Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - c. 18 March 235 A.D.
Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after the murder of his cousin, Elagabalus. His reign was marked by great economic prosperity, and he enjoyed great success against the barbarian tribes. His mother Julia Mamaea was the real power in the empire, controlling her son's policies and even his personal life with great authority. Severus had an oratory where he prayed under the edict, written on the wall, "Do not unto others what you would not have done to yourself" and the images of various prophets including Mithras, Zoroaster, Abraham and Jesus. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered both Severus Alexander and his mother.
Severus Alexander, (Marcus Aurelius) a native of Phoenicia, adopted by Elagabalus (Heliogabalus). His Father’s name was Genesius Marcianus, and his mother's Julia Mamaea, and he received the surname of Alexander because he was born in a temple sacred to Alexander the Great. He was carefully educated and his mother paid particular attention to the development of his morals and character.
At the death of Elagabalus, who had been jealous of his virtues, Alexander, though only 14 years old, was proclaimed emperor. His nomination was approved by the universal shouts of the army and the congratulations of the senate. Not long after, the peace of the empire was disturbed by Persian incursions. Alexander marched into he east without delay, soon obtained a decisive victory and at his return to Rome was honored with a triumph.
He was a patron of literature, and he dedicated the hours of relaxation to the study of the best Greek and Latin historians, orators and poets. In the public schools which his liberality and the desire to encourage learning had founded, he often heard with pleasure and satisfaction the eloquent speeches and declamations of his subjects.
During his reign, the provinces were well supplied with provisions and Rome was embellished with many stately buildings and magnificent porticoes.
Those guilty of corruption or who robbed the public, even intimate friends of the emperor, were severly punished. The offices of the state which had before his reign been sold or occupied by favorites, were now bestowed based upon merit, and Alexander could boast that all his officers were men of trust and abilities.
The revolt of the Germans soon after called him away from the indolence of the capital. His expedition in Germany achieved some success, however, his virtues and amiable qualities were forgotten by the soldiers in the stern and sullen strictness of his discipline. His soldiers, fond of repose, murmured against his severity; their clamors fomented by the artifice of Maximinus. Alexander was murdered in his tent, in the midst of his camp, after a reign of 13 years, on or about the 18th of March 235 A.D. His mother Mamaea shared his fate, with all his friends. Maximus then punished all the soldiers involved in the murder, except himself, with immediate death.
Alexander has been admired for his many virtues, and every historian except Herodian is bold to assert, that if he had lived, the Roman Empire might have been freed from the tumults and abuses which continually disturbed her peace, and kept the lives of her emperors and senators in perpetual alarms.
Gold medallion R8
Note: The rarity scale here includes three main ratings from C (common), to S (scarce), to R (rare). Within each rating numbers from 1-10 are may be used to indicate increasing degrees of rarity with 1 the most common and 10 the least common.
1. Luis C. West, Gold and Silver Standards in the Roman Empire, Numismatic Notes and Monographs, #94, ANS, NY, 1941.
Imperial: Rome, Antioch
1. References used by permission of SeverusAlexander.com
Roman Silver Coins Volume III by Seaby / Sear (RSC)
Probably the best catalog of the Imperial Coinage of Severus Alexander. The listing of gold, silver, and bronze are very extensive with only more rare examples missing. Plates are also very good and cover many coins. The preface is good but not as extensive as BMC. RIC is also a necessity for attribution. $125
Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum Volume VI by R.A.G. Carson (BMC)
The catalog of coinage of Severus Alexander is not as extensive as RIC but would be a close runner up. The catalog includes gold, silver, and bronze coins from the mints of Rome and Antioch. The plates are quite good and many of the coins are pictured. What BMC lacks in a catalog of the coins it more than makes up in the preface on Severus Alexander. The coverage of Severus Alexander coinage including a discussion of the mints of Rome and Antioch, hoards, styles, titles, etc. is the best I have seen. BMC is an absolute necessity for anyone who wants to seriously collect Severus Alexander. Expensive and tough to find.
Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Volume III by Anne S. Robertson (Hunter)
Le Tresor Numismatique de Reka-Devnia by N. A. Mouchmov (Reka-Devnia)
Roman Coins and Their Values Millennium Edition Volume II by David Sear (S)
There are different versions of this reference readily available but I would recommend getting the Millennium Edition as it is much more complete and detailed. For the size and diversity of the material it covers, the book does an excellent job. This book covers not only the coins of the mints of Rome and Antioch but also Alexandria. Pictures have also been improved and are more frequent. The prices listed are a good base line to go off of. Highly recommend as an cheaper alternative to BMC and RIC but it is not as extensive as either. Good coverage of Severus Alexander.
