[Th. Reinach, Trois royaumes &c.; Wroth, B. M. C., Galatia, Cappadocia, &c.]
The Persian governors who ruled Cappadocia before the expedition of
Alexander the Great do not appear to have struck coins, with the
exception of the satrap Datames (circ. B.C. 362), in whose name money
was issued at Sinope and at Gaziura in Pontus (see B. M. C., p. xxiv, and
Regling in Z. f. N., xxiv (1904), p. 132). The continuous regal series begins
with Ariarathes I, whose dynasty was succeeded, circ. B.C. 95, by that
of Ariobarzanes I.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΙΑΡΑΘΟΥ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟΓΙΑΤΟΡΟΣ Athena
standing, holding Nike. AR Tetradr.
Brit. Mus. Another tetradr. without
ΦΙΛΟΓΙΑΤΟΡΟΣ; and a third
tetradr. with the inscr. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ
ΑΡΙΑΡΑΘΟΥ ΑΡΙΑΡΑΘΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ [B. M. C., p. xxviii].
Head of Ariarathes V.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΙΑΡΑΘΟΥ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ Athena standing, holding
Nike. Regnal years.
Orophernes, B.C. 158-157, pretender.
Head of Orophernes (Fig. 330). [B. M. C.,
p. xxviii; p. 34; cf. Dressel in
Sitzungsberichte der konigl. preussischen Akad. der Wissenschaften,
xxiii. 1905, p. 467.]
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΟΡΟΦΕΡΝΟΥ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ Nike standing, holding wreath
and palm; in field, owl on basis
(mint-mark of Priene). AR Tetradr.
(Specimens have been found at Priene,
where Orophernes deposited his treasure.)
Caesareia, now Kaisariyeh, at the foot of Mount Argaeus. Its original
name was Mazaca, and the place was the capital of the Cappadocian
kings. It was renamed Eusebeia and finally called Caesareia. Autonomous. The earliest coins are bronze of the time of Archelaus the last king
(see supra), some inscribed ΕΥΣΕΒΕΙΑΣ and others inscribed ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΙΑΣ. From the dates on these it appears that the town changed its
name from Eusebeia to Caesareia at some time between B.C. 12 and B.C. 9
(Imhoof, Zur griech. Münzkunde, 1898, pp. 3 f.; B. M. C., pp. xxxiv f.).
Types—Mount Argaeus; Bust of Athena; Statue of Asiatic goddess;
Head of Herakles; &c. (Imhoof, loc. cit.).
Imperial, Tiberius to Treb. Gallus. The coins—AR and Æ—were
struck in large numbers, as Caesareia, like Antiocheia in Syria, was
an Imperial mint for the East. The normal weights of the silver seem
to be Tridrachm, 180 grains; Didr., 120 grs.; Dr., 60 grs.; ½ Dr., 30 grs.
After the time of Severus the AR becomes debased. Both AR and
Æ bear dates of the Emperors’ reigns, and the AR records the consulate,
e.g. ΥΠΑΤΟC Γ (= COS III), and the tribunician power, ΔΗΜΑΡΧΙΚ(ης)
Inscr., ΚΑΙCΑΡЄWΝ ΤWΝ ΠΡΟC ΤW ΑΡΓΑΙW and abbrev.;
ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΩC ΚΑΙCΑΡΙΑC; ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ (Hunter Cat., ii.
Pl. LXII. 24); sometimes with ЄΝΤΙΧΙΟΝ (εντειχιον χωριον) added
(B. M. C., p. xxxv), also with ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟΥ.
