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Cyprus

Cyprus.jpg The_Greek_World.jpg

Ancient Coins from Cyprus in the Forum Ancient Coins shop

Babelon, E. Les Perses Achéménides ... Cyprus et Phénicie. (1893).
Babelon, E. Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
Brett, A.B. Catalogue of Greek Coins, Boston Museum of Fine Arts. (Boston, 1955).
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
Cox, D.H. Coins from the Excavations at Curium, 1932-1953. ANSNNM 145. (New York, 1959).
de Luynes, H. Numismatique et Inscriptions Cypriotes. (1852).
Dikaios, P. “A hoard of silver Cypriot states from Larnaca” in NC 1935.
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Volume III, Part 2. (London, 1929).
Gesche, H. "Nikokles von Paphos und Niokreon von Salamis" in Chiron 4 (1974), pp. 103 - 125.
Hill, G.F. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Greek Coins of Cyprus. (London, 1904).
Kreuzer, M. The Coinage System of Cleopatra VII, Marc Antony and Augustus in Cyprus. (Springfield, MA, 2004).
Lindgren, H. & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
Lindgren, H. Lindgren III: Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Markou, E. "Les monnaies chypriotes d'or du IVe s. avant J.-C." in Proceedings of the 13th International Numismatic Congress. (Madrid, 2005).
Markou, E. L'or des rois de Chypre: Numismatique et histoire à l'époque classique. (Athens, 2011).
May, J.M.F. "The Alexander coinage of Nikoles of Paphos, with a note on some recently identified tetradrachms from the Demanhur find" in NC 1952, pp. 1-18, pl. 1.
Michaelidou, L., ed. Museum of the History of Cypriot Coinage, Coin Catalogue. Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation. (Nicosia, 1996).
Michaelidou, L. & E. Zapiti. Coins of Cyprus. From the Collection of the Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation. (Nicosia, 2008).
Mørkholm, O. "The Alexander coinage of Nicocles of Paphos" in Chiron 8 (1978), pp. 135 - 147, pl. i.
Müller, L. Numismatique d’Alexandre le Grand; Appendice les monnaies de Philippe II et III, et Lysimaque. (Copenhagen, 1855-58).
Newell, E.T. "Some Cypriote 'Alexanders'" in NC 1915, pp. 294 - 322, pl. i - v.
Nicolaou, I. Paphos II. The Coins from the House of Dionysos. Department of Antiquities Cyprus. (Nicosia, 1990).
Noeske, H-C. Die Münzen der Ptolemäer. (Frankfurt, 2000).
Pitchfork, C. The Jon Hosking Collection of Ptolemaic Coins. Nicholson Museum, University of Sydney. (Sydney, 2000).
Polk, R.S. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, the Ptolemies, Kings of Egypt. (London, 1882).
Price, M.J. The Coinage of in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. (London, 1991).
Price, M.J. & N. Waggoner. Archaic Greek Silver Coinage, The "Asyut" Hoard. (London, 1975).
RPC Online - http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/
Savio, A. ed. Catalogo completo della collezione Dattari Numi Augg. Alexandrini. (Trieste, 2007).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2: Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
Six, J.P. Du Classement des Séries Cypriotes, Rev. Num., 1883.
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 7: Cyprus to India. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 3. (Berlin, 1964).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, Univ. of Glasgow, Part 2: Roman Provincial Coins: Cyprus-Egypt. (Oxford, 2008).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Italy, Milano XIII, Civiche Raccolte Numismatiche, Aegyptus. (Milan, 1989).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey 1: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, United States, Burton Y. Berry. Part 2. Megaris to Egypt.. (New York, 1962).
Svoronos, J. Ta Nomismata tou Kratous ton Ptolemaion. (Athens, 1904-08).
Tziambazis, E. A Catalogue of the Coins of Cyprus (from 560 B.C. to 1571 A.D.). (Larnaca, 2002).
Waggoner, N.M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen. ANS ACNAC 5. (New York, 1983).
Weiser, W. Katalog Ptolemäischer Bronzemünzen der Sammlung des Instituts für Altertumskunde, Universität Köln. (Opladen, 1995).

