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Dynastic Periods Relating to Scarabs

 

Middle Kingdom

2055 - 1650 BC

Scarab Genera

11th

2040 - 1991 BC

12th

1991 - 1786 BC

13th

1803 - 1649 BC

14th

1705 - 1690 BC

 

 

2nd Intermediate Period

1660 - 1550 BC

15th (Hyksos)

1660 - 1600 BC

16th (Hyksos)

1650 - 1550 BC

17th

1585 - 1550 BC

 

 

New Kingdom

1570 - 1085 BC

18th

1570 - 1349 BC

19th

1342 - 1197 BC

20th

1197 - 1085 BC

21st

1085 - 950 BC

22nd

950 - 730 BC

23rd

c. 817 - 730 BC

24th

730 - 715 BC

25th (Kushite-Ethiopian)

751 - 656 BC

26th (Saite)

663 - 525 BC

 

 

Persian Period

525 - 332 BC

27th

525 - 404 BC

28th

404 - 398 BC

29th

398 - 378 BC

30th

378 - 341 BC

31st

341 - 332 BC

 

 

Ptolemaic Period

332 - 30 BC

 

 

Roman Period

30 BC – AD 324

Scarab Head Types

Lunate Head

Plate E.      

Plate H.      

Plate L.        

Deep Head

Plate F.    

Plate J.    

Plate M.    

Merging Head

Plate G.     

Plate K.     

Plate N.      

Ribbed Head

 

Quadruped Heads, and Peculiarities

The details of workmanship which may also serve for distinctions are: (1) the feather pattern on the edge to imitate the hairy legs; (2) the head of lunate form, or (3) deep form, or (4) merging into the clypeus; (5) notched clypeus; (6) smooth clypeus; (7) V-shaped marks at the top of the elytra; (8) curling lines on back.

On the basis of these various distinctions twenty-three classes may be formed, which can almost always be quickly distinguished so as to find any given type. (See plates lix to lxxi, where all the varieties of form are drawn.) The types classified as follows :

Description

 Features

 

Dynasties

Dates (c.)

Notes

Type

Modeled legs

-

-

26th (Saite) - Ptolemaic

663 - 30 BC

 

A,B

Feathered legs

Fore and aft

-

10th - 13th

2040 - 1680 BC

 

C

Feathered legs

Gapped or One way

-

10th - 15th

2040 - 1570 BC

 

D

Scarabaeus

V notches on elytra

Lunate head

18th - 26th

1570 - 525 BC

Much rarer pre 18th

E

Scarabaeus

V notches on elytra

Deep head

18th - 25th

1570 - 656 BC

Much rarer pre 18th

F

Scarabaeus

V notches on elytra

Merging head

18th - 25th

1570 - 656 BC

Much rarer pre 18th

G

Scarabaeus

V from girdle to side

 -

12th - 25th

1991 - 656 BC

Much rarer pre 18th

E-G

Scarabaeus

diagonal line from girdle to side

-

18th - 25th

1479 - 656 BC

Begins Thothmes III (after 1479 BC)

E-G

Scarabaeus

Notched clypeus

Lunate head

5th - 19th

2494 - 1197 BC

 

H

Scarabaeus

Notched clypeus

Deep head

11th - 13th

2040 - 1680 BC

 

J

Scarabaeus

Notched clypeus

Merging head

11th - 26th

2040 - 525 BC

 

K

Scarabaeus

Smooth clypeus

Lunate head

3rd - 25th

2686 - 656 BC

 

L

Scarabaeus

Smooth clypeus

Deep head

9th - 18th

2100 - 1349 BC

 

M

Scarabaeus

Smooth clypeus

Merging head

4th - 25th

2613 - 656 BC

 

N

Scarabaeus

Ribbed elytra (Scarabaeus venerabilis)

-

19th - 20th

1342 - 1085 BC

 

O

Scarabaeus?

Ribbed head

-

25th - 26th

751 - 525 BC

Rarely 18th – 24th and 27th – 29th

P

Scarabaeus?

Curl on back

-

12th - 25th

1991 – 656 BC

 

Q

Scarabaeus?