Types—With the exception of Mount Argaeus, which occurs very
frequently, the types are generally not of local significance, but are copied
from Roman coins (see B. M. C., pp. 46 ff.), e. g. ЄΛЄΥΘ(ερια) ΔΗΜΟΥ =
Libertas publica, Liberty standing (R. N., 1895, p. 68); ΠΡΟΝΟΙΑ, Providentia standing. There are also Æ coins with rev. Stone of pyramidal
form (=Argaeus ?) attributed to Caesareia (B. M. C., p. xxxix n.). Argaeus
is shown as a cavernous, peaked mountain, and is often surmounted
by a star. Sometimes a male figure (a god, or the deified Emperor?)
stands on the summit (Fig. 331); sometimes an agalma of the mountain
is placed on an altar, or is held by Sarapis. Cf. Maximus of Tyre (Diss.,
viii. 8), [Argaeus] οροσ Kαππαδοκαισ και θεοσ και ορκοσ και αγαλμα, and see
on the Argaeus types, B. M. C., pp. xxxviii f., and Rossbach, Neue Jahrb.,
vii. pp. 406-9. A specimen at Berlin (Journ. Int., 1898, pp. 455 f.)
shows Argaeus, and a temple inscribed ЄΙCЄΩΝΑ(αιωνα)ΤΟΥC ΚΥΡΙΟΥ[C],
i. e. ‘long life to the Emperors’. Another coin (B. M. C., Pl. XIII. 2; cf.Hunter Cat., ii. p. 593, No. 82; also Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk.,
p. 231) shows two columns or towers, enclosed within a palisade,
beside the mountain. The Tyche of the city sometimes wears Argaeus as
a head-dress (Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 86).
Magistrates, Πρεσβευτης, i.e. the legatus Augusti pro praetore of
Galatia and Cappadocia. Stephanephoroi sometimes occur (Imhoof, Zur
gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 232).
Comana (Sherherdere-si), famous for its sanctuary of the goddess Mâ.
No coins can be attributed to this place; cf. B. M. C., p. xli; Rev. des
études gr., xii. (1899), p. 102., and Comana in Pontus, supra, p. 498.
Cybistra (Eregli). Æ of the time of Trajan. Inscr., ΚΥΒΙCΤΡЄWΝ.
Rev. types—Harpa; River-god swimming. Magistrate, Name of the
legatus P. C. Ruso (B. M. C., p. xli; p. 95).
Tyana, now Kiz (or Kilisa) Hissar. Æ of a Cappadocian dynast
ΑΡΙ... (Ariaos ?) were struck here, circ. B.C. 280 (?). Obv. Beardless head
in Cappadocian tiara, rev. Horse galloping; in front, a palm-tree;
beneath., ΑΡΙ ΔΣ ΤΥ. Berlin (Dressel in Z. f. N., xxi. (1898), p. 227).
Another variety has rev. Horseman with javelin, ΣΔ and ΤΥΑΝ. (Invent.
Wadd., No. 6800).
Imperial, Trajan to Caracalla. Inscr., ΤVΑΝЄWΝ; ΤVΑΝЄWΝ Τ.
Π. Τ. (= ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟC ΤΑΥΡΩ) ΙЄΡΑC Κ. ΑCVΛΟV Κ. ΑVΤΟΝΟΜΟ. Under
Domna and Caracalla the inscription is ΑΝΤ. ΚΟΛΩΝΙΑ ΤVΑΝΩΝ or
ΑVΡ. ΚΟΛΩΝΙΑC ΤVΑΝΩΝ, the colony taking these names, ‘Αντωνινιανη
Αυρηλια, in honour of Caracalla (Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 499). Types—Tyche
of city seated holding corn and grapes; Perseus; Athena; Asklepios,
Humped bull and two vexilla. Dates, Regnal years of the Emperors.
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CAPPADOCIA, an extensive country in Asia Minor, bordering northward on the Pontus Euxinus (Black Sea), eastward on Armenia, southward on Mount Taurus, which divided it from Cilicia, and westward on Galatia and Pamphilia. Its modern name is Tocat, it was famous, and is still noted, for horses, mules, and slaves. The ancient state of Cappadocia is very imperfectly known. It had its kings down to so late a period as the reign of Tiberius. And of those kings, coins are still extant. Germanicus Caesar, after having vanquished the king of Armenia, made a Roman province of Cappadocia.