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Roman Mints and Officina

Click here to see Roman coins arranged by Mint in Forum's shop catalog.

Map from the Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins (ERIC). See ERIC - Mint Map and ERIC - Mintmarks

Click here for the Historia Interactive Table of Mints and Mintmarks

Starting around the middle of the 3rd century A.D., Roman mints began incorporating mint marks as a way to control actions of mint officials. In addition to the mint, the officina (or workshop) within the mint is often identified. If a problem was found on a particular series of coins (underweight for example), the coins could be traced to the offending mint and the officials held liable.

Mint marks are located on the reverse of the coin at the bottom in an area known as the 'exergue'. The exergue is visually set off from the rest of the reverse design by a line. In some cases, part of the mint mark (such as the officina or workshop) may be found in the body of the reverse design or even on the obverse field.

A mint mark was (in most cases) formed from three or four elements:

1. A letter P (Pecunia - Latin for money), M (Moneta) or SM (Sacra Moneta). Often these letters are omitted. In some mintmarks the abbreviated mint name is followed by PS (Pecunia Sacra). Mintmarks on gold coins often end with the letters OB (obryzium - refined or pure gold).

2. Mint city abbreviation (usually one to four letters, but up to seven).

3. Officina identification. Latin letter, a Greek letter or letters or a Roman numeral indicating the officina. Some officina symbols are listed in a table below. Sometimes the officina is omitted and sometimes it precedes the mint name abbreviation.

4. Series marks. Many mintmarks also include symbols such as dots, a crescent, or a branch, for example. These symbols probably indicate when the coin was struck and who was responsible for the workshop at that time.

The tables below will help determine the mint and officina for Roman coins.

Roman Mintmarks (Arranged in alphabetical order)

Mintmark

Mint (Modern Name)

A

Arelatum - Constantina (Arles, France)

AL

Alexandria, Egypt

ALE

Alexandria, Egypt

ALEX

Alexandria, Egypt

AMB

Ambianum (Amiens, France)

AMBI

Ambianum (Amiens, France)

AN

Antioch - Antiochia (Antakiyah, Syria)

ANT

Antioch - Antiochia (Antakiyah, Syria)

ANTOB

Antioch - Antiochia (Antakiyah, Syria)

AQ

Aquileia, Italy

AQOB

Aquileia, Italy

AQPS

Aquileia, Italy

AQVI

Aquileia, Italy

AQVIL

Aquileia, Italy

AR

Arelatum - Constantina (Arles, France)

ARL

Arelatum - Constantina (Arles, France)

AVG

Londinium (London, England)

AVGOB

Londinium (London, England)

AVGPS

Londinium (London, England)



BA

Barcino (Barcelona, Spain)



C

Camulodunum (Colchester, England)

C

Clausentum (Bitterne, England)

C

Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

CHES
CL

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)
Camulodunum (Colchester, England)

CL

Clausentum (Bitterne, England)

CM
CP

Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)
Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

COM

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

COMOB

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

CON

Arelatum - Constantina (Arles, France)

CONST

Arelatum - Constantina (Arles, France)

CON

Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

CONS

Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

CONSP

Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

CONOB
CONOB

Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)
Thessalonica (Salonica, Greece)

CORMOB
CVZ

Roma (Italy)
Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

CVZIC

Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

CYZ

Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

CYZICEN

Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)



H

Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

HER

Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

HERAC

Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

HERACI

Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

HERACL

Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

HT

Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)



K

Carthage - Carthago (near Tunis, North Africa)

K

Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

KAR

Carthage/Carthago (near Tunis, North Africa)

KART

Carthage - Carthago (near Tunis, North Africa)

KON

Arelatum - Constantina (Arles, France)

KONSTAN

Arelatum - Constantina (Arles, France)

KOP

Corcyra - KORKURA (Corfu, Greece)

KV

Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

KVZ

Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

KY

Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)



L
LCC

Londinium (London, England)
Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

LD

Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

LG

Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

LI

Londinium (London, England)

LN

Londinium (London, England)

LP
LON

Lugdunum (Lyons, France)
Londinium (London, England)

LVG

Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

LVGD

Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

LVGPS

Lugdunum (Lyons, France)



MD

Mediolanum (Milan, Italy)

MDOB

Mediolanum (Milan, Italy)

MDPS

Mediolanum (Milan, Italy)

MED

Mediolanum (Milan, Italy)

MK
MKV
ML

Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)
Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)
Londinium (London, England)

MLL

Londinium (London, England)

MLN

Londinium (London, England)

MN

Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

MOST

Ostia (Port of Rome)

MSL

Londinium (London, England)



N

Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

NIC

Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

NICO

Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

NIK

Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)



OES

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

OST

Ostia (Port of Rome)



PL
PLG

Lugdunum (Lyons, France)
Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

PLN

Londinium (London, England)

PLON

Londinium (London, England)

PK
POST

Carthage - Carthago (near Tunis, North Africa)
Ostia (Italy)