The Handbook of Roman Imperial Coins by David Van Meter (VM)
This book comes in both hard cover and soft cover version. For the money it is a great deal. The listing of coinage is very limited though and the preface is extremely limited. The prices are very much out of date. A great reference for a new collector trying to find out what is available to collect. Basic coverage of Severus Alexander.
This two volume set has one volume dedicated to the history and the other to the coinage. Both give a good basic overview and are very well written. There is also an excellent discussion of the tribute coinage of Emperor Trajan Decius who issued double denarii for Severus Alexander. $95 for 1999 version, $130 for revised 2000 version. Prices are very basic. A great introduction to the coinage for beginners or a general reference. Not a great reference for attribution of any Emperor.
Description Historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain by Henry Cohen (C)
References for provincial coinage of Severus Alexander are as vast as the area they cover. References can be extensive collections of museums covering all regions or can be centralized to one or more specific areas. References that cover many areas can either very expensive or very limited in the amount of coinage they cover. Unless you have an unlimited budget, collecting references on Provincial Coinage should be done with an interest in mind. All references are in English unless otherwise noted.
This one volume reference is for its price probably the best place for new collector of Provincial Coinage to start. It is organized by Roman rulers and lists the coinage under their rule. Good coverage of Severus Alexander. For it's size and price, it has many pictures and a great preface. The appendix also has a handy list of reverse legends so you can attribute the coinage to an area. The maps appendix is also another great feature. If you are looking to attribute all your collection, this one volume cannot adequately cover the entire provincial area.
Moving from one volume to three volume coverage of the provincial area, here is the next set to purchase. Broken into separate areas in the first two volumes and then combined in the last, the collection of Dr. Lindgren is extensive. The organization by area, the extensive index, and pictures of all coins listed, make this a great reference. Fair coverage of Severus Alexander. Don't expect all your coins to be pictured but you will hopefully find a similar coin.
Die Antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands by A. Forni (AMNG)
This 4 volumes in five parts reference is essential for the coinage of Moesia especially for Severus Alexander. The series also covers Macedonian, Thracian, Dacia, Paeonia and Mysia but are either very limited for Severus Alexander or contain no examples for him. The reference is in older style German and contains only example plates at the end. Difficult to find and expensive. $295.
Ancient Coins of the Balkan Peninsula by Nikola Moushmov (Moushmov)
Vol. I. Italy and Sicily. 92 pp., 60 pl.
Vol. II. Thrace and Macedonia. 68 pp., 60 pl.
Vol. III. Greece, Thessaly to Aegean Islands. 96 pp., 80 pl.
Vol. IV. Bosporus to Lesbos. 62 pp., 50 pl.
Vol. V. Ionia, Caria and Lydia. 93 pp., 83 pl.
Vol. VI. Phrygia to Cilicia. 73 pp., 63 pl.
Vol. VII. Cyprus to India. 81 pp., 67 pl.
Vol. VIII. Spain-Gaul, North Africa, Egypt-The Ptolemies. 131 pp., 115 pl.
Considered by many to be the best of the provincial references, it is also a great reference for Severus Alexander coinage. Eight volumes and pictures for each coin make this a great reference. Very good coverage of Severus Alexander. The price is definitely a major consideration. $795.
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum Deutschland . Sammlung Von Aulock Collection of Greek Coin from Asia Minor (SNG von Aulock)
Vol. 1: Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Mysia, Troas, Aeolis, Lesbos, Ionia
Vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia
Vol. 3: Pisidia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, Galatia, Cappadocia, Cyprus, Imperial Cistophoris, Posthumous Lysimachus and Alexander tetradrachms
Vol. 4: Supplement
This reference is exclusively for Alexandrian coinage (Egypt) and contains an extensive cataloging system that allows for new coins, rarity, drawing of all coin obverses and reverses, maps and a concordance to other references. The best new reference on this Alexandrian coinage for Severus Alexander or any other emperor. A great deal at $49.95.
Another reference on just Alexandrian Coinage, this one has a good introduction and plate types. Most coins of Severus Alexander for Alexandria are listed. Definitely worth $55.
A catalogue of over 2000 coins, with introduction, rarity guides, index, and history. This new reprint incorporates an additional 1200 illustrations from the catalogues of several dealers. Additionally, there are two articles by Milne: "The Leaden Token-Coinage of Egypt Under the Romans" and "The Currency of Egypt in the Fifth Century." Good coverage of Severus Alexander. $55
Katalog Alexanderinischer Kaisermunzen der Sammlung des
Instits fur Altertumskunde der Universitat zu
This reference is an excellent source for identification of Alexandrian Tets of Severus Alexander. Each coin is pictured with extensive references sited. This is the first reference I go to identify my Alexandrian Tets. It is extensive in the coins listed but is written in German and also expensive and not easy to find. Around $100 if you can find it.
A limited number of coins and plates are within this reference for Severus Alexander but still a useful reference. Not easy to find and expensive at around $100.
