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(i). Regal Series.
The Persian governors who ruled Cappadocia before the expedition of Alexander the Great do not appear to have struck coins, with the exception of the satrap Datames (c. B.C. 362), in whose name money was issued at Sinope and at Gaziura in Pontus (see BMC Galatia, p. xxiv, and Regling in Z. f. N., xxiv (1904), p. 132). The continuous regal series begins with Ariarathes I, whose dynasty was succeeded, c. B.C. 95, by that of Ariobarzanes I.
Ariarathes I, B.C. 330-322.
Ariarathes V Eusebes, Philopator, B.C. 163-130, son of Ariarathes IV.
Ariobarzanes II Philopator, B.C. 62-52, son of Ariobarzanes I.
Ariarathes X Eusebes Philadelphos, B.C. 42-36, brother of Ariobarzanes III.
(ii). Civic Series.
Caesareia, now Kaisariyeh, at the foot of Mount Argaeus. Its original name was Mazaca, and the place was the capital of the Cappadocian kings. It was renamed Eusebeia and finally called Caesareia. Autonomous. The earliest coins are bronze of the time of Archelaus the last king (see supra), some inscribed ΕΥΣΕΒΕΙΑΣ and others inscribed ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΙΑΣ. From the dates on these it appears that the town changed its name from Eusebeia to Caesareia at some time between B.C. 12 and B.C. 9 (Imhoof, Zur griech. Münzkunde, 1898, pp. 3 f.; BMC Galatia, pp. xxxiv f.). Types—Mount Argaeus; Bust of Athena; Statue of Asiatic goddess; Head of Herakles; &c. (Imhoof, loc. cit.).
Imperial, Tiberius to Trebonianus Gallus. The coins—AR and Æ—were struck in large numbers, as Caesareia, like Antiocheia in Syria, was an Imperial mint for the East. The normal weights of the silver seem to be Tridrachm, 180 grains; Didrachm, 120 grs.; Dr., 60 grs.; ½ Dr., 30 grs. After the time of Severus the AR becomes debased. Both AR and Æ bear dates of the Emperors’ reigns, and the AR records the consulate, e.g. ΥΠΑΤΟC Γ (= COS III), and the tribunician power, ΔΗΜΑΡΧΙΚ(ης) ЄΞΟΥC(ιας).
Inscr., ΚΑΙCΑΡЄWΝ ΤWΝ ΠΡΟC ΤW ΑΡΓΑΙW and abbrev.; ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΩC ΚΑΙCΑΡΙΑC; ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ (Hunter Cat., ii. Pl. LXII. 24); sometimes with ЄΝΤΙΧΙΟΝ (εντειχιον χωριον) added (BMC Galatia, p. xxxv), also with ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟΥ.
Types—With the exception of Mount Argaeus, which occurs very frequently, the types are generally not of local significance, but are copied from Roman coins (see B. M. C., pp. 46 ff.), e. g. ЄΛЄΥΘ(ερια) ΔΗΜΟΥ = Libertas publica, Liberty standing (R. N., 1895, p. 68); ΠΡΟΝΟΙΑ, Providentia standing. There are also Æ coins with rev. Stone of pyramidal form (=Argaeus ?) attributed to Caesareia (BMC Galatia, p. xxxix n.). Argaeus is shown as a cavernous, peaked mountain, and is often surmounted by a star. Sometimes a male figure (a god, or the deified Emperor?)
753stands on the summit (Fig. 331); sometimes an agalma of the mountain is placed on an altar, or is held by Sarapis. Cf. Maximus of Tyre (Diss.,
viii. 8), [Argaeus] οροσ Kαππαδοκαισ και θεοσ και ορκοσ και αγαλμα, and see on the Argaeus types, B. M. C., pp. xxxviii f., and Rossbach, Neue Jahrb., vii. pp. 406-9. A specimen at Berlin (Journ. Int., 1898, pp. 455 f.) shows Argaeus, and a temple inscribed ЄΙCЄΩΝΑ(αιωνα)ΤΟΥC ΚΥΡΙΟΥ[C], i. e. ‘long life to the Emperors’. Another coin (B. M. C., Pl. XIII. 2; cf. Hunter Cat., ii. p. 593, No. 82; also Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 231) shows two columns or towers, enclosed within a palisade, beside the mountain. The Tyche of the city sometimes wears Argaeus as a head-dress (Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 86).
Games, ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛΦ(ЄΙΑ) (BMC Galatia, p. 82, No. 280).
Comana (Sherherdere-si), famous for its sanctuary of the goddess Mâ. No coins can be attributed to this place; cf. B. M. C., p. xli; Rev. des études gr., xii. (1899), p. 102., and Comana in Pontus, supra, p. 498.
Tyana, now Kiz (or Kilisa) Hissar. Æ of a Cappadocian dynast ΑΡΙ... (Ariaos ?) were struck here, circ. B.C. 280 (?). Obv. Beardless head in Cappadocian tiara, rev. Horse galloping; in front, a palm-tree; beneath., ΑΡΙ ΔΣ ΤΥ. Berlin (Dressel in Z. f. N., xxi. (1898), p. 227). Another variety has rev. Horseman with javelin, ΣΔ and ΤΥΑΝ. (Invent. Wadd., No. 6800).
Imperial, Trajan to Caracalla. Inscription, ΤVΑΝЄWΝ; ΤVΑΝЄWΝ Τ. Π. Τ. (= ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟC ΤΑΥΡΩ) ΙЄΡΑC Κ. ΑCVΛΟV Κ. ΑVΤΟΝΟΜΟ. Under Domna and Caracalla the inscription is ΑΝΤ. ΚΟΛΩΝΙΑ ΤVΑΝΩΝ or ΑVΡ. ΚΟΛΩΝΙΑC ΤVΑΝΩΝ, the colony taking these names, ‘Αντωνινιανη Αυρηλια, in honor of Caracalla (Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 499). Types—Tyche of city seated holding corn and grapes; Perseus; Athena; Asklepios, Humped bull and two vexilla. Dates, Regnal years of the Emperors.
DICTIONARY OF ROMAN COINS