During his reign, the provinces were well supplied with provisions and Rome was embellished with many stately buildings and magnificent porticoes.
Those guilty of corruption or who robbed the public, even intimate friends of the emperor, were severly punished. The offices of the state which had before his reign been sold or occupied by favorites, were now bestowed based upon merit, and Alexander could boast that all his officers were men of trust and abilities.
The revolt of the Germans soon after called him away from the indolence of the capital. His expedition in Germany achieved some success, however, his virtues and amiable qualities were forgotten by the soldiers in the stern and sullen strictness of his discipline. His soldiers, fond of repose, murmured against his severity; their clamors fomented by the artifice of Maximinus. Alexander was murdered in his tent, in the midst of his camp, after a reign of 13 years, on or about the 18th of March 235 A.D. His mother Mamaea shared his fate, with all his friends. Maximus then punished all the soldiers involved in the murder, except himself, with immediate death.
Alexander has been admired for his many virtues, and every historian except Herodian is bold to assert, that if he had lived, the Roman Empire might have been freed from the tumults and abuses which continually disturbed her peace, and kept the lives of her emperors and senators in perpetual alarms.
1. Luis C. West, Gold and Silver Standards in the Roman Empire, Numismatic Notes and Monographs, #94, ANS, NY, 1941.
Moving from one volume to three volume coverage of the provincial area
, here is the next set to purchase. Broken into separate areas in the first two volumes and then combined in the last, the collection of Dr. Lindgren
is extensive. The organization by area
, the extensive index
, and pictures of all coins listed, make this a great reference. Fair
coverage of Severus Alexander
. Don't expect all your coins to be pictured but you will hopefully find a similar coin.
Die Antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands by A. Forni (AMNG)
This 4 volumes in five parts reference is essential for the coinage of Moesia
especially for Severus Alexander
. The series also covers Macedonian, Thracian, Dacia
, Paeonia and Mysia
but are either very limited for Severus Alexander
or contain no examples for him. The reference is in older style
German and contains only example plates at the end. Difficult to find and expensive. $295.
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum. The Royal Danish National Museum, Copenhagen. (SNG COP)
Vol. I. Italy and Sicily
. 92 pp., 60 pl.
Vol. II. Thrace
. 68 pp., 60 pl.
Vol. III. Greece, Thessaly
to Aegean Islands. 96 pp., 80 pl.
Vol. IV. Bosporus
. 62 pp., 50 pl.
Vol. V. Ionia
. 93 pp., 83 pl.
Vol. VI. Phrygia
. 73 pp., 63 pl.
Vol. VII. Cyprus
to India. 81 pp., 67 pl.
. Spain-Gaul, North Africa
, Egypt-The Ptolemies. 131 pp., 115 pl.
Considered by many to be the best of the provincial references, it is also a great reference for Severus Alexander
coinage. Eight volumes and pictures for each coin make this a great reference. Very good
coverage of Severus Alexander
. The price
is definitely a major consideration. $795.
Vol. 1: Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Mysia,
Troas, Aeolis, Lesbos, Ionia
Vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia
Vol. 3: Pisidia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, Galatia, Cappadocia, Cyprus, Imperial
Cistophoris, Posthumous Lysimachus and Alexander tetradrachms
Vol. 4: Supplement
Considered by many to be the ultimate reference for
coins of this area. Each coin is carefully described and pictured.
Text in German but easy to follow. A good number of coins of Severus
Alexander are covered. Not cheap at $500.
This reference is exclusively for Alexandrian coinage (Egypt
) and contains an extensive cataloging system that allows for new coins, rarity, drawing of all coin obverses and reverses, maps
and a concordance to other references. The best new reference on this Alexandrian coinage for Severus Alexander
or any other emperor. A great deal at $49.95.
Catalog of Alexandrian Coins by J. G. Milne (Milne)
Another reference on just
Alexandrian Coinage, this one has a good
introduction and plate types. Most coins of Severus Alexander
are listed. Definitely worth $55.
A catalogue of over 2000 coins, with introduction, rarity guides, index
, and history. This new reprint incorporates an additional 1200 illustrations from the catalogues of several dealers. Additionally, there are two articles by Milne
: "The Leaden Token-Coinage of Egypt
Under the Romans" and "The Currency of Egypt
in the Fifth Century." Good
coverage of Severus Alexander
Katalog Alexanderinischer Kaisermunzen der Sammlung des
Instits fur Altertumskunde der Universitat zu Koln
band 3 (Marc Aurel - Gallinesus) by Angelo
This reference is an excellent source for
identification of Alexandrian Tets of Severus Alexander. Each
coin is pictured with extensive references sited. This is the
first reference I go to identify my Alexandrian Tets. It is
extensive in the coins listed but is written in German and also expensive
and not easy to find. Around $100 if you can find it.
