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Ashton, R. "The Solar Disk Drachms of Caria" in NC 1990.
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Ashton, R., et al. "The Pixodarus Hoard" in Coin Hoards IX (2002).
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
Babelon, E. Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
Cahn, H. Knidos - Die Münzen des Sechsten und des Fünften Jahrhunderts v. Chr. AMUGS IV. (Berlin, 1970).
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Vol. III, Part 1. (London, 1926).
Göktürk, M. "A Hoard of Hellenistic Silver Coins of Myndos, Halikarnassos, and Knidos" in Studies in Ancient Coinage from Turkey. (London, 1996).
Grose, S. Catalogue of the McClean Collection of Greek Coins, Fitzwilliam Museum, Vol. II: The Greek mainland, the Aegaean islands, Crete. (Cambridge, 1926).
Head, B. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Caria, Cos, Rhodes, etc. (London, 1897).
Hurter. S. "Lions and lionesses, eagles and a few heads: a new uncertain mint in Caria" in Essays Hersh.
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Kleinasiatische Münzen. (Vienna, 1901-2).
Klein, D. Sammlung von griechischen Kleinsilbermünzen und Bronzen, Nomismata 3. (Milano, 1999).
Konuk, K. "Coinage and Identities under the Hekatomnids" in Henry. (Paris, 2013).
Konuk, K. "Influences et Eléments Achéménides dans le monnayage de la Carie" in MIMAA.
Konuk, K. "The Early Coinage of Kaunos" in Essays Price, pp. 197 - 224 & pls. 47 - 50.
Lindgren, H. & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
MacDonald, D. The Coinage of Aphrodisias. (London, 1992).
Meadows, A. "Stratonikeia in Caria: the Hellenistic City and its Coinage" in NC 2002.
Mildenberg, L. & S. Hurter, eds. The Dewing Collection of Greek Coins. ACNAC 6. (New York, 1985).
Mionnet, T. Description de Médailles antiques grecques et romaines, Vol 3: Aeolis - Cyprus. (Paris, 1808).
Mitchiner, M. Ancient Trade and Early Coinage. (London, 2004).
Numismatik Lanz, Auktion 13: Sammlung Karl, Münzen von Karien. (27 Nov 2006).
Price, M. The Coinage of in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. (London, 1991).
Price, M. & N. Waggoner. Archaic Greek Silver Coinage, The "Asyut" Hoard. (London, 1975).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 5: Ionia, Caria and Lydia. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 5: Karien und Lydien. (Berlin, 1994).
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Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey I: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002).
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Troxell, H. "Carians in Miniature" in Studies Mildenberg.
Troxell, H. "Winged Carians" in Essays Thompson.
Yarkin, U. "The Coinage of Syangela in Caria" in NC 1975.
Waggoner, N. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen (ANS ACNAC 5). (New York, 1983).
Weidauer, L. Problemeder frühen Elektronprägung, Typos I. (Fribourg, 1975).
In Caria, properly so called,—that is to say, in the inland districts,— there was no coinage whatever before Alexander 's conquest; and, on the coast, Cnidus and Chersonesus, Idyma, Termera, Astyra, and perhaps Caunus, appear to have been the only mints before the commencement of the fine series of coins of the Hecatomnid dynasty. In the Greek islands, on the other hand (Calymna, Cos, Rhodes, &c.), silver coins were in general use from very early times. The defeat of Antiochus by the Romans in B.C. 190 marks the beginning of a new era, and of a rapid development of commercial activity, accompanied by the introduction of autonomous coinages at all the principal centers of population. The quasi-regal issues of Alexandrine tetradrachms and of imitations of the gold Philippus were, in the second and first centuries, superseded by autonomous municipal silver coinages, some of which, e. g. those of Stratoniceia, Tabae, &c., survived into early Imperial times. As a rule, however, the coinage of Caria, from Augustus to Gallienus, was restricted to bronze (BMC Caria, Introd., p. xxv).
Alabanda (Arab-hissar), originally an old Carian town, was situate on the river Marsyas, about twenty miles south of its confluence with the Maeander. It is mentioned as one of the allies of Rome in the war against Philip V of Macedon, circ. B.C. 197; and about this time it appears to have struck tetradrachms and smaller divisions reading ΑΛΑΒΑΝΔΕΩΝ with obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Pegasos and magistrate 's name in nominative case. After B.C. 197 Alabanda received the name of Antiocheia, in honor of Antiochus, who was for a few years master of the country, and, until his defeat (B.C. 190), its coins were inscribed ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ. After the battle of Magnesia, Alabanda resumed its old name, and, either immediately or about twenty years later, B.C. 168 (when Caria and Lycia were declared free by the Roman Senate), began to strike tetradrachms of the Alexandrine type (Müller Alexander, 1144-50), also tridrachms, didrachms, and octobols of the Rhodian standard (BMC Caria, Pl. I. 7-9) with inscr., ΑΛΑΒΑΔΩΝ, and obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Pegasos or Tripod in laurel-wreath. Bronze coins of various types are also assigned to this period (BMC Caria, p. 3; Imh., Gr. M., 137; Imhoof-Blumer KM, 104; and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 80). After a long interval Alabanda began once more to strike coins, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, in the time of Augustus, but its coinage seems to have ceased altogether after the time of Caracalla. A few specimens only bear magistrates ' names in nominative case with title Ιππαρχης, under Augustus, and later, with επι or επι αρχ[οντος]. The remarkable inscription. ΑΤΕΛΕΙΑC and ΑΤΕΛΕΙΟC (BMC Caria, Pl. II. 2) (immunitas a tributis) may be connected with the fact that Alabanda had built a temple to the goddess Roma before B.C. 170 (BMC Caria, xxix). Chief types— Heads or figures of ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ; CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Demos(?); Tyche; Apollo ΚΙCCΙΟC holding raven and bow, and with ram at his feet (Z. f. N., viii. Pl. II. 5); Draped Apollo holding raven and laurel branch, lyre on a cippus beside him; Large laurel bough with three branches, filleted; Zeus ΕΠΙ ΚΟΥΡΟC (sic) Bust of Zeus Epikurios; Bust of ΑΡΤΕΜΙC; &c. (Num. Zeit., 1884, 267).
Alinda (Demirji-deresi) was situated on a rocky height commanding the plain of the Karpuzli-ova, through which an affluent of the Marsyas flows in an easterly direction towards Alabanda, about twelve miles distant. The district called Hidrias, of which Alinda was the chief town and a strong fortress, was ceded by Ada, the widow of Hidrieus, to Alexander the Great. Its earliest coins (Æ) date from the second century B.C. Inscr., ΑΛΙΝΔΕΩΝ. Obv. Head of Herakles. Rev. Lion-skin hanging over club, the whole in oak-wreath, imitated from contemporary half-cistophori; also Club in oak-wreath; Winged fulmen; Bow in case; Bipennis; Pegasos; etc. Other specimens, with obv. Head of Herakles, rev. Club, and obv. Head of young Dionysos, rev. Sistrum, are described by Imhoof (Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 80). After an interval the coinage is resumed in Imperial times, Augustus to Caracalla or later. Magistrate, sometimes with title ΕΠΙ ΑΡΧΟ[τος]. Types—The Dioskuri; Sarapis and Isis; Zeus(?) draped, with right arm raised; Apollo Kitharistes.; Herakles and Keryneian stag; Herakles to front crowned by Nike; &c. (BMC Caria, Pl. II. 9-12).
Amyzon. This small town stood on a height (some ten miles northwest of Alinda) which is now called Mazyn Kalessi. It struck a few coins in the first century B.C. Inscr., ΑΜΥΖΟΝΕΩΝ Types—Obv. Bust of Artemis, rev. Lyre, Torch, or Stag; Magistrate 's name ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟC on some specimens (Imh., Gr. M. 662, and Mon. gr., 304). There is also a coin with the head of Augustus, as well as one or two quasi-autonomous coins of Imperial times. Types—Obv. Zeus Labrandeus standing, with inscr. ΧΩΜΑ ... ΟC(?), rev. Apollo standing (N. Z., 1884, 268); also obv. Laureate head, rev. Female head with straight curls (BMC Caria, Pl. III. 1). For further list see Z. f. N., xxiv, p. 129 f.
Antiocheia ad Maeandrum stood on high ground overlooking the plain of the Maeander at its confluence with the Morsynus. Its foundation dates from early Seleucid times. When Caria received the gift of freedom from the Roman Senate, B.C. 168, Antiocheia began to strike coins, Tetradrachms, obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ, Eagle on fulmen and magistrate 's name in circular Maeander pattern (BMC Caria, Pl. XLV. 10), also obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Humped bull in circular Maeander pattern surmounted by pilei of Dioskuri (BMC Caria, Pl. III. 3). On the contemporary drachms the bull is recumbent (BMC Caria, Pl. III. 4), and on the bronze coins the humped bull or an eagle are frequent reverse types (Pl. III. 6, with inscr. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩ ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΩ), heads of Mên and of Apollo being the ordinary types of the obverses. For other types see Imhoof-Blumer KM, 108. Some of these autonomous bronze coins have magistrates ' names in genitive case. There are also gold Philippi from a find at Aidin, with mint letters ΑΝ (BMC Caria, cviii), and Alexandrine tetradrachms (Müller Alexander, 1176-7) which were probably issued at Antiocheia in the second century B.C.
The subsequent coinage, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, ranges from Augustus to Salonina, with heads and names of Emperors or of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΓΕΡΟΥCΙΑ; ΖЄΥC ΒΟΥΛΑΙΟC; ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟC (the founder); ΝΑΡΒΙC (city goddess); and figures of ΖЄΥC ΒΟΥΛΑΙΟC standing (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 110); ΖЄΥC ΚΑΠЄΤΩΛΙΟC seated, or in temple; ΑΝΤΙΟΧЄΙΑ seated; ΡΩΜΗ seated; ΗΡΑ standing; River-god ΜΟΡCΥΝΟC standing; CΩΖΩΝ standing; River-god ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΕ recumbent; ΚΤΙCΤΗC standing; and many other conventional figures of various divinities. Also a Liknophoros supporting a basket (?) on his head (BMC Caria, Pl. IV. 3); Hekate triformis; Nemesis; Artemis Ephesia; Atys; a representation of a bridge over the Maeander consisting of six arches and adorned with statues of the River-god and two figures standing, &c. (Fig. 303).
From Augustus to Claudius coins were issued by a ΣΥΝΑΡΧΙΑ or Collegium, under the presidency of a chief magistrate, e.g. ΙΑΣΟΝΟΣ ΣΥΝΑΡΧΙΑ (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 81), ΑΓΕΛΑΟΥ ΣΥΝΑΡΧΙΑ (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 110), and, under Domitian, the name of this official or commissioner appointed to supervise the coinage is accompanied by ЄΠΙΜЄΛΗΘЄΝΤΟC (see v. Fritze, Nomisma, i, p. 3).