In the time of the Assyrian kings there were in the island of Cyprus ten small states, whose rulers are mentioned in several inscriptions. Three centuries later Diodorus (xvi. 42) enumerates nine kingdoms in the island—(1) Salamis, (2) Citium with Idalium and Tamassus, (3) Marium, (4) Amathus, (5) Curium, (6) Paphos, (7) Soli, (8) Lapethus, and (9) Ceryneia.

Notwithstanding the researches of Sir R. H. Lang (Num. Chron., 1871) and of others mentioned above, as well as of W. Deecke (in H. Collitz, Samml. d. gr. Dialektinschriften I, Die griechisch-kyprisehen Inschriften in epichorischer Schrift, 1883) and O. Hoffmann (Die griechischen Dialekte I, 1891), the attribution of a large number of Cypriote coins still remains a matter of considerable uncertainty. For tables of the Cypriote characters see the two last-mentioned works and Hill, pp. cxxxvi f.

The autonomous coinage of Cyprus begins in the latter part of the sixth century, and lasts till the subjection of the island by Ptolemy Soter, B.C. 312. It may be divided into the following principal classes:— (α) the money of the kings of Salamis, Idalium, Paphos, Marium, Soli, Amathus, and perhaps of other towns bearing inscriptions in the Cypriote and later in the Greek character; (β) the money of the Phoenician kings of Citium and perhaps of Lapethus, bearing Phoenician inscriptions. The weight-standard of all the silver money is at first the Aeginetic considerably reduced, so as almost to conform to the Persic. The stater, weighing about 179 grs. maximum, is not, however, divided into halves and quarters as in European Greece, but into thirds, sixths, twelfths, twenty-fourths, and forty-eighths, the denominations weighing 60, 30, 15, 7.5, and 3.7 grs. respectively. In the first half of the fourth century this system was modified (except at Paphos, where it was maintained to the last) and brought into harmony with the Rhodian standard, which began to prevail in south-western Asia Minor after B.C. 400. The later Cyprian coins consist of pieces of 114 grs., with their thirds. In this period also gold staters and their divisions are of frequent occurrence in the island.

In fabric the earliest coins (those attributed to Euelthon of Salamis) have a plain smooth reverse, which, about the time of the Persian wars, gives place to a well-marked incuse square containing a type. After about B.C. 400 the incuse square gradually disappears, except on the Phoenician coins of Citium, where it lingers on down to the age of Alexander. A frequent symbol on the early coinage is the ankh or crux ansata.

The following are the principal varieties of Cyprian money; details will be found in the introduction to the British Museum Catalogue.

Amathus. To this town is conjecturally attributed a series of coins with the type of a lion (BMC Cyprus, pp. xxiv. ff).

Circ. B.C. 450-400. (Inscription: none or uncertain.)

Lion lying. Forepart of lion. Incuse square
AR Staters, etc.
Lion lying; above, eagle flying. Forepart of lion. Incuse circle.
AR Staters, etc.

Euagoras I (circ. B.C. 391). Types similar to preceding; in exergue, Ε. AR Staters.

Circ. B.C. 400-360.

AR Staters with similar types, and names of kings Zo · ti · mo (Ζωτιμω) or Zo · vi · ti · mo, Lu · sa · to · ro (Λυσανδρω), E · pi · pa · lo (Επιπαλω), etc.

Circ. B.C. 350.

Rhoecas (?). AR Thirds. TypesHead of lion; rev. Forepart of lion. Inscr., Ro.

Citium (Larnaka). (BMC Cyprus, pp. xxix ff.)

Circ. B.C. 500.

Lion lying. Smooth.
AR Staters, etc.

Baalmelek I, circ. B.C. 479-449.

Herakles, wearing lion-skin, fighting, with club and bow; sometimes inscribed בך. לבעלמלך Lion seated. Incuse square.
AR Staters and Thirds
Head of Herakles. Same inscr. abbreviated, or none. Lion seated. Incuse square.
AR Twelfths, etc.

Azbaal, circ. B.C. 449-425.

Herakles as on preceding staters. לעזבעל Lion killing stag. Incuse square.
AR Staters and Thirds

Baalmelek II, circ. B.C. 425-400.