Thrace etc. British Museum Catalogue by Poole (BMC)
This very limited reference covers Thrace, Moesia, and other areas. Not worth the $95 you can expect to pay for it.
Severus Alexander and the Severan Women by Robert L. Cleve, PhD, is the most comprehensive work I've read on Severus Alexander and the women who guided his life. This is Professor Cleve's doctorial dissertation and can be found on various sites that you purchase dissertations. Highly recommended for anyone who really wants to better understand Severus Alexander better.
The Decadent Emperors also under the title The Young Emperors by George C. Brauer, Jr. is a super book covering more than just Severus Alexander. The chapters devoted to Severus Alexander read very well and provide a good amount of detail. Highly recommend.
The Severans by Michael Grant is another great book by a well know historian that covers the Severans quite well. It unfortunately doesn't have separate chapters on Severus Alexander but is worth getting. Recommend.
The Life of Alexander Severus by R. V. Hopkins is almost a 100 years old and many of the theories presented in this book have been disproved. It is though a great source of information on Severus Alexander and provides a different viewpoint on various issues. Recommend if you want to seriously study Severus Alexander. Hard to get but some companies that print out of print books may be able to print you a copy.
Aelius Lampridius (attr), Scriptores Historiae Augustae. Magie, David, ed., trans. "Loeb Classical Library", G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. c. 1924. "Severus Alexander".
Anon, "Chronicon ad AD 846 Pertinens". Chabot, L.-B., ed. "Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium", Scriptores Syri 4, Chronica Minora II, p. 145.
Anon, "Chronicon Paschale". Dindorf, Ludwig, ed. Weber, 1932. 253 Olympiad.
Anon, Suidas. Bekker, Immanuel, ed. Berlin, 1854. "Origen".
Cassiodorus Senator, Chronicon. Gamonet, Phillip, ed., n.p., 1809. "Alexander Mammeae, XXI."
Eusebius, Chronicle (ed of Jerome). Migne, J. P., ed. "Patrologia Latina", vol. 27, Paris, 1846. AD 225-37.
Eusebius, Chronicorum Canonum. Schoene, Alfred, ed. Weidmann, Berlin. 1866. Olympiads CCL-CCLIII.
Eusebius, Church History. McGiffert, Arthur Cushman, ed., trans. "A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers", vol. 1. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids MI. VI. 21, 28.
Eutropius, Breviarum. Watson, John Selby, ed., trans. G Bull & Sons, Ltd.. c. 1910. VIII. 23.
Eutychius, Annals. Migne, J. P., ed. "Patrologia Graeca", vol. 61. Paris. 381-83.
Georgius Cedrenus, Historiarum Compendium. Dindorf, William, ed. "Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae", Bonn, 1829. vol. 1. 256 C-D.
Georgius Syncellus, Chronographia. Dindorf, William, ed. "Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae", Bonn, 1829. vol. 1. 211-15.
Ioannes Antiochenus. Muller, Carl, ed. "Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum" (Bibliotheque Graecque). Didot, Paris. 1848-1851. 140-141.
Ioannes Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum. Dindorf, Ludwig, ed. "Teubner Series", Leipzig, 1870. Vol. 3. XII. 15-16.
Jacob Edessen, "Chronicon". Chabot, L.-B., ed. "Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium", Scriptores Syri 4, Chronica Minora II, p. 212.
Jacques de Voragine, La Legende Dorée. M. G. B., trans. Librairie Garnier Freres, Paris, n.d. "Legend of Saint Thomas".
Jerome, Lives of Illustrious Men. Richardson, Ernest Cushing, ed., trans. "A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers", vol. III. William B Eerdmans Publishing Comp., Grand Rapids MI. 1892. LIV.
Julian, The Ceasars. Wright, Wilmer Cave, ed., trans. "Loeb Classical Library", Macmillan Company, New York. c. 1913. 313. A.
Nicephorus Callistus, Ecclesiastical History. Migne, J. P., ed. "Patrologia Graeca", vol. 145, Paris. 366.
Paulus Orosius, The Seven Books of History Against the Pagans. Deferrari, Roy J., ed., trans. "Fathers of the Church", vol. 50. Catholic University of America Press, Inc., Washington DC. c. 1964. VII. 18-19.
Rufius Festus, Breviarum. Eadie, J. W., ed., Athlone Press, University of London. c. 1967. XXII.
Symeon Logothetes (wrongly attr. Leo Grammaticus), Chronicle. Cramer, John Anthony, ed., “Anecdota Graeca e Codd. Manuscriptis Bibliothecae Regiae Parisiensis”. Georg Olms Verlagsbuehlandlung, Hildesheim. 1967.
Synesius of Cyrene, "A Eulogy of Baldness". Fitzgerald, Augustine, ed., trans. Oxford University Press, Oxford. c. 1930. 21-28
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