Aphrodisias stood on one of the western spurs of Mount Salbacus, about 1,600 feet above the sources of the river Morsynus, some 20 miles south-east of Antiocheia. The little river Timeles, one of the effluents of the Harpasus, took its rise in the territory of the city, and personifications of both streams occur on the coins. The neighboring town of Plarasa was, during the latter part of the first century B.C., united with Aphrodisias, and the two together formed a single community upon which the rights of ελευθερια and ατελεια were conferred in the time of M. Antony, B.C. 39-35.
Both cities appear, however, to have struck independently a few autonomous bronze coins before their union (BMC Caria, p. xxxiii).
The coinage of silver drachms and bronze in their joint names ΠΛΑΡΑΣΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΦΡΟΔΙΣΙΕΩΝ belongs probably to the end of the first century B.C. The type of the drachm is a veiled head of Aphrodite, rev. Eagle on fulmen. The types of the autonomous bronze coins are more varied, e. g. Double-axe, rev. Cuirass; Bust of Eros, rev. Rose or Double-axe; Bust of Aphrodite, rev. Double-axe; Head of Zeus, rev. Cultus-statue of Aphrodite; Head of Aphrodite, rev. Ares standing, &c.
Magistrates ' names, one or more in nominative case, often accompanied with patronymic, and, in one instance, with title ΙΕΡΕΥΣ ΔΗΜΟΥ (BMC Caria, p. 26, 6). The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins range from Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., ΑΦΡΟΔΕΙCΙЄΩΝ. Magistrates ' names with titles ΥΙΟC ΑΦΡΟΔΙCΙЄΩΝ or ΥΙΟC ΠΟΛЄΩC Archiereus, Hiereus, Archineokoros, Archon, or the board of Archons (ЄΠΙ ΑΡΧΟΝΤΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠЄΡΙ ΜЄΝЄCΘЄΑ ΙCΟΒΟΥΝΟΝ). In many instances the coins are so-called dedicatory issues, with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ, e.g. by an Archiereus or Hiereus, to his native city, ΤΗ ΠΑΤΡΙΔΙ, or on the occasion of an agonistic victory, ЄΠΙΝΙΚΙΟΝ or the dedicator, while providing the means for the issue as a λειτουργια, may also have supervised it, ЄΠΙΜЄΛΗΘЄΝΤΟC (see von Fritze, Nomisma, i, p. 3). Games—ΚΑΠЄΤΩΑΙ Α, ΚΑΠЄΤΩΛΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ, ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΗΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ, ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΗΑ ΑΤΤΑΛΗΑ, ΟΙΚΟΥΜЄΝΙΚΟC ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΗΑ ΟΥΑΛΕΡΙΑΝΑ ΟΙΚΟΥΜΕΝΙΚΑ. Types—Busts of ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΑ (or ЄΙЄΡΑ) ΒΟΥΛΗ ΒΟΥΛΗ, ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC, ЄΛЄΥΘΕΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, &c. River gods—MOPCYNOC and ΤΙΜЄΛΗC. The reverse-types, as a rule, refer to the presiding goddess of the city, Aphrodite, who is represented either in the form of an archaic cultus-statue with a small seated priestess behind it and an altar in front, or in Hellenic form often attended by Erotes or Eros and Anteros (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 82), and sometimes beside Ares, or as Aphrodite Pelagia riding on a sea-goat (Imhoof-Blumer KM, Pl. IV. 14). Temples of Aphrodite also occur, and among other types are-Nemesis winged; Dionysos beside stele, with hand resting on his head; the three Charites; Two naked athletes and γυμναστης (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 118); Adonis charging wild boar; Hermes Agoraios; Hermes dragging ram; Leaf-less tree on either side of which are two men, one of whom strikes at it with an axe. (Cf. the myth of the birth of Adonis (Apollod., iii. 14, 3; Hyginus, Fab. 58 and 161) and coins of Myra Lyciae, where a similar, though not identical, type occurs.) For many other less remarkable types see BMC Caria, Imhoof, op. cit., &c., where other references will be found.
Apollonia Salbace. This town is placed at the modern village Medet, about ten miles north-east of Tabae and south of the Salbacus mountains. For coins of the first century B.C. formerly attributed to this city see BMC Lydia (Pl. XXXVIII. 1-5). These are now assigned to Tripolis on the Maeander, which it would seem was originally called Apollonia. The earliest undisputed coins of Apollonia Salbace are therefore quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., ΑΠΟΑΛΩΝΙΑΤΩΝ. Magistrate, sometimes with title Strategos, on earlier coins in nominative case usually with patronymic (cf. Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 84 sqq.); on later coins in genitive, occasionally with δια or επι; Hiereus with ΑΝΕΘΗΚΕ. Types—Busts of ΑΠΟΛΑΩΝΙΑ CΑΛΒΑΚΗ, ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙΕΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ, ΙΕΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, Athena, Apollo, Sarapis, &c. Reverses—Apollo draped, holding raven and branch, or with lyre at his feet; Zeus Nikephoros seated; Asklepios and Hygieia; Temple containing three statues (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 121, No. 9); Daphne kneeling, clasping laurel tree and looking back at Apollo, who follows her (Z. f. N., vii. 218); Helios in quadriga; Emperor on horseback hunting wild beasts; Isis standing; Pan with goat; Demeter; Zeus Laodikeus between city-goddess and Athena (Imh., Gr. M., 145); Zeus seated holding child (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 85); &c.
Astyra, a town on the peninsula of Mount Phoenix opposite Rhodes, described by Steph. Byz. as πολις Φοινικης κατα Ποδον.
|Amphora. [BMC Caria, Pl. X. 1.]||ΑΣΤV Oenochoë and lyre (‘chelys '), beneath which, tendril with bud. |
AR Stater, 149.5 grs.
|Oenochoë in circle. [Ibid., Pl. X. 2.]||Incuse square, diagonally quartered. |
AR 9.8 grs.
|Α, Vase with one handle.
[Ibid., Pl. X. 3.]
|Α, Oenochoë without foot. |
AR 16.8 grs.
|Rose.||Α, in incuse square. |
AR 3.2 grs.
|Head of Helios, facing, as on coins of Rhodes.||ΑΣΤΥ Amphora with small oenochoë beside it. |
|Head of Aphrodite (?).
[Ibid., Pl. X. 5-8.]
|ΑΣΤΥ Similar. |
Attuda, on the borderland of Caria and Phrygia, was situated on the northern slope of the Salbacus range. Its territory was bounded on the north by the Maeander and on the east by that of Laodiceia. Its earliest coins are silver drachms of the first century B.C., contemporary with those of Aphrodisias and Plarasa.
|Head of Kybele, turreted.
[BMC Caria, Pl. X. 9.]
|ΑΤΤΟΥΔΔΕΩΝ Apollo naked, leaning on column. Three magistrates ' names in nominative case. |
AR 53 grs.
The next issues are quasi-autonomous and Imperial, ranging from Augustus(?) to Gallienus. Inscr., ΑΤΤΟVΔЄΩΝ. Magistrates ' names usually with δια and titles, VΙΟC ΠΟΛЄΩC ΑCΙΑΡΧΗC, and ΙЄΡЄΙΑ. On a coin of S. Severus ЄΠΙΜЄ [ληθεντος] takes the place of δια, and coins with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ are also recorded, issued by a hereditary Priestess, Ulpia Claudiana, in the time of the Antonines, and reading ЄΠΙ CΤЄΦ(ανηφορον) ΟVΛΠΙΑC ΚΛΑVΔΙΑΝΗC (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 87). Types—ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟVΛΗ, ΒΟVΛΗ ΒΟVΛΗ and ΔΗΜΟC face to face, ΔΗΜΟC, ΑΤΤΟVΔΑ, ΠΟΛΙC, Zeus, Athena, Asklepios, Helios, Sarapis, &c., and ΜΗΝ ΚΑΡΟV (BMC Caria, Pl. X. 15), in whose temple, near Attuda, Mên was worshipped in Strabo 's time, (ob. c. A.D. 19); Altar of the god Mên, on which are two pine-cones, &c.; Kybele standing or seated between lions, or in temple; Leto carrying her children; Zeus naked, wielding fulmen; Apollo naked; Dionysos; Asklepios and Hygieia; Rider-god (Sabazios) with double-axe; Cultus-statue of draped goddess (Artemis Anaïtis ?); Nemesis; Dioskuri standing; Tree with altar before it, &c. Attuda was closely united with the neighboring cities Aphrodisias and Trapezopolis in the common worship of Kybele, under the name of Μητηρ 'Αδραστος, and of Mên Karou (Ramsay, C. and B. Phryg., 166).Bargasa. Site uncertain, but probably a few miles south of the Maeander (BMC Caria, p. xlii). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins, Nero to Gallienus. Inscr., ΒΑΡΓΑCΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates on late coins with επι, but without title. Types—ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; Rev. Herakles standing; Artemis Ephesia; Temple of Asklepios; Asklepios and Hygieia; Telesphoros; Emperor on horseback; &c.
Bargylia, on the south shore of the gulf called after it and nearly opposite Iasus. In the first century B.C. it struck drachms (wt. circ. 46 grs.) and bronze coins,—obv. Veiled head of Artemis Kindyas, rev. ΒΑΡΓΥΛΙΗΤΩΝ Pegasos, or Bellerophon on Pegasos; obv. Cultus-statue of the same goddess, rev. Stag; obv. Forepart of Pegasos, rev. Forepart of Stag; obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Bow and Quiver, &c. Bargylia was said to have been founded by Bellerophon in honor of his companion Bargylos, who had been killed by a kick from Pegasos. The types refer to this legend and to the cultus of Artemis Kindyas at the neighbouring temple open to the sky, containing the cultus-statue of the goddess, upon which neither rain nor snow ever fell (Polyb., xvi. 12; Strab., 658). Bargylia struck a few Imperial coins, Augustus to Geta. Types—Cultus-statue of Artemis Kindyas, with stag beside her; Asklepios; &c. They are without magistrates ' names.
Callipolis. Arrian (Anab. ii. 5, 7) mentions Callipolis with Halicarnassus, Myndus, Caunus, and Thera, as a citadel held by Orontobates against Ptolemy and Asander. An inscription found near Idyma, in which δημος Καλλιπολιταν is mentioned, probably indicates its site (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 138). Imhoof (Mon. gr., p. 307, and Imhoof-Blumer KM, 138) attributes to this town the following coins of the second century B.C. :—
|Head of Apollo.||ΚΑΛΛΙΠΟΛΙΤΑΝ Quiver in shallow incuse square. |
|Id.||ΚΑΛ Ram standing. |
Caryanda. The site of this place has been fixed by Myres and Paton at a few miles north of Telmessus. Imhoof (Mon. gr., 307) assigns to it small bronze coins probably of the third century. B.C. or earlier.
|Female head wearing stephane.||ΚΑΡΥ Forepart of bull. |
Caunus, which stood on the river Calbis about four miles from its harbor, was an important naval station opposite Rhodes. In BMC Caria, p. xliv, I have suggested that the following archaic staters may have been struck there before the Persian Conquest.
|Forepart of lion with or Ο on shoulder.||Incuse square, divided into two oblong halves, as on early coins of Camirus and Lindus. |
AR 172.2 grs.