A limited number of coins and plates are within this reference for Severus Alexander
but still a useful reference. Not easy to find and expensive at around $100.
Thrace etc. British Museum Catalogue by Poole (BMC)
This very limited reference covers Thrace
, and other areas. Not worth the $95 you can expect to pay for it.
Severus Alexander and the Severan Women by Robert L. Cleve, PhD, is the most comprehensive work I've read on Severus Alexander and the women who guided his life. This is Professor Cleve's doctorial dissertation and can be found on various sites that you purchase dissertations. Highly recommended for anyone who really wants to better understand Severus Alexander better.
The Decadent Emperors also under the title The Young Emperors by George C. Brauer, Jr. is a super book covering more than just Severus Alexander. The chapters devoted to Severus Alexander read very well and provide a good amount of detail. Highly recommend.
The Severans by Michael Grant is another great book by a well know historian that covers the Severans quite well. It unfortunately doesn't have separate chapters on Severus Alexander but is worth getting. Recommend.
The Life of Alexander Severus by R. V. Hopkins is almost a 100 years old and many of the theories presented in this book have been disproved. It is though a great source of information on Severus Alexander and provides a different viewpoint on various issues. Recommend if you want to seriously study Severus Alexander. Hard to get but some companies that print out of print books may be able to print you a copy.
Aelius Lampridius (attr), Scriptores Historiae Augustae. Magie, David, ed., trans. "Loeb Classical Library", G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. c. 1924. "Severus Alexander".
Anon, "Acts of Cecilia". Morse, T. D. C., trans. Smith, William and Wace, Henry, eds., A Dictionary of Christian Biography. John Murry, London. 1880. Vol. I, pp. 365-66.
Anon, "Acts of Urban" (paraphrased). Barmby, James, ed. Smith, William and Wace, Henry, eds., A Dictionary of Christian Biography. John Murry, London. 1880. Vol. IV, pp. 1063-64.
Anon, "Chronica Gallica". Mommsen, Theodore, ed., "Monumenta Germaniae Historica", Weidmann, Berlin. 1882. "Chronica Minora", Vol. I, p. 641.
Anon, "Chronicon ad AD 846 Pertinens". Chabot, L.-B., ed. "Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium", Scriptores Syri 4, Chronica Minora II, p. 145.
Anon, "Chronicon Paschale". Dindorf, Ludwig, ed. Weber, 1932. 253 Olympiad.
Anon, Suidas. Bekker, Immanuel, ed. Berlin, 1854. "Origen".
Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus Historia. Harles, ed. A. J. Valpy, London. 1829. XXIV.
Aurelius Victor (attr), De Vita et Moribus Imperatorum Romanorum (The "Epitome"). Harles, ed., A. J. Valpy, London. 1829. XXIV.
Barhabaeus (Gregory abu'l Faraj), The Chronography of Gregory abu'l Faraj. Badge, Ernest A. Willis, ed., trans. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1932. p. 55.
Cassiodorus Senator, Chronicon. Gamonet, Phillip, ed., n.p., 1809. "Alexander Mammeae, XXI."
"Chronographer of 354 AD". Mommsen, Theodore, ed., "Monumenta Germaniae Historica", Weidmann, Berlin. 1882. "Chronica Minora", Vol. I, p. 147. XVI.
Contantius VII Porphyrogenitus, De Insidiis. Cramer, John Anthony, ed., “Anecdota Graeca e Codd. Manuscriptis Bibliothecae Regiae Parisiensis”. Georg Olms Verlagsbuehlandlung, Hildesheim. 1967.
Dio Cassius, Roman History. Cary, Earnest, ed., trans. "Loeb Classical Library". Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. c. 1955. LXXIX, 17.1-finis; fragment.
Eusebius, Chronicle (ed of Jerome). Migne, J. P., ed. "Patrologia Latina", vol. 27, Paris, 1846. AD 225-37.
Eusebius, Chronicorum Canonum. Schoene, Alfred, ed. Weidmann, Berlin. 1866. Olympiads CCL-CCLIII.
Eusebius, Church History. McGiffert, Arthur Cushman, ed., trans. "A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers", vol. 1. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids MI. VI. 21, 28.
Eutropius, Breviarum. Watson, John Selby, ed., trans. G Bull & Sons, Ltd.. c. 1910. VIII. 23.
