The Age of Gallienus
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Class A Folles
Armenian Numismatics Page
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Denarii of Otho
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC - Rarity Tables
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Facing Portrait of Augustus
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Maps of the Ancient World
Museum Collections Available Online
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Excellence Award
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Transparent glass bowl of fruit from wall painting
in Bedroom M of the Villa Boscoreale, an ancient
Roman villa, located in the town of Boscoreale,
about two kilometers outside Pompeii in Campania.
Ancient Glass for sale at Forum Ancient Coins
Ancient Glass on the Classical Numismatics Discussion
Ancient glass making spans a period from 1500 B.C. to 500 A.D., and Egypt and the Mesopotamian region had workshops from the beginning of this period. Important manufacturers rose to prominence in the period from 1400-800 B.C. The exceptional glass production during the Egyptian XVII Dynasty is classified as magnificent. Vases, flasks, amphoriskoi, goblets, and jugs are among the types of multicolored vessels made. Beads and inlays were used on King Tutankhamen's mask. This is one of the high points of glass making in ancient times.
Achaemenid glass production was elaborate, with amphoriskoi, alabastra, and glass beads being made during the 6th century B.C. on the Syrian coast.
The Augustan age of the Roman empire starts the beginning of glass production in the modern sense. The invention of the blowpipe in Sidonian Phoenicia marks this turning point in glass production. Output could be increased a thousandfold with the introduction of new, exciting shapes. This technique quickly spread to Italy, and then throughout the empire. Roman glass was so popular that most Romans owned glass objects of some kind, and therefore much of it has survived to be available today at reasonable prices. Roman glass tear vials in relatively nice quality are valued at $100 to $150 apiece.
In collecting glass objects the collector should be aware how glass was made. The earliest vessels were called core vessels. These were produced by pouring melted glass into a clay core, which was in the shape of the desired vessel. Hot threads of contrasting color were wrapped around the vessel, pressed, and combed to create a wavy pattern, Finally the clay core was removed after cooling.
The technique for producing molded vessels and amulets were primarily used up to the 1st century B.C. This process used a mold, or a process called the lost wax process, also used in making metal objects.
In the blowpipe process, still used today, hot glass is gathered at the end of a hollow tube through which air is blown. This produces the various shapes found today. Using this simple procedure into the still pliable glass. Only master craftsmen could perform this difficult process.
Mold-blown glass is manufactured by heating glass, and blowing it into a mold with a pipe.
Cameo glass is made by a process in which one white, opaque color layers a design on another opaque surface. The artisan would then cut away the upper potion to create a design.
Millefiori and mosaic glass process is accomplished by pounding long threads of glass of contrasting design and color, creating a cross section design, often with floral, geometric, or animal motifs. After heating, this bundle is called a cane. It is then sliced and used as inlays. These could be used in outer designs of vessels, beads, or inlays.
Glass bead production was extensive throughout this period. The glass beads were popular, and were worn by all of society. Clear glass, eye beads (produced by Phoenicians), Millefiori, mold-made pendants, confetti beads, gold flake beads, and many polychrome-surfaced glass beads were widely made; these are popular collectibles today.
dropper flask - see sprinkler.
blue dots - see colored blobs.
buckle - see neck coil.
dots - see colored blobs.
cut-out fold - see projecting roll.
feathered pattern - see embedded thread.
feet - see pinched toes.
fire rounded rim
folded stemmed foot
horizontal grooves - see engraved.
lug - see pinched ribs.
mouth - see rim.
natural blue green glass
nipt - see pinched projections.
strongly colored glass
pattern mold - see pattern-blowing.
pinched warts - see pinched projections.
pinched ribs and lugs
pinched feet - see pinched toes.
pontil scar - see pontil mark.
pushed-in hollow base ring - see base ring.
pushed in solid base ring - see base ring.
ring-shaped pontil mark - see pontil mark.
serpentineform trails - see snake-thread.
spiral trail - see spiral coil.
spiral thread - see embedded thread and thread-wound.
threaded - see thread and embedded thread.
toes - see pinched toes.
tubular pontil mark - see pontil mark.
wavy coil - see crinkly coil.
wavy thread - see crinkly coil.
wheel incised lines - see wheel-cut.
zigzag - see blue zigzag and freestanding zigzag.
Allen, D. Roman Glass in Britain. (Buckinghamshire, 1998).
Auth, S. Ancient Glass at the Newark Museum. (Newark, 1977).
Berger, V.L. Römische Gläser Aus Vindonissa. (Basel, 1960).
Bomford, J. Ancient Glass: The Bomford Collection of Pre-Roman and Roman Glass on loan to the City of Bristol Museum and Art Gallery. (Bristol, 1976).
Carboni, S. Glass from Islamic Lands: The Al-Sabah Collection, Kuwait National Museum. (New York, 2001).
Carboni, S. & D. Whitehouse. Glass of the Sultans. (New York, 2001).
Christie's Sale. Ancient Glass Formerly the Kofler-Truniger Collection. 5 - 6 Mar 1985.