To the latter half of the fourth century the following bronze coins may belong :—
|Rushing bull or forepart of bull (River Calbis?).|| |
To the period of Ptolemaic rule (B.C. 309-189) the following coins seem to belong :—
|Head of Alexander the Great.||Κ ΑΥ Filleted cornucopia; symbol ♀. |
AR 14.1 grs.
|Similar.||Same; no symbol. |
|Helmeted head.||Similar. |
Under the Rhodian rule, B.C. 189-167, Caunus may have issued small silver coins of the Rhodian type, but differentiated from the Rhodian issues by the addition of an eagle in front of the cheek of the full-face head of Helios (BMC Caria, Pl. XXXIX. 12-14).
To the short period of autonomy after 167 the following silver and bronze coins probably belong :—
|Head of Zeus.|
[Z. f. N., xxiv, Pl. III. 16.]
|Κ ΑΥ Winged fulmen; magistrate 's name; in shallow incuse square. |
AR 40 grs.
|Helmeted head of Athena.||Κ ΑΥ Sword in sheath. Magistrate 's name and symbol. |
AR 17.4 grs.
|Head of Apollo.||Id. |
|Head of Apollo.|
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, Pl. V. 12.]
|Κ ΑΥ Naked figure l., holding transverse sceptre with serpent twined round lower end. |
Ceramus, on the north coast of the Ceramic gulf about thirty miles west of Halicarnassus, was one of the most important towns of the Chrysaorian confederacy (see Stratoniceia). Its earliest coinage may be compared with the contemporary issues of Stratoniceia.
|Head of Zeus.||ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗ ///////////// Eagle with head turned back, in shallow incuse square. |
AR 38.6 grs.
|Id.||ΚΕΡΑΜΙ Eagle r., in shallow incuse square. Magistrate 's name. |
|Beardless head, with formal curls.||ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗ Bull 's head, facing. Magistrate 's name. |
|Similar head.||ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗΤΩΝ Female head. Magistrate 's name. |
|Head of Zeus, with formal curls.||ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗ Eagle with head turned back. Magistrate 's name. |
It is doubtful whether the bronze coin in BMC Caria, Pl. XII. 11, is rightly attributed to Ceramus. The Imperial coinage extends from Nero to Caracalla. The types refer chiefly to the cultus of Zeus Chrysaoreus and Zeus Labraundos or Stratios. They usually bear the name of a magistrate in the nominative case with the title ΑΡΞΑC. Whether this aoristic form of the title (αρξας instead of αρχον), peculiar it would seem to coins of Ceramus, implies that ex-archons were the monetary magistrates is rather doubtful, for in one instance (Trajan Decius) we meet with a πρωτος αρχων το β. Among the ex-archons or Archons who signed the coins more than one is distinguished personally as Ο ΑΡΧΙΑΤΡΟC (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 93).
Chersonesus adjoining Cnidus was the chief of three independent communities which continued to exist under the name of Κοινον Χερσονασιων down to the time of the Rhodian dominion in Caria. This Κοινον was assessed separately from Cnidus in the Athenian Quota-Lists. The coins of the Chersonesii, which seem to be all anterior to B.C. 500, are of the Aeginetic standard, like the contemporary coins of Cnidus.
|Forepart of lion.|
[BMC Caria, Pl. XIII. 1.]
|+ΕΡ (retrograde) Forepart of bull in incuse square. |
AR 183.4 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. XIII. 2.]||+ΕΡ Bull 's head, facing, in incuse square. |
AR 90.4 grs.
|Lion 's head.||+ΕΡ Bull 's head r., in incuse square. |
AR 13.5 grs.
Cidramus. This town is conjecturally placed between Antiocheia and Attuda (J. H. S., xi. 120) south of the Maeander on the Caro-Phrygian frontier. Its coins are quasi-auton. and Imp., Augustus to Julia Maesa. Inscr., ΚΙΔΡΑΜΗΝΩΝ. Down to Hadrian 's time the Magistrates ' names are in the nominative case with patronymic. From Hadrian to Marcus Aurelius they are in the genitive preceded by δια, not επι. The only magistrate 's title which occurs is ΠΡ[υτανις ?] on a coin of Augustus. (Z. f. N., xv. 52). From the time of Claudius down to that of Antoninus Pius (circ. A.D. 50-150) the supervision of the coinage of Cidramus seems to have been undertaken by, or entrusted to, members, in succession to one another, of a single rich and locally influential family, e.g. ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝ CЄΛЄVΚΟV (Claudius); ΠΑΝΦΙΛΟC CЄΛЄVΚΟV (Vespasian); ΔΙΑ ΠΑΝΦΙΛΟV and ΔΙΑ ΠΑΝΦΙΑΟV ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝΟC (Hadrian); ΔΙ. CЄΛЄVΚΟ. ΠΟΛЄΜΩ. and ΔΙ. ΑΡΤЄΜΑ ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝΟC (Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius Caesar). See Ramsay, C. and B. Phryg., i. 185, and Imhoof-Blumer KM, 141. Chief types—ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΖЄΥC ΛΥΔΙΟC; Helios; &c. Reverse types—Cultus-statue of Aphrodite or of Artemis Anaïtis; Aphrodite draped, facing, with arms extended, around her, two or more Erotes; Cultus-statue of another draped goddess with a coiled serpent at her feet, standing in a distyle shrine; Draped goddess veiled supporting with one hand a kalathos upon her head; Dionysos; Mên; Hermes; &c.
Cnidus, doubtless originally a Phoenician settlement, was afterwards colonized by Dorians, and was a member of the Dorian Hexapolis (later Pentapolis), consisting of Cnidus, Cos, Halicarnassus, Ialysus, Camirus, and Lindus. The sanctuary of the Triopian Apollo, a sun-god whose symbol was the Lion, was the meeting-place of the members of the Hexapolis .
From the Phoenicians, however, the Cnidians would seem to have received a still earlier worship, that of Aphrodite Ευπλοια. An extremely archaic head of this goddess occurs on a seventh-century silver stater with two incuse squares on the reverse (BMC Caria, Pl. XIII. 7), the attribution of which to Cnidus is conjectural. The earliest inscribed coins, which are on the Aeginetic standard, are as follows :—
|Forepart of lion.
[BMC Caria, Pls. XIII, XIV.]
|ΚΝΙΔΙΟΝ retrograde or variously abbreviated. Head of Aphrodite of archaic style, in incuse square. |
AR Drachms 95 grs.
AR Diobols 27.3 grs.
During the period of the Athenian hegemony the coinage of Cnidus appears to have ceased almost, if not entirely. Α similar diminution of local currency while Athens was collecting her annual tribute is apparent at several other cities besides Cnidus.
About B.C. 400 Cnidus, following the example of Rhodes, adopted the so-called Rhodian standard. The head of Aphrodite henceforth occupies the obverse side of the coin, and is distinguished as Aphrodite Euploia by the addition of the Prow as an adjunct symbol.
|ΚΝΙ Head of Aphrodite Euploia; behind, Prow. [BMC Caria, Pl. XIV. 6-8.]||Incuse square, within which forepart of lion; beneath, magistrate 's name.|
|ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling serpents. [BMC Caria, Pl. XIV. 9.]||ΚΝΙΔΙΩΝ Head of Aphrodite Euploia; symbol, Prow. |
AR Tridrachm 164.8 grs.
Tetradrachms and smaller divisions. Obv. Head of Aphrodite Euploia; Rev. ΚΝΙ Forepart of Lion, or, on some half-drachms, Bull 's head facing (BMC Caria, Pl. XV. 1-8). Magistrates ' names in nominative case.
The coinage of Cnidus in this period is plentiful. The heads of Aphrodite on the tetradrachms and drachms are varied and beautiful (see Montagu Sale Cat., Pl. VIII. 599, 600). On the tetrobols the head of Aphrodite is replaced by that of Artemis, and the Lion by a Tripod. Nearly all the smaller bronze coins of Cnidus also fall into this period. The most frequent types are obv. Head of Aphrodite, rev. Prow; obv. Head of Democracy with legend ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ, rev. Prow (Imh., M. G., p. 310); or obv. Head of Artemis, rev. Tripod, or Bull 's head facing; obv. Head of Helios radiate r., rev. Bull 's head r.; &c.
After the defeat of Antiochus and the extension of the Rhodian dominion over Caria, the coinage of Cnidus was assimilated to that of Rhodes.
|Head of Helios, facing, as on coins of Rhodes. [BMC Caria, Pl. XVI. 1.]||ΚΝΙ Forepart of lion; behind, rose (Rhodian symbol.) |
AR 78 grs.
|Similar. [B. M.]||Head of Aphrodite; behind, rose. |
When Rhodes was deprived of her possessions on the mainland, Cnidus ceased also to be of much importance. The coinage of silver was discontinued, and the bronze money became less and less plentiful.
|Head of Apollo, with stiff curls.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XVI. 2.]
|ΚΝΙΔΙΩΝ Head and neck of bull. Magistrate 's name. |
In the first century B.C. Dionysiac types prevail: obv. Head of young Dionysos crowned with ivy, rev. ΚΝΙΔΙΩΝ Vine-branch with grapes, Æ 1.1; or obv. Head of the Aphrodite of Praxiteles, rev. ΚΝΙΔΙWΝ Dionysos standing, Æ 1.3-.95.
In Roman times Cnidus seems from its scanty coinage to have lost its former importance. Only a few coins exist, Nero to Caracalla; but among them is a copy of the famous statue of the Cnidian Aphrodite by Praxiteles. She is represented as if about to enter the bath, naked, and seen in front, but with her head in profile, and she holds in her extended left hand a garment over an urn (Overbeck, Plastik, 3rd ed., ii. 30. Cf. J. H. S., viii, p. 124 f.).
Cys. This place, called Κυον in Steph. Byz., and Κυς in inscriptions, was probably situated at the modern Béli-Pouli, in the hilly country between the upper valleys of the Marsyas and Harpasus. The very few bronze coins which bear its name seem to belong to the first century B.C. Inscr., ΚΥ., ΚΥΙ., ΚΥΙΤΩΝ, and [Κ]ΥΕΙΤΩΝ. Types—obv. Head of Artemis, rev. Quiver and Hunting-spear (or possibly Pedum) the whole in wreath; obv. Quiver between vine-branches, rev. Cornucopia; Thyrsos in ivy-wreath. Imperial coinage, Domna. Inscr., ΚΥΙΤΩΝ Female figure seated, facing (Cf. Z. f. N., xiii. 71).
Euippe, the site of which is still uncertain, is to be sought for in the region between the rivers Marsyas and Harpasus. It struck a few bronze coins in the second or first century B.C. Obv. Bust of Artemis, rev. Quiver with strap; and obv. Bust of Artemis, rev. Pegasos; &c. Inscr., ΕΥΙΠΠΕΩΝ. There are also Imperial coins, Trajan to Caracalla. Inscr., ЄΥΙΠΠЄΩΝ. Types—Hekate to front; Tyche; Hygieia; &c. (cf. Imhoof-Blumer KM, 127).