Eutychius, Annals. Migne, J. P., ed. "Patrologia Graeca", vol. 61. Paris. 381-83.
Herodian, History. Whittaker, C. R., ed., trans. "Loeb Classical Library", Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. c. 1920. V.7-VI.9.
Georgius Cedrenus, Historiarum Compendium. Dindorf, William, ed. "Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae", Bonn, 1829. vol. 1. 256 C-D.
Georgius Syncellus, Chronographia. Dindorf, William, ed. "Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae", Bonn, 1829. vol. 1. 211-15.
Ioannes Antiochenus. Muller, Carl, ed. "Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum" (Bibliotheque Graecque). Didot, Paris. 1848-1851. 140-141.
Ioannes Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum. Dindorf, Ludwig, ed. "Teubner Series", Leipzig, 1870. Vol. 3. XII. 15-16.
Jacob Edessen, "Chronicon". Chabot, L.-B., ed. "Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium", Scriptores Syri 4, Chronica Minora II, p. 212.
Jacques de Voragine, La Legende Dorée. M. G. B., trans. Librairie Garnier Freres, Paris, n.d. "Legend of Saint Thomas".
Jerome, Lives of Illustrious Men. Richardson, Ernest Cushing, ed., trans. "A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers", vol. III. William B Eerdmans Publishing Comp., Grand Rapids MI. 1892. LIV.
Jordanes, The Gothic History [Getica]. Mierow, Charles Christopher, ed., trans. Barnes & Noble, Inc., New York, 1960. XV.
Jordanes, Romana. Mommsen, Theodor, ed. "Momumenta Germaniae Historica", Weidmann, Berlin, 1882. "Alexander Mammaeae".
Julian, The Ceasars. Wright, Wilmer Cave, ed., trans. "Loeb Classical Library", Macmillan Company, New York. c. 1913. 313. A.
Julius Africannus, Cestoi (fragment). Greenfell, Bernard P. and Hunt, Arthur S., eds. The Oxyrinchus Papryi, III, no. 412. Horace Hart, Oxford. 1903. Pp. 36-41.
Nicephorus Callistus, Ecclesiastical History. Migne, J. P., ed. "Patrologia Graeca", vol. 145, Paris. 366.
Ordericus Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy. Forester, Thomas, ed., trans. Henry G Bohn, London. 1853. I.23, II. 81.
Paulus Orosius, The Seven Books of History Against the Pagans. Deferrari, Roy J., ed., trans. "Fathers of the Church", vol. 50. Catholic University of America Press, Inc., Washington DC. c. 1964. VII. 18-19.
Petrus Patricius, in Constantius VII Porphyrogenitus, De Legationibus Romanorum ad Gentes. Mommsen, Theodore, ed., "Monumenta Germaniae Historica", Weidmann, Berlin. 1882. Vol. V, p. 666-667. 9.
Polemius Silvius, "Nomina Omnium Principum Romanorum". Mommsen, Theodore, ed., "Monumenta Germaniae Historica", Weidmann, Berlin. 1882. "Chronica Minora", Vol. I, p. 521.
Prosperus Tironis, Epitoma Chronicon. Mommsen, Theodore, ed., "Monumenta Germaniae Historica", Weidmann, Berlin. 1882. "Chronica Minora", Vol. I, p. 436. CXCV.
Pseudoisidore, Historia. Mommsen, Theodore, ed., "Monumenta Germaniae Historica", Weidmann, Berlin. 1882. "Chronica Minora", Vol. II, p. 381. 7.
Rufius Festus, Breviarum. Eadie, J. W., ed., Athlone Press, University of London. c. 1967. XXII.
Symeon Logothetes (wrongly attr. Leo Grammaticus), Chronicle. Cramer, John Anthony, ed., “Anecdota Graeca e Codd. Manuscriptis Bibliothecae Regiae Parisiensis”. Georg Olms Verlagsbuehlandlung, Hildesheim. 1967.
Vincent of Lerins, The Commitories. Morris, Rudolph E., ed., trans. "The Fathers of the Church", vol. VII. Fathers of the Church, Inc., New York. c. 1949. 17.
Zosimus, Historia Nova. Buchanan, James J. and Davis, Harold L., eds., trans. Trinity University Press, San Antonio TX. c. 1967. !. 11-13.
Synesius of Cyrene, "Letters". Fitzgerald, Augustine, ed., trans. Oxford University Press, Oxford. c. 1926. 50
Synesius of Cyrene, "A Eulogy of Baldness". Fitzgerald, Augustine, ed., trans. Oxford University Press, Oxford. c. 1930. 21-28
Dictionary of Roman Coins
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