The Age of Gallienus
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Class A Folles
Armenian Numismatics Page
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Denarii of Otho
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC - Rarity Tables
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Facing Portrait of Augustus
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Maps of the Ancient World
Museum Collections Available Online
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Excellence Award
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
All of these fibula types have a short bilateral spring - usually only two or three winds each side. Because of the short spring, theses fibulae do not actually look like a crossbow. However, they are considered part of the crossbow fibula family. Short spring crossbow fibulae are Germanic in origin. They are descended from the early bent foot fibula. Many short spring crossbow fibulae are made of iron.
Typology: Genceva 7a
Dates: c. AD 450 - 525. Alternately AD 375 - 500.
Notes: Has a short foot with small catch.
Distribution: Eastern Alps. Used by the Vandals and Scirii and some Romanized Germanic populations.
Notes: Has a long square-end foot, short catch near bow.
Dates: c. AD 450/470 - 500
Distribution: Eastern Alps
Notes: Resembles the Invillino type but with upward curl at the end of the foot and triangular section bow.
Dates: c. AD 475 - 525
Distribution: Eastern Alps.
Notes: Has a pointed foot and a conical catch.
Dates: c. AD 450 - 525.
Distribution: Eastern Alps and Spain.
Dates: c. AD 475 - 525
Distribution: Eastern Alps.
Notes: Resembles Invillino type but with pointed foot and triangular section bow.
Dates: c. AD 490 - 525
Distribution: Eastern Alps, Noricum.
Notes: Has a short but large bow, long foot with solid catch, and knob on head.
Typology: Genceva 21a
Dates: c. AD 250 - 350. Flourished AD 300 - 350.
Distribution: Origin with Elbe Germans but spread southeast. Found in Barbaricum from the Caucasus to eastern Hungary. Used by Chernyakhov (Gothic) and Sarmatian cultures.
Typology: Genceva 21b
Dates: c. AD 180 - 200. Alternately to AD 300.
Distribution: Free Germany (Barbaricum) and the German Limes.
This group of crossbow fibulae have a short to medium length crossbar with a hinge in the middle.
Dates: c. AD 175 - 325/350, flourished c. AD 200 - 300.
Notes: The type is found in many sub-types.
Image: In this series of images, taken from the forum shop, the short-arm T-shaped crossbar with hinge is clearly visible. This example has a single small head knob. Where the bow merges into the foot there are two triangular-shaped flanges with traces of copper wire. This may be an imitative vestige of the ties used on bent-foot fibulae as the form of the foot is very close to the early bent-foot fibulae. The head knob is like Bojovic XXXV.5 but the rest of the fibula, including the overall form, the foot and the flanges on the bow are like Bojovic XXV.1. Likely a late XXV.1 type dating to circa AD 200 - 225.
Notes: T-arms are long. Bow is trapezoidal cross-section with ridging along top.
Typology: Böhme 29
Dates: c. AD 200 - 250
Distribution: Military sites, in Raetia and the upper Danube in particular.
Dates: late 3rd to mid 4th century AD, but used into early 5th century.
Notes: The head plate is wide and has three points or small knobs thus somewhat resembling a trident. The head-plate covers a wide spring. It is sometimes known as a Neptune trident fibula or Neptune fibula. The trident-like head plate has led some scholars to believe that the type was used by the Upper Moesian Fleet (Petkovic).
Image: Two trident head crossbow fibulae. The upper example is complete though highly corroded. It has no knobs on the head-plate and the join between the bow and the foot has two angular ridges. The lower example is a different variant. Though missing the right-hand side of the head-plate it is clear that the head-plate had three knobs on it (two remain). There are also three small knobs at the back of the bow just before the foot. Note that the foot of this type is quite short. (SC Collection)
These small to medium sized fibulae have a bow divided into two or three parallel sections. The bows can either be tall and thin, or wider and flat.
Dates: c. AD 175 - 250.
Dates: c. AD 175 - 250
Typology: Böhme 27b-c
Dates: c. AD 175 - 250
Dates: c. AD 190 - 250.
Typology: Böhme 27d
Dates: c. AD 175/200 - 250
Typology: Genceva 24a
Dates: c. AD 200 - 250. Flourished AD 200 - 225.