Herakles as on staters of Azbaal. לבעלמלך Lion killing stag. Incuse s quare.
AR Staters, Thirds, Sixths
Head of Herakles. בך Similar type.
AR Thirds and Twelfths

To the preceding two reigns also belong small uninscribed silver coins with similar types.

Baalram, circ. B.C. 400-392.

Staters and thirds, obv. Herakles, rev. Lion killing stag. Inscr., לבעלרם  or למלך בעלרם.

Melekiathon, B.C. 392-361.

Herakles carrying lion-skin, fighting with bow and club. למלך מלכיתן Lion killing stag. Incuse square.
AV ½ Stater 66.36 grs.
Herakles as on preceding staters. מ Similar type. Incuse square.
AR Staters
Herakles as on gold coins. למלך מלכיתן Similar type. Incuse square.
AR Thirds
Horseman riding sideways. מ (?) Herakles fighting with bow and club.
מ Herakles as on gold coins. Head of Aphrodite.
Æ .55

Demonicus, circ. B.C. 388-387.

Demonicus, son of Hipponicus, the Athenian, probably reigned at Citium for a short time, interrupting the reign of Melekiathon. The obverse type of his coins shows Athenian influence (BMC Cyprus, pp. xxxvii f.).

Athena standing with shield and spear, or sometimes holding owl; one specimen inscribed ΒΑ ΔΗ, another בד. למלך ,[ל]מלך דמ(נ)כן, or no inscription. Herakles, of free style, fighting with bow and club. Incuse square.
AR Persic Staters and Sixths
AR Rhodian Staters and Thirds

Pumiathon, circ. B.C. 361-312.

Of this king only gold coins are known (BMC Cyprus, pp. xl f.). For a period of ten years (B.C. 333-323) he struck no money at all, having been disgraced by Alexander.

Herakles, lion-skin over head and left arm, fighting with bow and club. למלך פמיתן Lion killing stag. Dates between years 3 and 47. Incuse square.
AV ½ Stater 66 grs.
Head of beardless Herakles in lion-skin. Similar type. Incuse square.
AV 1/10 Stater 12.7 grs.

Curium. See Uncertain, A, p. 745.

Golgi. See Uncertain, B, p. 745.

Idalium (Dali). BMC Cyprus, p. xlviii f.

Circ. B.C. 500-480.

Sphinx seated; inscr. sometimes E · ta · li (‘Η · δα · λι ·). Incuse square.
AR Staters

Circ. B.C. 475.

Sphinx seated over palmettes; inscr. pa · si · Ki (βα · σι · Κι ·) ? Lotus flower on two spiral tendrils, in incuse impression fitting the type.
AR Staters

Gras, circ. B.C. 460.

pa · Ka · ra (βα · Γα · ρα ·). Sphinx seated on floral ornament. Lotus flower between ivy-leaf and astragalos. Incuse circle.
AR Staters

Stasikypros, circ. B.C. 460-450.

Sa · (Σα ·). Sphinx as on preceding. Lotus flower between ivy-leaf and astragalos. Incuse circle.
AR Thirds
E · ta · li (‘Η · δα · λι ·). Similar type. Lotus flower between ivy-leaf and ankh.
AR Third
Id. or Sa ·. Head of Aphrodite. Id.
AR Twelfth

Lapethus. (BMC Cyprus, pp. liii f.)

Circ. B.C. 480.

Head of Athena in Athenian helmet. Head of Athena in crestless Corinthian helmet. Incuse square.
Head of Aphrodite. Id.
AR Staters
Id. Id. (helmet crested).
AR Staters

Sidqmelek, circ. B.C. 450.

לפת לצדקמלך (?) Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet. לצדקמלך Head of Athena facing in helmet with bull’s horns (to which crests are attached) and ears. Incuse square.
AR Staters

Praxippus (deposed by Ptolemy B.C. 313-312).

ΠΡ Head of Apollo. ΒΑ Krater (kylix-form).
Æ .6

Marium (Poli tes Chrysochou). (BMC Cyprus, pp. lv f.)