Euromus, the modern Ayakly, about eight miles north-west of Mylasa, issued autonomous bronze coins in the second and first centuries B.C. Obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΕΥΡΩΜΕΩΝ Double-axe; obv. Head of Dionysos, rev. Cultus-statue of Zeus Labraundos, to front, with double-axe and spear, between pilei of Dioskuri; sometimes with abbreviated magistrate 's name (BMC Caria, Pl. XVII. 5). The Zeus worshipped at Euromus was doubtless the Zeus Labraundos of the neighbouring sanctuary near Mylasa, although, if Vaillant (Num. Gr., 100) is to be trusted, he is specially designated on a coin of Caracalla as ΖЄΥC ЄΥΡΩΜЄΥC. The Imperial coins range from Augustus, rev. Stag (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 88), to Caracalla (?).
Gordiuteichos was a small Carian town perhaps situated at the modern Karasu on the left bank of the Morsynus, about ten miles below Aphrodisias. The only coins known of this city belong to the second century B.C. Inscr., ΓΟΡΔΙΟΤЄΙΧΙΤΩΝ Obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Archaic cultus-statue of Aphrodite (BMC Caria, liii sq.).
Halicarnassus. Although this city rose to fame under the dynasts of Caria, Mausolus and his successors, from B.C. 367 until its destruction by Alexander, B.C. 334, it was never of great importance commercially either before or after this short period.
For the early history of the town see Newton, Halicarnassus, Cnidus, and Branchidae, vol. ii, pt. i. It coined money intermittently in the following periods :—
|Forepart of Pegasos.|
[BMC Caria, Pl. XVIII. 1.]
|Head of goat in incuse square. |
Obol AR 10.5
|Head of Apollo, facing.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XVIII. 3.]
|ΑΛΙ Eagle (?) and olive spray in incuse square. |
Drachm AR 52.8
|Forepart of Pegasos.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XVIII. 4, 5.]
|Α or ΑΛΙ Forepart of goat in incuse square. |
Obol AR 10.3
|ΑΛΙ Forepart of Pegasos.|
[BMC Caria, Pl. XVIII. 6.]
|Lyre between two laurel-branches. |
From this time down to that of Alexander 's conquest, B.C. 334, Halicarnassus, as the capital of Caria, was the place of mintage of the splendid series of coins struck by Mausolus, Hidrieus, Pixodarus, and Orontobates, dynasts of Caria (see infra, pp. 629 ff). It appears, however, to have continued to retain the right of issuing small Æ in its own name (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 88). From B.C. 334, the date of the destruction of the city by Alexander, until some time in the third century B.C., when it was rebuilt and included among the cities under Ptolemaic rule, it struck few if any coins. The following seem to be somewhat later in date. For other varieties see Imhoof, op. cit., p. 89.
|Head of Poseidon.||ΑΛΙΚΑΡ ΝΑΣΣΕΩΝ Tripod. |
|Head of Apollo.
[BMC Caria, XVIII. 9, 10.]
|ΑΛΙ Eagle; in front, lyre. |
|Head of Poseidon.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XVIII. 11, 12.]
|ΑΛΙΚΑΡ Trident, and abbreviated magistrates ' names. |
This is the period of the Rhodian supremacy, to which the following coins belong :—
|Head of Rhodian Helios, facing.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XVIII. 14, 15.]
|ΑΛΙΚΑΡ ΝΑΣΣΕΩΝ variously abbreviated. Bust of Athena, and magistrates ' names in nominative case. |
AR Attic Drachms 65 grs.
|Head of Apollo, r.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XVIII. 16.]
|ΑΛΙΚΑΡ ΝΑΣΣΕΩΝ Lyre. |
AR ½ Drachm 27. 1 grs.
|Bust of Athena. [BMC Caria, Pl. XVIII. 17, 18.]||ΑΛΙΚ Owl. |
AR Trihemiobol 14.8 grs.
There are also bronze coins of various types which can only belong to this period (see BMC Caria, pp. 107-9, and Pl. XVIII. 19-21), of which the most noteworthy is a veiled goddess, to front, holding phiale and cornucopia (?).
The coinage of Halicarnassus under the Empire extends from Augustus (? or Nero) to Gordian. Inscr., ΑΛΙΚΑΡΝΑCCЄΩΝ. Magistrate, Archon. Types—ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟC, Bald and bearded head of Herodotus; Draped male divinity bearded and radiate facing between two trees, one each of which sits a bird (Fig. 305). This is supposed to represent Zeus Ασκραιος, or Zeus of the oak trees, who was worshipped at Halicarnassus (cf. Apollon. Dyscol., Hist. Mirab., ed. Ideler, § 13; Overbeck, Kunstmyth. ii. 210); the two birds are clearly oracular. ΤЄΛΜΙCЄΥC, a draped male figure holding a branch (Leake, Num. Hell. As. Gr., p. 64); Terminal statue of Athena, in temple.
Alliance coins with Cos and Samos.
Harpasa, on the river Harpasus, some twelve miles south of its junction with the Maeander. Autonomous Æ of the second or first century B.C.; obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΑΡΠΑΣΗΝΩΝ Apollo Kitharistes with laurel branch at his feet (B. M.), or Artemis Huntress with adjunct symbols, Caduceus, or Crested helmet (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 131). Harpasa also seems to have issued some small silver coins resembling those of Stratoniceia, but with Α Ρ one either side of the Eagle on the reverse.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins. Domitian to Gordian. Inscr., ΑΠΑCΗΝΩΝ. Types—Busts of Athena, Sarapis. ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, &c. Magistrates ' names in, genitive case with or without επι, and, under Caracalla, in nominative, with title ‘Αρχιατρος, which occurs also on coins of Ceramus and Heracleia Salbace, and in inscriptions of various Carian towns (Marquardt, Privatleben d. Römer, p. 753, 8; 755, 4). Among the magistrates ' names is that of Candidus Celsus, supposed by Waddington (Fastes, 209) to have been a Proconsul of Asia. under Ant. Pius. Among the reverse types we meet with the River-god Harpasos; Zeus Nikephoros; Athena in fighting attitude; Artemis Ephesia; Dionysos; &c. Alliance coins with Neapolis Cariae.
Heracleia Salbace. The site of this city was first identified by Waddington (As. Min., 51) at the modern Makuf, at the foot of the Salbacus range of mountains and at the north-eastern end of the plain of Tabae. Its territory was separated by the little river Timeles from that of the neighbouring city Aphrodisias, and the River-god ΤΙΜЄΛΗC is represented on imperial coins of both cities.‘Ιερευς, and under Ant. Pius and M. Aurelius with that of ‘Αρχιατρος (cf. Ceramus and Harpasa). Glykon, the Priest of Herakles in Nero 's time, is mentioned in an inscription (C. I. G., 3953 c.) as Stephanephoros, Gymnasiarch, and προγραφει της Βουλης, and Statilios Attalos, αρχιατρος on coins of the Antonines, is also mentioned in an inscription (Le Bas-Wadd., iii. 402). His issues of coins are dedicated (ανεθηκε understood) to the gymnastic college of the Νεοι, and are inscribed CT. ΑΤΤΑΛΟC ΑΡΧΙΑΤΡΟC ΝЄΟΙC. The chief types are busts of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; ΗΡΑΚΛΙΑ (BMC Caria, Pl. XX. 2); Bearded Herakles; Sarapis; &c. Reverse types—Herakles standing; Goddess or Amazon (?) standing, carrying double-axe (Labrys); Artemis Ephesia between stags, or in temple; Double-axe bound with fillet; Asklepios seated with coiled serpent before him; Hygieia; Isis; Hermes; Athena; Dionysos; Aphrodite draped with one arm extended behind her and holding a mirror before her (BMC Caria, XX. 11). As this type also occurs at Cidramus, it is probable that it is a copy of a statue.
Hydisus. The site of this town is still uncertain. As it was a member of the Athenian Confederacy, it was probably near the sea, possibly somewhere near Bargylia. Autonomous Æ of the first century B.C. Inscr., ΥΔΙΣΕΩΝ. Obv. Bearded helmeted head (Zeus Areios), rev. Eagle on fulmen or Pegasos with caduceus beneath; obv. Bust of Zeus Areios, rev. Zeus Areios standing; obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Zeus Areios standing, with magistrate 's name in nominative case. Imperial— Domitian, Hadrian, and Severus Alexander. The rev. types are ΖЄVC ΑΡЄΙΟC (Hadrian), Armed Zeus standing, hitherto wrongly attributed to Iasus; Goddess standing; Bellerophon on Pegasos (Severus Alexander), with magistrate 's name and title, Archon. (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 135, and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 90.)
Hyllarima is conjecturally placed in the region between the rivers Harpasus and Marsyas, some twelve miles north-west of Cys (J. H. S., xvi. 242), on the site where Kiepert placed Hydisus. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins. Time of the Antonines and Gordian. Inscr., ΥΛΛΑΡΙΜЄΩΝ. Archon 's name with επι. Types—obv. Female bust, hair rolled, rev. Athena standing; obv. Veiled female bust, rev. Youth in quadriga (Rev. Num., 1892, Pl. IV. 14); obv. Bust of Ant. Pius, rev. Two figures of Kybele enthroned, facing each other; obv. Bust of Gordian, rev. Asklepios standing.
Iasus was an ancient Argive colony on the north side of the Bargylian gulf. There are archaic drachms of Aeginetic weight, the obv. type of which is a youth riding on a dolphin, which have been assigned to Iasus (Babelon, Traité, Pl. XVIII. 1, 2), but which, according to Svoronos (Journ. Int. d 'Arch. Num., iii. 59), ought rather to be attributed to the island of Syros (supra, p. 480). Another coin conjecturally attributed to Iasus is the fine tetradrachm (BMC Ionia., p. 325, and supra, p. 597, Fig. 301), obv. Head of Persian Satrap, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛ Lyre, wt. 236 grs. The head on this remarkable coin is supposed to be that of Tissaphernes (BMC Caria,p. lix). The earliest pieces which bear the name of Iasus are specimens of the alliance coinage issued after circ. B.C. 394 by Cnidus, Samos, Ephesus, Rhodes, Iasus, and Byzantium (Regling, Z. f. N., xxv, Taf. vii. 5).
|Ι Α Head of Apollo.||ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling serpents. |
AR 166 grs.
|Same head. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. F. 7.]||ΙΑΣΕ Lyre in incuse square. |
AR 27 grs.
The next issues of Iasus belong to the latter half of the third century :—
|Head of Apollo.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XXI. 1-4.]
|ΙΑ or ΙΑΣΕΩΝ Youth Hermias, swimming with l. arm over dolphin 's back. Magistrates ' names in nominative case. |
AR 82 and 42 grs.