Quadruped head & peculiarities

-

19th - 25th

1197 - 656 BC

 

R

Catharsius

Square head

 

12th - 13th

1991 - 1680 BC

Begins Mid 12th

S

Catharsius

A shaped head

-

13th - 16th

1786 – 1570 BC

 

T

Copris

Clypeus point over head

-

13th - 16th

1786 – 1570 BC

Hyksos, c. 1786 – 1570 BC

U

Gymnopleurus

Side notch

-

18th - 25th

1570 - 656 BC

 

V

Gymnopleurus

deep collar where head joins pro-thorax

-

5th - 26th

2494 - 525 BC

 

W

Hypselogenia

Long beak - regular

-

12th – 18th

1991 - 1570 BC

Rare in 12th, end Ramses II (before 1213 BC)

X

Hypselogenia

Long beak - modified

-

6th – 18th

1570 - 1349 BC

Rare pre 13th, end Ramses II (before 1213 BC)

Y

Scaraboids

Ovoid without beetle features

-

3rd – Ptolemaic

2686 - 30 BC

 

Z

Scaraboids

Ovoid without beetle features

Rope design on side

15th – 16th (Hyksos)

1648 - 1534 BC

 

Z

Heart Scarabs

 -
 -
 -

1700 – 30 BC

Most after 1570 BC

 

A - B.  Fully modeled legs on the underside, no plates,
26th (Saite) dynasty - Ptolemaic Period, 663 - 30 B.C.

C - D.  Feathered Legs, plates X - XV, 10th - 15th dynasties, 2040 - 1570 BC

On C and D, a feather pattern on the edge imitates hairy legs.

If legs are feathered, C if strongly feathered on the whole length, or D if gapped or feathered more on the back legs then on the front legs.  If not feathered, then E - Z.

C and D, being small classes, are grouped by the form of the head, in the order of the different genera.

C.  Fore and aft feathered sides for the front and back legs, plates X—XIII, 10th - 13th dynasties,  2040 - 1680 BC

Legs feathered on the the whole length.

Grouped by the form of the head, in the order of the different genera.

D.  Legs feathered one way only, Plates X—XV, 10th - 15th dynasty, 2040 - 1570 BC

Feathered legs gapped or feathered more on the back legs then on the front legs. 

Grouped by the form of the head, in the order of the different genera.

 

E - N.  Scarabaeus

E - G.   Scarabaeus with V notches on elytra, Plates XVIII - XXV,
12th - 26th dynasty, rare before 18th

Notch marks on classes E, F, G, vary in form. On examining the various small differences statistically, some strong preferences for certain types are found in some periods, though not exclusively of one age. 

The V or I line from the girdle line (as E 7, E 28) is early and continues late, 12th -26th dynasty, rare before 18th.

 

The V from the girdle to the side line (as E 9) begins in the 12th dynasty (after c. 1991 BC), 12th -26th dynasty, rare before 18th.

The diagonal line from the girdle to the side (as E 4) begins under Thothmes III (ruled c. 1479 -1425 BC), 18th - 25th dynasty.


                                                    

The loop on the girdle (as E 17 and F 20) does not begin till Rameses II (ruled c. 1279 - 1213 BC), after 19th dynasty.

E.  Scarabaeus, V notches on elytra, lunate head, Plates XVIII—XXVI,
12th - 26th dynasty, rare before 18th

Forms of the lunate head from the bottom of plate E are shown below.



F. Scarabaeus, V notches on elytra, Deep head, Plates XVIII—XXV,
12th - 25th dynasty, rare before 18th

Forms of the deep head from the bottom of plate F are shown below.

G. Scarabaeus V notches on elytra, Merging head, Plates XVIII—XXV

Forms of the merging head from the bottom of plate F are shown below.

H - K.  Scarabaeus, Notched clypeus, Plates V—XXVI

H.  Scarabaeus, Notched clypeus, Lunate head, Plates V—XIX

Forms of the lunate head are shown at the bottom of the plate.


J.  Scarabaeus, Notched clypeus, Deep head, Plates XI—XIII

Forms of the deep head are shown at the bottom of the plate.