Stasioecus I and Timocharis (second half of fifth century B.C.).

Βα · σι · λη · ϝο · σε Σα · τα · σι · ϝο · ι · κω Head of Apollo. Βα · σι · λη · ϝο · σε Σα · τα · σι · ϝο · ι · κω Aphrodite hanging to neck of bull. Incuse square.
AR Staters and Thirds
Σα · τα · σι · ϝο · ι · κο · σε Μα · ρι · ε · υ · σε Head of Apollo. Βα · σι · λη · ο · σε Τι · μο · χα · ρι · ϝο · σε · Similar.
AR Thirds
Head of Apollo; symbols, branches. Βα · Τι · Similar.
AR Twelfth
Βα · Τι · Head of Apollo. Βα · Τι · (?) Similar.
AR Twelfth

Stasioecus II (deposed B.C. 312).

Of this king there is a large coinage in all three metals. Inscr., Βα · Σα · τα, Σα · τα · σι · ϝο · ι · κω βα · σι · λε · υ · σε, ΒΑ, Βα · σι ·, ΒΣ, ΜΑΡΙ ΕΥΣ, etc.

Head of Athena. Bull.
AV ½ Stater and smaller
Id. Eagle.
AV 23.5 grs.
Head of Zeus. Head of Aphrodite.
AV 29.66 grs. and smaller
Id. Id.
AR 94.13 grs. and smaller
Head of Apollo. Ankh with double cross-bar and V in ring (= Βα · Σα).
AR 10 grs.
Head of Aphrodite. Thunderbolt.
Æ .55
Id. Ankh.
Æ .6

Paphos. The site of Old Paphos is at Kouklia, that of the Ptolemaic city of New Paphos near Ktima. The following are the chief varieties of its coinage (for details see BMC Cyprus, pp. lxiv f.).

Circ. B.C. 480-460.
Po · ka · ro · se (?) Human-headed bull, kneeling (River-god Bokaros ?). Pa · si Astragalos. Incuse circle.
AR Staters and Thirds
Forepart of human-headed bull. Similar.
AR Twelfth
Human-headed (?) bull, standing. Uncertain inscr. Head of eagle, incuse square.
AR Twelfth

Circ. B.C. 460.
Pa · A · (βα · Α ·) Bull walking. Head of eagle; symbols, palmette and guilloche pattern. Incuse square
Pu · nu · (Πνυ ·) or no inscr. Bull standing. Id.
AR Staters
Similar, no inscr.; above, winged solar disk. Pa · Pu Eagle standing; symbols, laurel-spray, ankh.
AR Sixths
Spray of laurel. Eagle; uncertain inscr.; symbol, laurel-spray. Incuse square.
AR Twenty-fourth
Head of bull facing. Id.
AR 5.4 grs.

Stasandros, circ. B.C. 450.
Bull standing; above, winged solar disk; symbol, ankh, laurel-spray, etc. Pa · si · Sa · ta · sa · do · ro (βασι· Στα· σανδρω) or abbreviation. Eagle standing; symbols, ankh, laurel-spray, vase, etc. Incuse square.
AR Staters and smaller denominations

Circ. B.C. 450-400.


FIG. 325.
A · ri or A · ri · si · to (‘Αριστο ·) Bull standing; above, winged solar disk (Fig. 325). Eagle flying. Incuse square.
AR Staters
Pa · si · C · na · si (βασι· ‘Ονασι·) Similar type; above, winged solar disk; symbol, ankh. Eagle flying; symbols, ivy-leaf, ankh or astragalos. Incuse square.
AR Staters
Mo · a · ke · ta (Μοαγετα) Similar type. Similar, sprays in corners of incuse square.
Similar type. Similar, no symbol.
AR Thirds, Sixths, and Twelfths

Timocharis (?), circ. B.C. 385.

Pa · si · le · vo · sc (βασιληϝος). Zeus seated on throne, nearly to front, with sceptre and phiale. Pa · si · le · vo · se Ti · mo · ka · re · vo · se (?) (βασιληϝος Τιμοχαρεος ?) Aphrodite-Nemesis standing to front with apple-branch, sacrificing over thymiaterion (copy of the Nemesis of Rhamnus).