Æ size .7
|Head of Artemis.||Id.|
Æ size .45
|Head of Apollo. [BMC Caria, Pl. XXI. 5.]||ΙΑΣΕΩΝ in ivy-wreath. |
|Lyre in laurel-wreath.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XXI. 6.]
|ΙΑCЄΩΝ Hermias and dolphin. |
|Apollo standing with dolphin at his feet. [Imhoof-Blumer KM, Pl. V. 9.]||ΙΑΣΕΩΝ Artemis standing. |
For other varieties, see Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 137. Most of the above coins have magistrates ' names in nominative case, among which may be mentioned ΕΡΜΙΑΣ (not of course the dolphin-rider Hermias). The boy and dolphin as a coin-type of the Iasians is mentioned by Aelian (Hist. Anim., vi. 15), Plutarch (De solert. Anim., 36) and Pollux (ix. 84). The story of the love of a dolphin for a youth of Iasus, who is called Hermias by Plutarch and Pliny (N. H., ix. 8), and Dionysius by Athenaeus (xiii. 606), may have had an historical basis, for Alexander the Great is said to have ordered the boy to be sent to his court.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Augustus (?) to Gordian. Inscr., ΙΑCЄΩΝ. Types—Bearded head of the Founder ΙΑCΟC ΚΤΙCΤΗC (BMC Caria, Pl. XXI. 7); ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Hermias and dolphin; Sarapis and Kerberos; Isis Pharia; Artemis Ephesia.
Idyma, at the head of the Ceramic gulf, is mentioned several times in the Athenian Quota-Lists. In BMC Caria, p. lxi, some archaic drachms of Aeginetic weight are conjecturally assigned to this town, but its earliest inscribed coins are drachms and smaller silver coins of the Phoenician standard which seem to range from about B.C. 450-400.
|Head of horned Pan to front.|
[BMC Caria, Pl. XXI. 8.]
|ΙΔVΜΙΟΝ written round a fig-leaf in incuse square. |
AR 58.2 and 14 grs.
There are also a few small bronze coins which are of rather later style, and which belong to the earlier half of the fourth century.
|Youthful head of horned Pan to r.||Fig-leaf. [Imh. Mon. gr., Pl. F. 8.] |
|Female head, r.||ΝΟΙΜΥΔΙ Fig-leaf. [Z. f. N., xxiv, p. 79] |
|ΛΥ Head of Aphrodite as on coins of Cnidus. [N. C., 1903, p. 399.]||Forepart of lion as on coins of Cnidus [B. M.]|
AR 25 grs.
Mylasa, between the head of the Bargylian gulf and Stratoniceia, became in the time of Hecatomnus the residence of the dynasts of Caria, and remained so until Mausolus obtained possession of Halicarnassus. With the exception of the money of Hecatomnus no coins were struck at Mylasa until during or after the time of Alexander, when a certain Eupolemus (Diod. xiv. 68 and 77) struck some bronze coins in his own name, apparently at Mylasa (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 260 note).
|Three Macedonian shields thrown together. [BMC Caria, Pl. XXI. 11.]||ΕΥΠΟΛΕΜΟΥ Sword in sheath. Symbol, double-axe (Labrys). |
Alexandrine tetradrachms with monogram and symbol of Mylasa, Labrys and Trident combined (Müller Alexander, Nos. 1141-3). Also gold Philippi with the same symbol (BMC Caria, lxiii). The bronze coins of this period have on the obverse, usually, a horse, and on the reverse ΜΥΛΑΣΕΩΝ Trident and Labrys combined or separate.
Augustus to Tranquillina. Inscr., ΜΥΛΑCЄΩΝ. Magistrates ' names in nominative under Augustus with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄΝ, and under Domitian with ΑΙΤΗCΑΜЄΝΟC ΑΝЄΘ, and in genitive under Augustus with ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΥΟΝΤΟΣ ΥΒΡΕΟΥ. This Hybreas is the orator concerning whom Strabo (659-60) gives some interesting details. Types—In Strabo 's time there were two famous temples of Zeus within the territory of Mylasa, one of Zeus Οσογωα in the city itself, and the other of Zeus Λαβραυνδος or Στρατιος at the neighbouring village of Labranda. Zeus Osogoa was a combination of Zeus and Poseidon (Ζηνοποσειδων). He is represented on coins holding an eagle and resting on a trident; symbol, sometimes, crab. The cultus-statue of Zeus Labraundos holds a labry s and a spear. There is also, on a coin of Caracalla, a figure of Zeus with a stag at his feet. Other types are, River-god (Kyberses ?); Hephaestos forging shield of Achilles (Imhoof-Blumer KM, Pl. V. 26). There are likewise silver coins struck at Mylasa, one of C. Caesar (?), rev. Zeus Labraundos (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 144), and some so-called 'Medallions of Asia ' of Hadrian, with Latin legends and figures of Zeus Labraundos and Zeus Osogoa (Pinder, Cistoph., Pl. VII. 2, 3, 7, 8).
Myndus was a Dorian coast-town about ten miles north-west of Halicarnassus. Its coinage begins apparently in the second century B.C. (BMC Caria, Pl. XXII).
|Head of Apollo, laureate.
[The Hague. Imh., Z. f. N., iii, Pl. IX. 1.]
|ΜΙΝΔΙΩΝ Winged fulmen and magistrates ' monograms; all in olive wreath. |
AR Tetradrachm 263 grs.
|Head of Zeus, laureate, with head-dress of Osiris.||ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ Head-dress of Isis and magistrate 's name in nominative case. |
AR Drachm 67 grs.
|Head of young Dionysos.||ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ Winged fulmen and magistrate 's name in nominative case. |
AR ½ Drachm 33 grs.
|Id.||ΜΥΝΔΙ, &c. Bunch of grapes and magistrate 's name. |
AR ¼ Drachm 16 grs.
There are also bronze coins with magistrates ' names in the nominative case. Types—Head of Zeus, rev. Eagle on fulmen; Head of Apollo, rev. Owl on olive-branch; Portable altar; &c.; Head of Artemis, rev. Two dolphins.
Nero to Domna. Inscr., ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ. Magistrate, Archon. Types— Apollo Kitharoedos and Artemis Myndia, between them tripod with serpent coiled round it, and beside Artemis, fire-altar (BMC Caria, Pl. XXII. 16); Small fire-altar with conical cover placed on the top of a large square altar; &c.
|Head of Apollo.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XXIII. 1.]
|ΝΕΑΠΟΛΙ ΜΥΝ(?) Lyre. Magistrate 's name (?) ΚΟΛΒΑ. |
Neapolis ad Harpasum, the modern Ineboli in the lower valley of the Harpasus.
|Head of Zeus with stiff curls.|
[N. C., 1903, p. 400.]
|ΝЄΑΠΟΛΙΤWΝ Eagle with open wings, on fulmen. [B. M.] |
|Head of Dionysos.|
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, 147.]
|ΝЄΑΠΟΛΙΤWΝ Artemis huntress, with stag.|
The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins extend from the time of the Flavians down to Trebonianus Gallus and Volusian. Inscr., ΝЄΑΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Magistrate, Grammateus with επι, under Gordian and Volusian. Types—ΘЄΟC CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Athena standing; Dionysos standing; Artemis Ephesia and Tyche; Draped Zeus and Boule (?) with altar between them; Apollo standing beside column on which is his lyre; Tyche; &c. There has been much confusion between the coins of Neapolis ad Harpasum and those of Neapolis in Ionia, a few miles south of Ephesus. The latter, however, bore the title Aurelia or Hadriana Aurelia (BMC Caria, lxvi).Alliance coins with Harpasa under Gordian, Trebonianus Gallus, and Volusian (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 149).
Orthosia (Ortas) stood on high ground overlooking the Maeander valley towards Nysa, which occupied the opposite hills on the northern side of the river at a distance of ten or twelve miles.
Autonomous bronze of the second and first centuries B.C. Inscr., ΟΡΘΩΣΙΕΩΝ. Types—Heads of Zeus; Poseidon(?); Dionysos. Reverses—Athena fighting; Trident; Double-axe; Thyrsos; Panther with Thyrsos. Magistrates ' names in nominative case on earliest coins.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Augustus to Maximinus. Inscr., ΟΡΘΩCΙΕΩΝ. No magistrates ' names. Types—ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Zeus draped, standing, holding fulmen; The Dioskuri standing beside their horses; Herakles leaning on club; Tyche, &c.
Sebastopolis, the modern Kizilje, was a town on the road from Apollonia Salbace to Cibyra. Its coinage is quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Vespasian to Mamaea. Inscr., CΕΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ and CΕΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Magistrates in nominative case under Vespasian. Types— CЄΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛΙC ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC ΔΗΜΟC, &c. Heads of Zeus, Dionysos, &c. Reverses—Artemis Ephesia; Thyrsos; Cista mystica; Veiled goddess Artemis (?) to front; Two warriors joining hands before cultus-statue of Artemis with stag or deer lying at foot of it; Hermes radiate with purse and caduceus; Dionysos; &c.
Stratoniceia, the modern Eski-Hissar, about thirty miles south of Alabanda, near the sources of the Marsyas, was named after Stratonice, wife of Antiochus I. Its earliest coins are later than B.C. 168, when Caria was declared by the Romans free and independent of Rhodes. To this period may perhaps be assigned a few coins of Alexander 's types bearing the letters ΣΤΡΑ in monogram (Müller Alexander, 1134-6). Between B.C. 166 and Imperial times Stratoniceia issued silver coins which probably had a wide circulation in central and southern Caria. Imhoof (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 153) enumerates no fewer than forty magistrates ' names in the nominative case on these coins; and as some of them, e. g. Γαιος and Κλαυδιος, are Roman, there can be little doubt that the coinage was prolonged down to Imperial times. When this silver coinage began is doubtful, but according to Imhoof its starting-point can hardly have been earlier than B.C. 81, when, by a decree of the Roman Senate, Stratoniceia seems to have been made a civitas libera et immunis sine foedere (BMC Caria, lxx). Within the territory of Stratoniceia there were three famous temples, one of Hekate at Lagina, a few miles north of the city, one of Zeus Chrysaoreus or Karios, the religious and political center of the Carian race, near the city itself, and one of Zeus Panamaros, on a lofty height about twelve miles south-east of the town.
The types of the Stratoniceian coins of pre-Imperial times are as follows :—
|Head of Zeus, laureate.
[Z. f. N., 1888, Pl. I. 2.]
|ΣΤΡΑΤΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ Hekate standing to front wearing polos surmounted by crescent, and holding torch and phiale. Magistrate 's name ΜΕΛΑΝΘΙΟΣ. |
AR 166 grs.
|Id. [BMC Caria, Pl. XXIII. 17.]||ΣΤ ΡΑ Similar. Beside Hekate, altar. Magistrates, ΛΕΩΝ and others. |
AR 52.3 grs.
|Id. [BMC Caria, Pl. XXIII. 11-12.]||Σ Τ Eagle with open wings. Magistrates ' names in nominative case; the whole in shallow incuse square. |
AR 22 grs.
|Head of Hekate surmounted by crescent. Magistrates ' names in nominative case.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XXII. 13.]
|CΤΡΑΤΟΝΙΚΕWΝ, or CΤΡΑ, &c. Nike with wreath and palm; all in shallow incuse square. |
AR 30 grs.
