
(i) The Latin Wheel Series. Tressis to Sextans.
|Tressis. Head of Roma.
|Semis. Bull galloping.
|Triens. Horse cantering.
|Quadrans. Hound running.
|As. Head of Roma.
|Reverses same as Obverses.|
|Semis. Head of Athena (?) |
|Triens. Fulmen. |
|Quadrans. Hand. |
|Sextans. Cockle-shell. |
|Uncia. Astragalos. |
|Semuncia. Acorn. |
|As. Head of Janus.
|Head of Mercury. |
|Semis. Female head.
|Head of Athena. (?) |
|Quadrans. Two corn-grains.
|Uncia. No type.
|As. Head of Apollo.||Reverses same as Obverses.|
|Semis. Pegasos. |
|Triens. Horse 's head. |
|Quadrans. Running Boar. |
|Sextans. Young head in pilos. |
|Uncia. Corn-grain. |
(vi) Heavy Janus-Mercury Series. Similar to Series iii, but without symbol. Cast on the standard of the pound of 327 grm. As to Uncia. This last series (vi) is assigned by Haeberlin to the mint of Rome itself. The previous series (i-v) he gives to the Roman mint at Capua, owing to the fact that several types and adjunct symbols are common both to these series of aes grave and to the Romano-Campanian didrachms struck at Capua (see infra, p. 33):
There are, in addition to the above-mentioned cast bronze coins chiefly of Central Italy, many other similar pieces described and engraved by Garrucci, the attribution of which to special districts is not yet proved. It is unnecessary in the present work to enumerate their various types and marks of value.
These bricks or bars of bronze are contemporary with the preceding series of aes grave, and were issued by Rome, according to Haeberlin, at her mint in Capua for the bronze-using peoples of Central Italy. Series i-iv, B.C. 312-286; and Series v-ix, B.C. 286-268.
|(i) Eagle with spread wings on fulmen.||ROMANOM Pegasos galloping.|
|(ii) Oval shield with elongated boss.||Inner side of oval shield with straps in form of cross.|
|(iv) Ear of corn.||Tripod.|
|(vii) Two cocks face to face, with two stars.||Two dolphins between two rostra (not tridents).|
These quadrilateral ingots are very irregular in weight, ranging from about 1,830 to 1,142 grm. They can hardly therefore have been intended to represent exact multiples of the As. They may not even have been regarded as coins, although, as Haeberlin has pointed out, their types suggest a correspondence with the regular series of coins. They may have been meant for all those purposes which the obsolete aes rude had served, such for instance as dedications to the gods, etc.
Chronologically the ingot with the Elephant is the most important of all, as it cannot be earlier than the defeat of Pyrrhus (B.C. 275) who first introduced elephants into Italy.
2. Struck coins of Latium (see A. Sambon, Italie, p. 95).
Alba Fucens. This town was occupied by a Roman colony in B.C. 303. It was between this date and B.C. 263 that it struck silver money.
|Head of Hermes.||ABA Griffin. |
AR 18.3 grs.
|Head of Athena.|| Eagle on fulmen |
AR 8.3 grs.
|Head of Athena.||AQVINO Cock and Star. |
Ζ Size .8
Similar coins were struck at Cales, Sues sa Aurunca, Caiatia, Telesia, Teanum, and at least one other town, doubtless by permission of the Romans. This uniformity of types suggests a monetary alliance. With the Cock and Star cf. the two cocks and two stars on the oblong bronze bar mentioned above.
|Head of Apollo.||CORANO Horseman armed with spear
(Corolla Num., Pl. IV, 8). |
AR 98 grs.
|KORANO Head of Apollo.||Man-headed bull crowned by Victory. |
Ζ Size .8
Concerning these two remarkable coins, which are undoubtedly of Campanian fabric, see Mommsen-Blacas, i. p. 259.
|Head of Hermes.||SEIC Mask of Seilenos and head of boar
AR 9 grs.