Circ. B.C. 400-360.

Head of Aphrodite wearing crown. ΠΑΦΙ Dove standing; above, astragalos. Incuse circle.

Circ. B.C. 360-332.

Bust of Aphrodite wearing crown. ri · ta · mo · se · pa · si · le · u · se ([Χα]ριδαμος (?) βασιλευς). Dove flying. Incuse circle.
AR Third

Alexandrine tetradrachms (symbol, dove flying) were struck at Paphos.

Timarchus, circ. B.C. 323.

Bust of Aphrodite wearing crown. pa · si · Ti · ma · ra · ko (βασι · Τιμαρχω) and ΠΑ. Dove standing.
AV Obol
Id. Ti · ma · ra · ko (Τιμαρχω) ΠΑΦΙ Dove standing.
AR Third

Nicocles (died B.C. 309).

Π(?)ΒΑ Head of Aphrodite, wearing crown with battlements. ΝΙΚΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΠΑΦΙΟΝ Apollo seated on omphalos, l. hand resting on bow.
AR Attic Tetradrachm

Time of Timarchus and Nicocles.

Head of Aphrodite facing, crowned. Eagle standing; symbol, grapes.
AV 22.4 grs.
Head of Aphrodite, crowned. Pa· or ΠΑΦΙ Dove standing.
Æ .55 or less
Id. Rose; uncertain inscr.
Æ .45

Paphos was an important mint under the Ptolemies (see Svoronos, Νομ. Πτολ.).

Salamis. The large series of the coins of Salamis falls into the following classes (BMC Cyprus, pp. lxxxii f.) :—

Euelthon (reigning as late as B.C. 530-520).


FIG. 326.

Inscr., E · u · ve · le · to · ne or E · u · ve · le · to · to · se (Ευϝελθων, Ευϝελθοντος) or (on twelfths) Ε.

Ram lying. Smooth.
AR Staters
Ram’s head. Id.
AR Twelfths
Ram lying (Fig. 326). Ankh. Incuse square, sometimes with sprays in corners, and sign Ku · (Κυπρου) in ring of ankh.
AR Staters, Thirds, etc.

Successors of Euelthon (Siromus, Chersis, Gorgus).
Circ. B.C. 520-460. Inscr., usually Ευϝελθοντος.

Ram lying. Ankh with sign Ku· in incuse square with sprays; in field, Ke· or Ki·.
AR Staters
Ram lying; above, globule in inverted crescent. Id., but in field (on some staters) Ko· ru·
AR Staters, etc.
Ram’s head. Id. (no letters in field).
AR Twelfth
βα · σι · Ε · υ · Ram lying; symbol, ankh. Ankh, in incuse square with sprays
AR Staters

Circ. B.C. 480-450.

Ram lying; uncertain inscr. Ankh with sign pa. (βα·) in ring; in corners, βα · σι · λη · o ·, or σι · λη · ο · σε ·.
AR Staters, etc.
Pa.si.le.vo.se Ni.ko.ta.mo (βασιληϝος Νικοδαμω). Ram lying.Ankh with double bar; in corners, se · la · mi · ni; incuse square.
AR Thirds
Id. Ankh, sometimes containing sign Ni · · in corners, se · la · mi · ni; incuse square.
AR Thirds and Sixths
βα · σι · Νι. Ram lying. Ankh containing sign Νι·; incuse square
AR Sixth
Head of ram. Ankh; in corners of incuse square se · la · mi · ni ·.
AR Twelfth

There is also a corresponding series of thirds and sixths in which se · la · mi · ni [Σελαμινι(ων)] is replaced by la · ka · ri · ta (Lαχαριδα).

Ram lying (on some, uncertain inscr.). Ram’s head; various symbols; incuse square.
AR Staters
Ram’s head. Sheep’s head; incuse square.
AR Sixth

Euanthes, circ. B.C. 450.

Inscr., E · u · va · te · o · se (Ευϝανθεος), βα · σι · λη · fo · σε, etc.