For varieties and lists of Magistrates ' names, cf. Imhoof, op. cit., and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 96.
The latest silver coins, which belong to early Imperial times, are the following :—
|Bust of Augustus (?) within laurel wreath
[BMC Caria, Pl. XXIV. 1).
|ΣΑΒΕΙΝΙΑΝΟΣ ΠΥΘΕΑΣ, ΣΤΡΑΤΟ... Zeus Panamaros (?) on horse; in front, lighted altar. |
AR 99 grs.
|Bust of Hekate. Magistrate ΖΩΠΥ-ΡΟΣ (Vatican).||ΣΤΡΑ Similar; no altar. |
AR 53 grs.
|Head of Augustus.
[Imh., Gr. M., 151, 449a.]
|ΑΡΙCΤΕΑC [ΧΙΔ...(?)], CΤΡΑ Similar. |
AR 47 grs.
The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coinage extends from Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., CΤΡΑΤΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ, with addition, on a coin of Titus, of ΦΙΛΟCΕΒΑCΤΩΝ (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 156). Magistrates ' names usually with επι and frequently with titles, Prytaneis, Archon, Grammateus, or Strategos, also φηφισαμενου under Trajan or Hadrian, and, if correctly read, επιμελη(θεντος) under Severus (Mion. S., vi. 538), also επι των περι τ. β or δ (στρατηγον?) under Caracalla. Chief types—ΔΗΜΟC; Zeus seated; Nike; Bellerophon holding Pegasos; Altar between torches; Pegasos with inscr. ΒΕΛ; Head of Zeus; Artemis slaying stag; Zeus Panamaros on horse; Hekate riding on radiate lion with dog 's tail (BMC Caria, Pl. XXIV. 4); Hekate standing at altar or with dog at her feet; Artemis Ephesia between two stags; Βουθυτης sacrificing bull under tree; Helmeted figure seated holding statuette of Athena. On a coin of Caracalla and Plautilla the latter bears the title NEA Θ. ΗΡ (Νεα Θεα Ηρα), which is also met with on coins of Alabanda and Alinda.
Syangela (?), about twelve miles east of Halicarnassus. Imhoof (Mon. gr., 323) has conjecturally assigned to this town a drachm (obv. Head of bearded Dionysos, rev. ΣΥ Kantharos in incuse square, wt. 63 grs.) and a bronze coin. The drachm was attributed by Waddington(As. Min., Pl. XI. 4) to Syme, but in BMC Caria, lxxiv it is, conjecturally, given to the island of Syros.
Tabae, the modern Davas, occupied the heights at the western end of a plain extending in a north-easterly direction towards Mount Salbacus. The population was a mixed one consisting of Carians, Phrygians, and Pisidians, and it was probably not thoroughly Hellenized until a comparatively late date, for there are no coins which can be safely attributed to a period much earlier than the latter half of the first century B.C. The oldest are drachms and hemidrachms of reduced Attic or Rhodian weight, and bronze coins :—
|Veiled female head.
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, Pl. V. 30.]
|ΤΑΒ (in mon.) Forepart of humped bull. |
AR 14.3 grs.
|Head of Dionysos with band across forehead and ivy-wreath.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XXV. 1.]
|ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Homonoia standing, wearing kalathos and holding phiale and cornucopia. |
AR 58 grs.
|Head of bearded Herakles.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XXV. 6.]
|ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Cultus-statue of Aphrodite resembling Artemis Ephesia, but between crescent and star. Archon 's name in nominative with patronymic. |
AR 31 grs.
|Id., or Head of Zeus.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XXV. 7, 8.]
|ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Artemis standing, holding torch and bow. Magistrate 's name as above. |
AR 37.5 grs.
|Head of Zeus.||ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Zeus Aëtophoros, hurling fulmen. Same magistrate. |
AR 39.5 grs.
|Bust of Athena. [Ibid., Pl. XXV. 9.]||ΤΑΒΗΝWΝ Nike advancing. Various archons ' names. |
AR 30.4 grs.
|Id. [Num. Chron., ix. 161.]||ΤΑΒΗΝWΝ Dionysos standing, holding kantharos and thyrsos. |
AR 20 grs.
|Head of bearded Herakles.
[BMC Caria, Pl. XXV. 10.]
|ΤΑΒΝWΝ Homonoia standing, as on earlier coins. Magistrate 's name with patronymic. |
AR 53.7 grs.
|ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Bust of Dionysos in ivy-wreath. [BMC Caria, Pl. XXV. 11.]||Poseidon standing with one foot on prow, resting on trident; dolphin behind him. Magistrate 's name with patronymic. |
AR 54.3 grs.
|Aequitas standing, with scales and sceptre. [Imh., Gr. M., 677.]||ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Capricorn, with globe between feet; above, CΕΒΑCΤΟC. |
AR 26 grs.
Among the earlier bronze coins of the pre-Imperial age are the following :—veiled head, rev. Forepart of humped bull; Head of Zeus, rev. Pilei of the Dioskuri; Helmeted male bust, rev. Humped bull. The later issues, which seem to be contemporary with the silver of early Imperial times, above described, bear heads of young Dionysos on the obverses, and on the reverses :—Two thyrsi crossed; the Pilei of the Dioskuri, sometimes on an altar; Poseidon with foot on prow; &c.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins. Augustus to Salonina. Inscr. ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates ' names without title or with that of Archon, at first in nominative case, later in genitive, preceded, under Domitian, by δια, and under Valerian and Gallienus usually by επι. Chief types—Busts of ΔΗΜΟC; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC; Zeus; Herakles; &c. Reverse types—Capricorn; Nemesis standing; Nike; Tyche; Panther; Stag; Pilei of Dioskuri on altar; Artemis huntress; Demeter standing; Two identical figures of Artemis huntress, facing, side by side; Dionysos standing, with panther; Artemis and Mên, face to face; Male pantheistic divinity, radiate, holding torch, lotus-headed sceptre, caduceus and bow; Poseidon standing (BMC Caria Pl. XXVI. 9); Pan with goats ' legs, dancing; Temple of Artemis; Agonistic crown on table, inscr. ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ.
Termera was an ancient city which occupied the southern part of the peninsula west of Halicarnassus, facing the island of Cos. Herodotus (v. 37) informs us that in the reign of Darius Hystaspis (B.C. 521-485) it was governed by a tyrant named Tymnes, and it is probable that the inscr. ΤVΜΝΟ on the Persic drachm described below may be the name of this dynast, or possibly of some younger member of the same family.  The Persic tetrobol (of doubtful attribution (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 161)) is evidently earlier, and appears to belong to the latter half of the sixth century B.C. (see Babelon, Traité, ii. 1, p. 415).
Persic standard, circ. B.C. 550-480.
During the subsequent Athenian hegemony Termera is assessed in the Quota-lists at a higher rate than its nearest neighbors, Myndus and Halicarnassus, but it does not appear to have struck any coins after the time of Tymnes. Under Mausolus Termera was destroyed and its population removed to Halicarnassus, the citadel alone being maintained as a prison.
Trapezopolis, on the northern side of the Salbacus range (J. H. S., xvii. 401), near the sources of the river Caprus, which appears to have
1 Cf. the Quota-Lists (I. G., i. 240, and Hill, Sources for Gk. Hist., p. 71) [Καρ]ες ον Τυ[μνες αρχει], circ. 440 B.C.
separated its territory from that of Laodiceia, was included in the Conventus of Alabanda. Its coins, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, range from Augustus to Domna. Inscr., ΤΡΑΠΕΖΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ, ΤΑΡΑΠΕΖΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, &c. Magistrates ' names under Augustus in nominative case. From the time of Domitian to that of M. Aurelius the name is in the genitive preceded by δια instead of επι. This u sage is peculiar to a group of cities in the same district, Cidramus. Attuda, Apollonia Salbace, Tabae, and Laodiceia ad Lycum. Imhoof (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 162) suggests that the use of δια, like that of παρα at Ceretape, Metropolis, and Siblia in Phrygia, means that the coinage was provided for special occasions at the private cost of the persons whose names it precedes, while επι, on the other hand, appears to be simply equivalent to a date indicating that the issue took place during the term of office of such and such a magistrate. (But see Class. Rev., 1907, p. 58.) At Trapezopolis it is noteworthy that the names preceded by δια are not followed by any distinctive title, whereas those with επι, which supersedes δια under S. Severus, are accompanied by the title Archon. In one instance επι precedes the names of two archons, one of whom, on another coin, is further distinguished as ΑΡΧΙ(ερεως) ΥΙΟΥ (Imh., Imhoof-Blumer KM, 163). Chief types—ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC ΙΕΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC Dionysos; Mên; Kybele; Demeter; Apollo; Aphrodite; Winged Nemesis; Asklepios; Tyche; &c., most of which occur also at the neighbouring city of Attuda.
Tymnessus. This Carian town, the site of which has not been identified, is mentioned only by Steph. Byz., s. v. It would seem however that, in early Imperial times, it possessed a mint and issued small bronze coins. Obv. Head of Zeus; rev. ΤVΜΝΗCΕΩΝ Head of Emperor (?) resembling Vespasian (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 99).
When Athens, after her Sicilian defeat during the Peloponnesian War, lost her command of the sea, the coast towns of Caria, &c., which since B.C. 469 had been tributary allies, fell again under Persian rule, and were assigned by the Great King to the Satrapy of Tissaphernes; and it is to his time that the remarkable tetradrachm described above (p. 597), obv. Head of Satrap, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛ and Lyre, is generally ascribed. On the death of Tissaphernes, Hecatomnus of Mylasa became Satrap of Caria circ. B.C. 395.
Hecatomnus, B.C. 395-377. The earliest coins of this ruler are drachms, &c. of Attic weight, and bronze coins probably struck at Mylasa, the types of which may be compared with the coins of Miletus :—
On the attributions of the above-mentioned coins see Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., pp. 100 sqq.
Mausolus, B.C. 377-353. Although Mausolus succeeded his father as Satrap of Caria in B.C. 377, it would seem that the tetradrachms and drachms of the Rhodian standard which bear his name were not struck before the removal of the satrapal residence from Mylasa to Halicarnassus, which then became the capital of Caria, B.C. 367 (?).
Circ. B.C. 366-351.
On the death of Mausolus in B.C. 353 his widow Artemisia succeeded him, and erected to his memory the famous Mausoleum. She died in B.C. 351, but struck no coins in her own name.
Hidrieus, B.C. 351-344. This dynast was the second son of Hecatomnus, and on the death of Artemisia he succeeded to the Satrapy of Caria, marrying, at the same time, his young sister Ada. His coins are tetradrachms, didrachms, and drachms, similar to those of his brother Mausolus, inscr. ΙΔΡΙΕΩΣ (BMC Caria, Pl. XXVIII. 5-7), also quarter-drachms, obv. Head of Apollo facing, rev. ΙΔΡΙΕΩΣ or ΙΔΡΙ between the rays of a star, as on the coins of Miletus (BMC Caria, Pl. XXVIII. 8). On the death of Hidrieus, B.C. 344, his widow Adaretained possession of the Satrapy for four years, but struck no coins in her own name.