Christie's Sale. Wolkenburg Collection. 9 July 1991.
Corning Museum of Glass, Journal of Glass Studies.
Davidson, S. Conservation and Restoration of Glass. (Cornwall, 2003).
Ettinghausen, R. Ancient Glass in the Freer Gallery of Art. (Smithsonian Institution, 1962).
Flemming, S.J. Roman Glass, Reflections on Cultural Change. (Warminster, 1999).
Glass at the Fitzwilliam Museum, exhibition catalogue. (Cambridge, 1978).
Goldstein, S.M. Pre-Roman Glass and Early Roman Glass in the Corning Museum of Glass. (Corning, 1979).
Grose, D.F. Toledo Museum of Art, Early Ancient Glass. (New York, 1989).
Grossmann, R. A. Ancient Glass: A Guide to the Yale Collection. (New Haven, CT, 2002).
Harden, D. Catalog of the Constable-Maxwell Collection of Ancient Glass. (London: Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co, 1979).
Harden, D. Ancient Glass, I: Pre-Roman, The Archaeological Journal, Volume CXXV, 1969 (reprinted).
Harden, D. Glass of the Caesars. (Milan, 1987).
Harter, G. Römische Glaser Des Landesmuseums Mäinz. (Mainz, 1996).
Hayes, J. Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum. (Toronto, 1975).
Kocaba Koleksiyonu, H. Catalogue of Glass in The Hüsyin Kocaba Collection. Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayinlari. (Istanbul, 1984).
Isings, C. Roman Glass From Dated Finds. (1957).
Isings, C. Roman Glass in Limburg. Archaeologica Traiectina. (Gröningen, 1971).
Israeli, Y. Ancient Glass, Museum Haaretz Collection. (Tel-Aviv)
Kröger, J. Nishapur, Glass of the Early Islamic Period. (New York, 1995).
Kunina, N. Ancient Glass in the Hermitage Collection. (St Petersburg, 1997).
la Baume, P. & J. Willem Salomonson. Romische Kleinkunst Sammlung Karl Loffler. Römisch-Germanischen Museum. (Cologne, 1977).
Lightfoot, C.S. Ancient Glass in National Museums Scotland. (Edinburgh, 2007).
Matheson, S. Ancient Glass in the Yale University Art Gallery. (Meriden, 1980).
Neuburg, F. Ancient Glass. (Toronto, 1962).
Nicholson, P.T. Egyptian Faience and Glass. (Buckinghamshire, 1993).
Nolte, B. Die Glasgefäße im Alten Ägypten. Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 14. Verlag Bruno Hessling. (Berlin, 1968).
Oliver, A. Ancient Glass: Ancient and Islamic Glass in the Carnegie Museum. (Carnegie Museum of Art, 1980).
Riefstahl, E. Ancient Egyptina Glass and Glazes in the Brooklyn Museum. (1968).
Saldern, A. Gläser der Antike: Sammlung Erwin Oppenländer: Katalog (Karlsruhe, Germany, 1975).
Shurmer, J. The Golden age of Venetian Glass. (British Museum Publications, London, 1979).
Sotheby's Sale. Ancient Glass, London, Sale 3242, London, 20 November 1987.
Sotheby's Sale. Important Ancient Glass from the Collection formed by the British Rail Pension Fund, London, 24 November 1997.
Sotheby's Sale. The Benzian Collection of Ancient and Islamic Glass, London, 7 July 1994.
Stern, M. Early Glass of the Ancient World, 1600 B.C. - A.D. 50, Ernesto Wolf Collection. (Ostfildern-Ruit, 1994).
Stern, M. Roman, Byzantine, and Early Medieval Glass, 10 BCE - 700 CE, Ernesto Wolf Collection. (Ostfildern-Ruit, 2001).
Tait, H., ed. Five Thousand Years of Glass, revised edition. (Philadelphia, 2004).
Von Saldern, A. Ancient Glass in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston. (Meriden, 1968).
Von Saldern, A., et al. Glaser der Antike, Sammlung Erwin Oppenländer. Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg & Romisch-Germanisches Museum, Koln. (Hamburg, 1974).
Whitehouse, D. Islamic Glass in the Corning Museum of Glass, Volume One. (Rochester, 1997).
Whitehouse, D. Medieval Glass for Popes, Princes, and Peasants, The Corning Museum of Glass. (Corning, 2010).
Whitehouse, D. Reflecting Antiquity: Modern Glass Inspired by Ancient Rome. (Corning, 2007).
Whitehouse, D. Roman Glass in the Corning Museum of Glass, Volume One. (Rochester, 1997).
Whitehouse, D. Roman Glass in the Corning Museum of Glass, Volume Two. (Rochester, 2001).
Whitehouse, D. Roman Glass in the Corning Museum of Glass, Volume Three. (Rochester, 1997).
Whitehouse, D. Sasanian and Post-Sasanian Glass in the Corning Museum of Glass, Volume One. (Manchester, 1997).
Yücel, A,. et al. Catalog of Glass in the Hüseyin Kocaba Collection. (Istanbul, 1984).