Ram lying. Ram’s head; incuse circle.
AR Staters and Sixths
Ram’s head. Id.
AR Twelfth

These series with the ram’s head reverse were perhaps issued outside of Salamis, which seems to have been occupied by a Phoenician ruler. Shortly before B.C. 411 one Abdemon seized the throne; he in his turn was expelled by Euagoras I.

Abdemon, before B.C. 411.

Ram’s head. עב Youthful male head.
AR 8.4 grs. or less

Euagoras I, B.C. 411-374.

Youthful male head (sometimes with sign Pa ·). Smooth.
AR 16.20 grs. or less
Id. Wheel.
AR Twelfths
Head of bearded Herakles in lion-skin. Id. (Pa· between spokes).
AR Twelfths, etc.

The above coins may represent the first coinage of this king, to whom the following certainly belong (inscr., usually Ε · υ · ϝα · γο · ρω βα · σι · λη · ο · σε or βα · σι · λη · ϝο · σε; sometimes also Ε or ΕΥ).

Head of young Herakles facing, in lion-skin. Goat lying.
AV 31.4 grs.
Head of Herakles, bearded, in lion-skin. Forepart of goat; below, club.
AV Tenths
Id. Head of goat.
AV Twentieth
Id. Goat lying; above, grain of corn.
Young Herakles seated, holding horn of Acheloös. Id.
AR Thirds

Nicocles, circ. B.C. 373-361.

Bust of Aphrodite, crowned. Bust of Athena in laureate helmet; on larger denominations pa · Ni · (βα · Νι ·).
AV Thirds and Tenths
Bust of Aphrodite; hair in coif. pa · Ni · (βα · Νι ·) and Β Ν Dolphin.
Æ .55

Euagoras II, circ. B.C. 361-351.

(Inscr., usually ΒΑ ΕΥΑ.)

Lion devouring prey; on its back , eagle. Bust of Aphrodite in turreted crown.
AV Staters
Head of Aphrodite in turreted crown. Head of Athena in laureate Corinthian helmet.
AV Tenths or Twelfths
Id. Id.
AR Rhodian Didrachms
Id. Id. (Athenian helmet).
AR Rhodian Hemidrachms
Head of Athena in Athenian helmet. Star (on one specimen with pa ·).
AR Rhodian Obols

Also Æ coins (types, Head of Athena, Lion, Horse, etc.). To the same reign also perhaps belong Æ coins with obv. Head of Athena, rev. ΣΑΛ, ΣΑ or Σ, Prow of warship or Forepart of bull. Babelon attributes to Euagoras, as satrap of the Persian king, a group of coins which are described below under Persia. He also issued coins from Sidon, q. v.

Pnytagoras, B.C. 351-332.


FIG. 327.

Inscr., ΒΑ ΠΝ, pa · Π, etc.

Bust of Aphrodite wearing crown with semicircular plates (Fig. 327). Bust of Aphrodite wearing turreted crown.
AV Staters and Twelfths
Id. Head of Aphrodite crowned with myrtle.
AR Rhodian Tetrobol
Head of Aphrodite. Head of Artemis.
AR Rhodian Didrachms and Tetrobols

Nicocreon, circ. B.C. 331-310.

Inscr., ΒΑ ΝΙ or ΒΑ . In addition to gold staters with the same types as those of Pnytagoras, Nicocreon issued Rhodian didrachms and tetrobols, obv. Head of Aphrodite in turreted crown, rev. Head of Apollo.

Menelaus, brother of Ptolemy, B.C. 312-306.

ΜΕΝ or Μ. Head of Aphrodite in turreted crown. Pa · or no inscr. Head of Aphrodite wearing crown as on staters of Pnytagoras.
AV Thirds and Twelfths

Bronze coins with the name of Alexander, types Head of young Herakles, rev. Club and bow, inscr. ΣΑ or Σ, were issued at Salamis, perhaps by Demetrius Poliorcetes (B.C. 306-294). Salamis afterwards became a mint of the Ptolemies (see Svoronos, Νομ. Πτολ.).

Soli (Karavostasi). To this mint a number of early coins have been conjecturally attributed (see below, Uncertain, B, C, D). Of later coins the following may be noted :—

Pasicrates, reigning B.C. 331.