K.  Scarabaeus, Notched clypeus, Merging head, Plates XI—XXVI

Forms of the merging head are shown at the bottom of the plate.

L - N.  Scarabaeus, Smooth clypeus, Plates III—XXV

L.  Scarabaeus, Smooth clypeus, Lunate head, Plates III—XXV

Forms of the lunate head are shown at the bottom of the plate.

M.  Scarabaeus, Smooth clypeus, Deep head, Plates IX—XVIII

Forms of the deep head are shown at the bottom of the plate.


N.  Scarabaeus, Smooth clypeus, Merging head, Plates IV—XXV,

Forms of the merging head are shown at the bottom of the plate.


O.  Scarabaeus venerabilis, ribbed elytra, Plates XIX—XX,

Scarabaeus venerabilis is marked by ribbed elytra.



Scarabaeus venerabilis are also found as heart scarabs

 

P.  Scarabaeus? ribbed head, Plates XXV—XXVI


Q.  Curl on back, Plates XII—XXV


R.  Quadruped heads, and peculiarities, Plates XIX—XXV

 

S – T.  Catharsius, 13th – 16th dynasties, 1786 – 1570 BC, Plates XII - XVI

A definitely square head seems to belong to Catharsius.

Catharsius head begins in the middle of the xiith, and extends down to the xiiith and xvith dynasties respectively

S.  Catharsius, Square head, Plates XII—XIII

T.  Catharsius, A head, Plates XIII—XVI

 

U.  Copris, Plates XIII—XVI, Hyksos age only, 13th - 16th dynasties, 1786 - 1570 BC

Occasionally the clypeus extends far back in a pointed form over the head, apparently imitated from the horn of the Copris.

V.  Gymnopleurus, Side notch, Plates XVIII—XXV,


W.  Gymnopleurus, Collar, Plates V—XXVI

X - Y.  Hypselogenia, 12th Dynasty - Rameses II, 1991 - 1213 BC

Hypselogenia is rare in the 12th dynasty, and is not found later than Rameses II, 1991 - 1213 BC.

X.  Hypselogenia, Regular, Plates XII—XVIII,


Y.  Hypselogenia, Modified, Plates VI—XVIII,

Z. Scaraboids

AA.  Heart Scarabs, after c. 1700 B.C.

The earliest heart scarabs appeared during the second intermediate period (c. 1700 B.C.) and became relatively more common during the New Kingdom The earliest heart scarabs appeared during the second intermediate period (c. 1700 B.C.) and became relatively more common during the New Kingdom.

 

Crescent line on the head, on about one in thirty of all periods; but one in eight in the Ethiopian and Saite age.

Scroll pattern - Common in the middle kingdom, arises first as a system under Pepi, but is never found continuous on his scarabs; and it is only in the 12th dynasty that the continuous scroll was developed, which became so general in the 13th - 14th, and which lingered on even through the 19th. 

Continuous scroll pattern -  Developed 12th dynasty, general in the 13th - 14th, lingered through the 19th. 

Deep Y outline of the elytra is only found on scarabs of Khofra and Zedra (? Dad-ef-ra); the nearest approach to it is at the close of the xiith, and the xiiith dynasties, but that is less deep, and the form of the head and clypeus is then different.

The number of lines in the girdle, or in the division of the wing cases, is not exclusively characteristic of age; but certain types prevail at different times. One girdle line and two or three vertical, and two girdle with two vertical lines, prevail in the Middle Kingdom. Two girdle lines with one vertical is chiefly of Old Kingdom and Saite ages. The double girdle with three vertical lines is mainly of xxist to xxvth dynasties.V from the girdle to the side line begins in the 12th dynasty.

Palm-branch pattern on the back, in Class J, is only known from late xith to xivth dynasties, and in a one-sided form in the xvith.

One girdle line and two or three vertical, and two girdle with two vertical lines, prevail in the Middle Kingdom.

Two girdle lines with one vertical is chiefly of Old Kingdom and Saite ages.

The double girdle with three vertical lines is mainly of 21st to 25th dynasties.

Smooth backs decrease in the later periods.