Dates: c. AD 240 - 280 or AD 270/290 - 320/340. (K: 290 - 320, P: 280 - 320, S: 270 - 340)
Distribution: Western Empire and upper Danube.
Notes: The foot is shorter than the bow. The arms are shorter than bow, the side knobs are round or oval. Has decoration on either the bow or foot, or neither.
Image: The foot of this Keller 1 fibula is decorated with long rectangular indentations and is significantly shorter than the bow. The bow only has a simple line down the centre instead of any real decoration. The cross bar is hexagonal in cross-section. The knobs are round with slight faceting. The front knob has a prominent flange behind it. The entire fibula has traces of gold gilding. (SC Collection)
Dates: c. AD 275/300 - 360/370 (smooth knob), 310 - 350 (facetted knob). (K: 300 - 365, P: 300 - 370, S: 290 - 370)
Distribution: Upper Danube
Notes: The foot is equal to or slightly longer than the bow. The arms are slightly shorter than the bow, the side knobs are round, oval, onion or facetted. There is decoration on bow and foot.
Dates: c. AD 320/330 - 410/420. Flourished AD 350 - 380. (K: 330 - 415, S: 320 - 420)
Distribution: Pannonia, Raetia
Notes: The foot is longer than the bow. Has onion knobs.
Dates: P: 330 - 420, S: 320 - 390
Distribution: Upper Danube, NE Gaul
Notes: The foot has a center line with dots or eyes on either side.
Dates: P: 330 - 420, S: 320 - 420
Distribution: Upper Danube, Germany
Notes: The foot has crenelations, square or trapezoidal, along each edge, possibly with a centre line.
Dates: S: 340/350 - 400
Distribution: Upper Danube, Raetia, Germany
Notes: The foot has volutes (usually four or six) along each edge, possibly with a centre line.
Dates: c. AD 340/350 - 415/420 or later. (K: 350 - 415, P: 350 - 420, S: 340 - 420)
Distribution: Western Empire.
Dates: c. AD 380 - 450, K: 390 - 465
Notes: The foot is longer than the bow. Has a tall narrow bow, and onion or facetted knobs. The left knob usually unscrews. The foot is decorated with openwork volutes. The catch made of sheet metal. This type is almost always gilded.
Image: Underside view of the same fibula showing the rolled metal plate construction of the foot catch. (SC Collection)
Dates: c. AD 450 - 560
Distribution: Gaul, Italy, Noricum.
Notes: Has a thick but very short bow and a long flat foot - up to twice as long as bow. The foot is flat on top and the catch is made of sheet metal. Has facetted knobs.
Dates: Dating is uncertain. The type was used in the 4th and 5th centuries AD. It likely started c. AD 350, though some sources say as early as AD 250. It is unclear if it lasted throughout the 5th century or only for the first part.
Distribution: Origin in "free" Germany, found the south through the Balkans.
Notes: Has a square, or occasionally triangular, section bow and a short foot. There is a hole in the head for the axis-pin of a long spring. Has a knob at the head. The type is a Barbarian imitation of Crossbow fibulae with solid cross-bars although they are found in Roman military contexts as well.
Image: A bugelknopf fibula without its spring. Note the head-knob and the hole in the single flange for the spring's axis-pin to pass through. There are still rust stains from the lost iron axis-pin. There is a simple inscribed X on the side of the bow behind the knob. (SC Collection)
Image: A bugelknopf fibula with spring. The bilateral spring has a total of 13 or 14 winds. Though the spring and pin is bronze, the axis-pin down the middle of the spring is iron and has caused rust staining. (SC Collection)
Image: A rare silver bugelknopf fibula. There is still rust from the iron axis-pin of the missing spring. Silver crossbow fibula such as this were generally worn by Roman military officers. Though found at times on Roman military sites, bugelknopf fibulae are thought to be Germanic in origin. This examples was likely from a Germanic officer in the Roman military and dates roughly to the Valentinianic and Theodosian eras. (SC Collection)
Typology: Schmid 226.
Dates: c. AD 200 - 275
Distribution: Middle Danube, Germanic
Image: In this view of the same fibula the narrowness of the tall bow is clear, as is the form of the foot which widens and then comes to a point. There is a small chip out of the upper end of the foot. (SC Collection)
Dates: c. AD 150 - 225
Distribution: Rhine Limes, Soldier’s