Bust of Apollo facing. ΒΑ ΠΑΣΙ Tripod.
AR 28 grs.

Eunostus, son-in-law of Ptolemy Soter.

Head of Apollo; inscr. ΕΥ or Cypriote letter. ΒΑ or pa. Head of Aphrodite.
AV 40.6 grs.
AV 10.8 grs.

Uncertain. There are five important groups of Cypriote coins of which the attribution to particular mints must be regarded as wholly uncertain.

A. Early fourth century B.C. Inscr., A · ri · or Pa · si · A · ri (βα · ς... · ‘Α · ρι ·). Typesobv. Herakles strangling lion; rev. Athena seated on beak of prow, holding aplustre and spear. Attributed by Babelon (p. cxxxviii) to Curium; but see BMC Cyprus, pp. xlii f.

B. Early fifth century B.C. Inscr., usually Ko · (BMC Cyprus, p. xlv f.). Attributed to Golgi by Six (Num. Chr., 1897, pp. 206 f.).

Lion crouching. Ankh. Incuse square.
Id. Bull. Incuse square.
Head of lion. pa · Pi · (βα · φι ·) or pa · Va · (βα · ϝα) Head of bull. Incuse square.
Hermes, winged. Bull. Incuse square.
Herakles with bow and club, between two trees. Bull; above, branch. Incuse square.
AR Third

C. Circ. B.C. 480. BMC Cyprus, p. xlvi.

pa · sa · la (βα · Σα · λα ·) Hermes. Head of Zeus Ammon. Incuse square.
Herakles fighting. Head of Zeus Ammon. Incuse square.
AR Third

D. Circ. B.C. 480. Perhaps of Soli. BMC Cyprus, p. xlvi f.

Head of lion. Rude incuse square.
Id. pa · A · (βα · ‘Α ·) Gorgoneion. Incuse square.
Id. pa. E. (βα· ‘Ε·) Ankh between two branches. Incuse square.
Gorgoneion. Ankh. Incuse square.
Head of lion; on one specimen, κο. Id.
AR Thirds and Twelfths

E. Circ. B.C. 400. Sometimes attributed to Marium. BMC Cyprus, p. lix.

Animal (panther ?) licking foreleg. Aphrodite hanging to neck of ram; uncertain Phoenician inscr. Incuse square
Id. Uncertain Cypriote inscr.; symbol, head of double-axe.Similar.
AR Third

Cyprus under the Ptolemies.

For the coins struck by Ptolemy Soter and his successors in the island of Cyprus see infra, Greek kings of Egypt.

Imperial Times.

Augustus to Caracalla and Geta (B. M. C., p. cxix f.). Cyprus was organized as an Imperial province in B.C. 27, and returned to the Senate in B.C. 22. Its coinage consists of (1) Æ of Augustus and Tiberius with Latin inscription, and of Antoninus Pius and Aurelius Caesar with Greek inscr., attributed to Cyprus solely on grounds of provenance. (2) Æ of Augustus with name of A. Plautius Procos., and of Drusus, son of Tiberius, without name of Cyprus. (3) Æ of Claudius with ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΚΥΠΡΙWΝ, and some also with name of Cominius Proculus Procos. (4) Æ of Galba, Vespasian, Titus, Trajan, Septimius Severus and family with ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΚΥΠΡΙWΝ. The coins of Trajan are dated ΔΗΜΑΡΧ(ικης) ΕΞ(ουσιας) ΥΠΑ(τος) ΤΟ Ϛ. (5) AR quadruple and double denarii of Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. Inscr., ЄΤΟΥC ΝЄΟΥ ΙЄΡΟΥ, Η, Θ, and Ι (A. D. 76/77-78/79).

The chief types of classes 2, 4, and 5 are (a) Zeus Salaminios standing holding patera and short sceptre, an eagle perched on his left wrist; (b) the Temple of Aphrodite at Paphos. The more detailed representations show it containing the cone of the Goddess; in front a semicircular paved court, containing doves; at sides, wings containing candelabra, with doves perched on roof; above the whole, star in crescent (Fig. 328).


FIG. 328.