Pixodarus, B.C. 340-334, the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus, obtained possession of the satrapy in B.C. 340, his sister Ada retiring to the inland fortress of Alinda, which she continued to hold until Alexander 's invasion. Pixodarus struck didrachms, drachms, and quarter-drachms similar to those of Hidrieus. On some specimens his name is written ΠΙΞΩΔΑΡΟΥ. This marks the date of the introduction of the spelling, in full, of the diphthong ΟΥ in Caria.
Pixodarus seems also to have been compelled, on pressure, to strike a few gold coins in his own name, which is a sign of a relaxation of direct Persian control, for the coinage of gold money was one of the cherished prerogatives of the Great King, never formally delegated to a Satrap.
The smaller gold coins of Pixodarus, which are of undoubted authenticity, are the following :—
The specimens of the larger denominations, Hemistater and Hecte (similar in type to the Hemihekton, except that the head of Apollo faces to the right), in the British Museum collection BMC Caria, Pl. XXVIII. 9, 10), are not altogether beyond suspicion.
Orontobates or Rhoontopates, B.C. 334-333. This Satrap married Ada, the daughter of Pixodarus, whose hand had been successively offered to Philip Arrhidaeus and to Alexander. The account of his defense of Halicarnassus against Alexander is given by Arrian (Anab. i. 23; ii. 5, 7), who calls him Orontobates. His coins are rare, and tetradrachms only are known. They resemble those of his predecessor, but bear apparently the inscription ΡΟΟΝΤΟΠΑΤΟ (Babelon, Perses Achém., lxxxviii. Pl. X. 17).
Uncertain Satrapal Coins of Caria (?).
Astypalaea, midway between Cos and Amorgos, was a port on the trade-route between Phoenicia, Cyprus, Rhodes, Cnidus, Cos, and European Greece on the west. Its name occurs in the Athenian quota-lists, B.C. 447-436, and in the latter year the annual sum at which it was assessed amounted to 12,000 drachms (about £480). Astypalaea struck small bronze coins in the third, second, and first centuries B.C. Inscr., ΑΣ, ΑΣΤΥ etc. The types point to a special cultus of Perseus, e. g. Head of Perseus, Harpa, Gorgon-head, &c., and some pieces closely resemble coins of Seriphos, where Perseus was also worshipped. On the later issues heads of Dionysos, Athena, and Asklepios supersede those of Perseus and Medusa, and it was in the temple of Athena and Asklepios at Astypalaea that a copy of the Senatus consultum was deposited which conferred upon the city the privileges of a Civitas foederata (I. G., xii. (iii) 173). Another type is that of a veiled female head, rev. Head of Dionysos. Gold staters and tetradrachms of Alexander 's types (symbol, harpa) are also attributed to Astypalaea (Müller Alexander 1170-1172). Imperial coins are known of Livia and Tiberius. Inscr., ΑΣΤΥΠΑΛΑΕΩΝ. Types—Nike advancing, &c.
In the Greenwell collection was a specimen with the letter Α on the helmet and Λ (?) behind the head (N. C., 1890, Pl. III. 24). These remarkable coins can hardly be later than circ. B.C. 600, and their attribution to Calymna is somewhat doubtful. It may be that they are of Euboean or Macedonian origin, possibly of Aeneia in Chalcidice. It has been pointed out by Babelon (Traité, ii. 1, p. 437) that in fabric they differ from all other archaic coins struck in any of the Aegaean islands or in Asia Minor.
Third century B.C.
There are also small bronze coins of similar types.
Carpathos. This island appears to have been of some importance in early times. Its chief city, Poseidium, struck silver staters in the sixth century B.C. resembling in fabric those of the ancient Rhodian cities, Lindus, Ialysus, and Camirus. All these places ceased to coin money when Rhodus was founded, B.C. 408. Poseidium was probably the chief city of the ‘Ετεοκαρπαθιοι εκ Καρπαθου, who appear separately in the Athenian Quota-Lists as paying 1,000 drachms, the same amount at which the people of ‘Αρκεσεια Καρπαθου are rated in contemporary lists.
Sixth century B.C. Phoenician standard.
Cos. Concerning the history, epigraphy, and numismatics of this important island, see Paton and Hicks (Inscr. of Cos, 1891). According to tradition the earliest Greek inhabitants of Cos came from Epidaurus, bringing with them the worship of Asklepios, for which the island was afterwards celebrated. Herakles is also an appropriate type on the coins of a city which was a member of the Dorian Pentapolis. The origin of the Crab as the special emblem of Cos is unexplained. The fact that it is frequently accompanied, on coins, with the Heraklean club, while on certain coins of Imperial times (BMC Caria, Pl. XXXIII. 4, 5) it is seen at the feet of Herakles himself, has been cited to prove its connexion with the cultus of Herakles. This is, however, very doubtful (see Babelon, Traité, ii. 1, 441).
The coinage of Cos falls into the following periods :—
Seventh century B.C. Aeginetic standard.
After a long interval of perhaps nearly a hundred years coins were once more struck in the island, and it is remarkable that, while the Crab is still the distinctive local emblem, the Aeginetic stater is now replaced by a tetradrachm of Attic weight.
Fifth century B.C. Attic standard.
The agonistic type of these coins clearly refers to the games held in honor of the Triopian Apollo in which the cities of the Dorian Pentapolis all took part, the first prize being a brazen tripod which the victor dedicated to the god (Herod. i. 144).
After these fifth century issues of Euboic-Attic tetradrachms there follows another long interval during which no coins seem to have been struck in Cos. The foundation of a new capital at the eastern end of the island (B.C. 366) marks the commencement of silver coinage on the Rhodian standard with corresponding bronze.
Circ. B.C. 366-300. Rhodian standard.
Circ. B.C. 300-190. Rhodian standard.
During this period Tetradrachms, Didrachms, Drachms, Hemidrachms, and bronze coins are plentiful, and a head of the youthful Herakles, of unmistakable Lysippean style, supersedes (except on the drachms) the bearded head prevalent on the earlier coins. On the tetradrachms the bow in its case replaces the club under the crab. For a list of the magistrates ' names see Paton and Hicks (Inscr. of Cos) and Imhoof (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 165).
Circ. B.C. 190-166.
To this period belong the Attic tetradrachms of Alexander 's types; symbols, Crab and club, and magistrates ' names or monograms (Paton and Hicks, Inscr. of Cos, p. 311, and Müller Alexander, 1153). The Coan or Rhodian weight was, however, retained for the didrachms and smaller coins.
Circ. B.C. 166-88.
A complete change in the type and fabric of the coinage took place both at Cos and Rhodus about B.C. 166. At Cos the ancient Herakleian types are now generally abandoned in favor of those relating to Asklepios, whose cult had gradually eclipsed that of Herakles, and who had come to be the representative divinity of the island. The most remarkable coin of this age is, however, the unique tetradrachm in the Hunter Collection :—
The smaller silver coins of this period are as follows :—
The bronze coins resemble those of the previous period.
Circ. B.C. 88-50.
The coins of this period, which extends from the time of Sulla to the tyranny of Nikias, are not numerous. The silver pieces are small. Types—Head of Apollo, rev. Lyre; Head of Asklepios, rev. Serpent staff or Coiled serpent. The corresponding bronze coins of the same time are of larger dimensions (BMC Caria, Pl. XXXII. 7-12).
Circ. B.C. 50 to Augustus.
During this period the island was governed for a time by a tyrant named Nikias, concerning whom very little is known (Strab. xiv. 658). His portrait, however, has been handed down to us on his bronze coins.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial Coins. Augustus to Philip Jun. Inscr., ΚΩΙΩΝ. Chief types—Heads of ΑΣΚΛΑΠΙΟΣ; Poseidon; Herakles; Ο ΔΑΜΟC; A ΒΟΥΛΑ; ΞΕΝΟΦΩΝ (Xenophon the Physician, who practiced in Rome in the reign of Claudius); ΞΕΝΟΦΟWΝ ΙΕΡΕΥC (the same as Priest of Asklepios (?)); ΙΠΠΟΚΡΑΤΗC (the Physician) seated; Tyche, &c. Reverse types— ΕΡΡΑΝΑ Bust of Eirene; Lyre (BMC Caria, Pl. XXXIII. 1); Two doves drinking, perched on the rim of a vase (see Blanchet, in Rev. Num., 1907, p. lxxxiii); Herakles holding infant Telephos (?), at his feet, crab (BMC Caria, Pl. XXXIII. 4, 5); Hygieia; City Tyche (?) to front. Magistrates ' names are not uncommon, and are in the nominative, sometimes accompanied by a patronymic.
Megiste (?). Megiste was a small island almost united to the mainland of Lycia some twenty miles east of Patara. A few inscriptions in the Doric dialect have been copied in the island (C. I. G., 4301; Le Bas-Wadd., 1268; B. C. H., XVI. 304); and from the types of some rare silver drachms resembling but differentiated from those of Rhodes, and inscribed ΜΕ, the inference has been drawn that Megiste, although an autonomous city, was a colony of Rhodus. Imhoof (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 166) has, however, pointed out that the inscriptions ΝΙ and ΕΥ also occur on coins of the same class, and that it is therefore possible that the coins in question may have been struck at Rhodus itself, in which case ΜΕ, ΝΙ, and ΕΥ would stand for magistrates ' names, or that some other colony of Rhodus, not necessarily Megiste, may have been their place of issue.
Fourth century B.C.
Nisyros was a small volcanic island lying midway between the Triopian promontory and the southern point of Cos, from which it was said to have been torn off by Poseidon with his trident, and hurled upon the giant Polybotes (Apollod., i. 6. 2).
This coin may be Rhodian, see supra, under Megiste (?).
There was a temple of Poseidon in the town of Nisyros (Strab. x. 489).
Müller (Num. d 'Alex., nos. 1168-9) ascribes to Nisyros some second century tetradrachms of the Alexandrine types with a bucranium as adjunct symbol. As this symbol is no longer accepted as one of the coin-types of Nisyros, Müller 's attribution of the Alexandrine tetradrachms in question is certainly erroneous.
Rhodes. The admirable situation and climate of Rhodes doubtless contributed to make the island a great maritime power, and the commercial activity of the Rhodian merchants soon raised it to a position of wealth and influence unsurpassed by that of any other state in Greece.
The Rhodian coinage falls into two main divisions: (i) that of the three ancient towns, Camirus, Ialysus, and Lindus, down to B.C. 408, when these cities combined to found the new capital, Rhodus; (ii) the long series of the currency of Rhodus from B.C. 408 onwards.
Camirus Rhodi, on the western coast of the island, was the most important of the three independent cities. The fact that its coins follow the Aeginetic standard indicates that it traded chiefly with the Aegaean islands, Crete, and Peloponnesus, where the Aeginetic standard prevailed.
There are also small electrum coins of Camirus, as well as of Ialysus and Lindus, which show that they had dealings with the Ionian coast-towns, where, in the sixth century B.C., electrum was the standard currency.
Silver and Bronze. Circ. B.C. 500-408. Persic (?) standard.
The fig-leaf may have been chosen as a coin-type as the chief product of the island, but it may also have been originally a religious symbol (cf. Dionysos συκιτης or συκατης at Lacedaemon (Ath. 78 c.) and Zeus συκασιος (Eust. 1572, 58)).
Ialysus Rhodi, in the north of the island, about ten miles west of the later city of Rhodus, does not seem to have issued money before the early part of the fifth century B.C., although there are some small electrum pieces (wts. 15, 7.3, and 3.7 grs.), resembling the silver coins, which may be somewhat earlier. (See Hirsch, Auct. Cat. xiii., Nos. 3997-4000.) Its first silver coins are of the Phoenician standard, suggesting that its commercial relations must have been rather with the mainland of Asia Minor than with the Aegaean islands.
Silver. Circ. B.C. 500-408. Phoenician standard.
The types and the fabric of the coins of Ialysus have something in common with those of Clazomenae, Lycia, Cyprus, and Cyrene, and they differ remarkably from those of the two other Rhodian cities, Camirus and Lindus (BMC Caria, ci).
Lindus Rhodi. The city of Lindus, on the east coast of Rhodes, struck, like Camirus and Ialysus, a few small electrum coins, resembling the silver money, which seem to be as early as the sixth century B.C., wts. 14.3 and 11.8 grs. (Hirsch, Auct. Cat. xiii., nos. 4002-3). The silver coins of Lindus, like those of Ialysus, follow the Phoenician standard. The Lion 's head, the prevailing type of the Lindian coinage, may be merely a copy of the widely-circulating Cnidian coins, in which case it possesses no local significance. The peculiar form of the incuse reverses of the coins of both Lindus and Camirus, consisting of a square divided into two oblong halves by a broad band, is original and hardly ever met with outside Rhodes except at Poseidium in the neighbouring island of Carpathos:—
Silver. Circ. B.C. 600-500. Phoenician standard.
Circ. B.C. 500-408.
Some specimens show a faint inscription, apparently ΛΙΝΔΙ, in front of the horse.
Rhodus. In or about the year B.C. 408 the three independent Rhodian towns, Camirus, Ialysus, and Lindus, combined to found the new city of Rhodus near the extreme northern point of the island. As the people of all three towns claimed descent from Helios, to whom indeed the whole island was sacred (Pindar, Ol. vii. 54), the head of the Sun-god and his emblem, the Rose, ροδον, the flower from which the island took its name, were naturally chosen as the coin-types of the new capital. In the year of the foundation of Rhodus, B.C. 408, full-face heads on coins were a novelty. The engraver of the new Rhodian coin-dies, inspired perhaps by the exquisite full-face head of Arethusa, the chef d 'oeuvre of the Syracusan artist, Kimon (circ. B.C. 409), betrays also his own individuality by his adoption of the broader and bolder style of treatment which henceforth characterized Rhodian art, and which, a century later, culminated in the erection of the world-renowned colossal statue of Helios by the Rhodian sculptor, Chares, a pupil of Lysippus. The Rhodian coins of the fourth century B.C. give a splendid rendering of the head of the Sun-god in his noon-day glory, with rounded face and ample locks of hair, wind-blown and suggestive of his rapid course. The crown of rays which the artists of the next century preferred to emphasize in a more materialistic form is, on these earlier coins, merely hinted at by a skilful adaptation of the locks of the hair (cf. BMC Caria, Pl. XXXVI. 5, with Pl. XXXVIII. 1). For a possible engraver 's name see Hunter Cat. ii, p. 437.
The coinage of Rhodus falls into the following classes :—
Silver. Circ. B.C. 408-400. Attic standard.
Next in order follows the Federal coinage of the 'Symmachy ', common to Rhodus, Cnidus, Iasus, Samos, Ephesus, and Byzantium, which dates from Conon 's victory at Cnidus, B.C. 394. In weight the coins of this alliance consist of Aeginetic didrachms of very light weight (178 grs.), which may also be regarded as tridrachms of the reduced Attic standard (drachm 60 grs.) adopted by Rhodus about this time. The types of the Federal coin of Rhodus are as follows :—
Gold. Circ. B.C. 400-333.
Of the numerous full-face coins of bold and sculptures que style issued from the Rhodian mint during the greater part of the fourth century the most perfect specimen is the unrivalled gold stater in the British Museum (BMC Caria, Pl. XXXVI. 5).
This is not only one of the most beautiful but it is also one of the earliest pure gold staters struck at any Greek town. A few only of the Lampsacene staters can claim priority in date.
Silver. B.C. 400-333. Rhodian standard.
Tetradrachms, didrachms, and drachms, resembling the gold stater in type, but of coarser work, together with didrachms and diobols with a head of Helios in profile, belong also to this period. All these coins have various symbols and letters beside the Rose on the reverses (BMC Caria, pp. 231-4).
Circ. B.C. 333-304.
In this period the radiate type of the head of Helios makes its first appearance on some of the full-face didrachms and on quarter-drachms with the head in profile; and small bronze coins occur for the first time, the obv. type of which is a female head, probably that of the nymph Rhodos. The magistrates ' names on the larger coins are at full length in the nominative case.
Circ. B.C. 304-189 and later.
The coinage of Rhodes seems to have been unaffected by the campaign of Alexander, and it was not until after the famous siege of the city by Demetrius Poliorcetes that any great modification of the types was introduced. It can, however, hardly be questioned that the next series of Rhodian coins, which exhibits the head of Helios radiate (Fig. 309) on both tetradrachms and didrachms, falls into the period of the greatest prosperity of Rhodes (B.C. 304-166). This radiate head may serve to give us some idea of the style and general aspect of the features of the colossal statue by Chares set up in B.C. 283 beside the harbor of Rhodus, and not, according to a fanciful modern notion, astride across its entrance (Overbeck, Plastik, 3rd ed., ii. 137 sqq.).
The unradiate head is retained during this period on the drachms and smaller coins. The inscr. on the reverses is either ΡΟΔΙΟΝ or Ρ Ο, and there are magistrates ' names, each with a separate symbol beside the rose. The Rhodian drachms appear to have circulated widely also on the mainland, and some without the letters Ρ Ο were certainly struck on the continent; cf. a specimen with the mint-mark of Miletus (BMC Caria, Pl. XXXIX. 8) and others with an eagle superposed on the right cheek of the Sun-god.
Circ. B.C. 189-166.
At the conclusion of the peace, B.C. 189, after the battle of Magnesia, Rhodes obtained a large accession of territory on the mainland, including Lycia (exclusive of Telmessus) and the greater part of Caria. With the exception of the magnificent gold stater above described (circ. B.C. 400) all the other known gold coins of Rhodes belong to the second century B.C.
GOLD AND SILVER OF REGAL TYPES.
Rhodes, after B.C. 189, also struck some gold Philippi with Ρ Ο and adjunct symbol, rose (Müller, 308); and Lysimachian gold staters (Müller, Lysim., 450, 451), together with Alexandrine tetradrachms (Müller, 1154-67). The magistrates ' names on these coins are identical with those on the coins of the Rhodian type.
Circ. B.C. 166-88.
In B.C. 167 the Romans deprived Rhodes of her territory on the mainland. All the cities hitherto tributary to Rhodes were declared free, and the Rhodian merchants suffered in consequence a severe loss. The erection of Delos at this time into a free port was also greatly detrimental to Rhodian commerce. It is probable that the cessation of the issue of tetradrachms from the Rhodian mint is coincident with these political and commercial reverses, and that, driven to abandon the issue of large coins, Rhodes strove to maintain her credit by restoring her drachms more nearly to their original weight, and for the sake of distinguishing the new drachms of heavier weight from the debased drachms, still current, a new type was adopted. A head of Helios in profile was substituted for the full-face head, and the obsolete incuse square was reintroduced with the deliberate intention of marking the fact that the new drachms were equivalent to those which had prevailed in former times before the incuse square had been abandoned. The types of the coins of this period are as follows :—
Circ. B.C. 88-43.
During the revolt of Asia from Roman rule, B.C. 88-84, Rhodes was one of the few states which refused to join Mithradates, and when Sulla with the help of the Rhodian fleet passed over into Asia and quelled the revolt, the Rhodians were rewarded for their loyalty to Rome by the gift of freedom and by the restoration of a portion of their possessions on the mainland. It is to this period of renewed prosperity that I would attribute the last issue of Rhodian silver coins. These pieces are drachms ranging in weight from 68.4 to 61.7 grs. They are thus slightly heavier than the Attic drachms, and the heavier specimens might be accepted as thirds of the contemporary Ptolemaic tetradrachms of about 210 grs.
As these heavy drachms are rare, it would seem that Rhodes ceased to coin silver before the middle of the first century B.C., while the unusually large size and heavy weight of the bronze pieces which succeed them indicate that these latter were intended to take the place of silver money, and that they can hardly have been tokens of merely nominal value.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial Coins, 43 B.C. to COMMODUS.
The wavering policy of Rhodes during the civil war between Pompey and Caesar led to the final ruin of her commerce in B.C. 42, when Cassius Parmens is destroyed the greater part of her fleet and struck a fatal blow at her maritime supremacy. Although the Rhodian silver money continued to be current long after it had ceased to be issued, bronze gradually took its place as the chief medium of circulation, and the large bronze coins superseded the silver drachms. Somewhat later, under one or other of the earlier emperors, one of those reductions in the value of the current coins took place which I have elsewhere noticed (BMC Caria, p. cxvii), and the large bronze coin which, from its types, I have assumed to have been at first equivalent to the drachm was now distinguished as a didrachm and denominated as such by its inscription ΡΟΔΙΩΝ ΔΙΔΡΑΧΜΟΝ or ΡΟΔΙΟΙ ΥΠΕΡ ΤΩΝ CΕΒΑCΤΩΝ ΔΙΔΡΑΧΜΟΝ.
The chief types on the large bronze coins are heads of Dionysos unradiate or radiate, and heads of Helios radiate, in profile. The reverse type is usually Nike. Magistrates ' names in the genitive case with επι and often with title Ταμιας, the Financial Treasurer and not the Roman Provincial Quaestor. On a coin of Ant. Pius is a figure of ΠΟCΕΙΔΩΝ ΑCΦΑΛΕΙΟC standing before altar (Eckhel, D. N., ii. 605). Poseidon Asphaleios was the god who presided over the safety of ships and ports (cf. Strab. 59).
Fourth century B.C.
The inscription ΔΑΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ occurs also on contemporary coins of Cnidus (see supra, p. 616). The heads of Zeus and Athena are probably those of the Zeus Πολιευς and Athena Πολιας mentioned in Telian inscriptions (C. I. G. xii. (iii) 40).