R

Rome, Italy

RAV

Ravenna, Italy

RM
RMPS

Rome, Italy
Rome, Italy

ROM

Rome, Italy

ROMA

Rome, Italy

ROMOB

Rome, Italy

RV

Ravenna, Italy

RVPS

Ravenna, Italy



S

Siscia (Sisak, Croatia), also used for Seconda (2nd officina) at other mints

SD

Serdica (Sophia, Bulgaria)

SER

Serdica (Sophia, Bulgaria)

SERD

Serdica (Sophia, Bulgaria)

SIR

Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia, 75 km West of Belgrade on the river Sava)

SIRM

Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia, 75 km West of Belgrade on the river Sava)

SIROB

Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia, 75 km West of Belgrade on the river Sava)

SIS

Siscia (Sisak, Croatia)

SISC

Siscia (Sisak, Croatia)

SISCPS

Siscia (Sisak, Croatia)

SM

Sirmium (near Mitrovica, North Serbia)

SMAL

Alexandria, Egypt

SMAN

Antioch - Antiochia (Antakiyah, Syria)

SMAQ

Aquileia, Italy

SMBA

Barcino (Barcelona, Spain)

SMH
SMHT

Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)
Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

SMK

Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

SMN

Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

SMR

Rome, Italy

SMSD

Serdica (Sophia, Bulgaria)

SMTR

Treveri (Trier, Germany)

SMTS

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)



T

Ticinum (Pavia, Italy), also used for tertia (3rd officina) at other mints

TE

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

TES
TESA

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)
Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

TESOB

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

TH

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

THS

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

THES

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

THSOB

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

TR

Treveri (Trier, Germany) or in center field Tripols (Tripoli, Lebanon)

TRE

Treveri (Trier, Germany)

TRMS
TROB
TROBS
TRIOB

Treveri (Trier, Germany)
Treveri (Trier, Germany)
Treveri (Trier, Germany)
Treveri (Trier, Germany)

TRPS

Treveri (Trier, Germany)

TS

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece

TT
T Christogram E

Ticinum (Pavia, Italy)
Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)



VB

Vibo Valentia (Calabria region, Italy)

VRB ROM

Rome, Italy

Roman Mintmarks (Arranged by Mint)


Mint

Dates of Operation

Mintmarks

Alexandria, Egypt

294 - 421 and
457 - 474 A.D.

AL, ALE, ALEX, SMAL
(Notes: Issued currency for the province before becoming a regular imperial mint. Reopened by the Byzantines 525 -646 A.D.)

Ambianum (Amiens, France)

350 - 353 A.D.

AMB, AMBI

Antioch - Antiochia (Antakiyah, Syria)

217 - 611 A.D.

AN, ANT, ANTOB, SMAN
(Notes: Struck local issues prior to becoming an imperial mint.)

Aquileia, Italy

294 - 324
and 334 - 430 A.D.

AQ, AQOB, AQPS, AQVI, AQVIL, SMAQ

Arelatum - Constantina (Arles, France)

313 - 475 A.D.

A, AR, ARL, CON, CONST, KON, KONSTAN
(Notes: In 328 Arelatum was renamed Constantina in honor of Constantine II. After Constantine II was killed in 340, the name reverted to Arelatum, only to be changed again in 354 to Constantina by Constantius II. It retained that name, although the mintmark 'AR' appeared on some of its coins even in the fifth century.)

Barcino (Barcelona, Spain)

409 - 411 A.D.

BA, SMBA
(Notes: Mint city for the usurper Maximus)

Camulodunum (Colchester, England)

c. 287 - 296 A.D.

C, CL
(Notes: Hosted a mint under the British Roman emperors Carausius and Allectus.)

Clausentum (Bitterne, England)

287 - 296 A.D.

C, CL
(Notes: Hosted a mint under the British Roman emperors Carausius and Allectus.)

Carthage - Carthago (near Tunis, North Africa)

296 - 307 and
308 - 311 A.D.

K, KAR, KART, PLK, PK

Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey)

326 - 1453 A.D.

C, CP, CON, CONS, CONSP, CONOB

Corcyra - KORKURA (Corfu, Greece)


KOP

Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey)

260 - c. 475 A.D.

CM, CVZ, CVZIC, CYZ, CYZICEN, K, KV, KVZ, KY, MK, MKV, SMK

Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey)

291 - c. 474 A.D.

H, HER, HERAC, HERACI, HERACL, HT, SMH, SMHT
(Notes: HT abbreviates Heraclea Thracica.)

Londinium/Augusta (London, England)

287 - 325
and 383 - 388 A.D.

AVG, AVGOB, AVGPS, L, LD, LG, LI, LN, LON, LVG, LVGD, LVGPS, ML, MLL, MLN, MSL, PLN, PLON
(Notes: Londinium was renamed Augusta c. 325 A.D. Coins minted under Magnus Maximus, 383 -387 A.D. use the AVG mintmarks.)

Lugdunum (Lyons, France)

15 B.C. - c. 90 A.D.,
195 -196, and
c. 254 - 423 A.D.

LG, LP, LVG, LVGD, LVGPS, PL, PLG
(Notes: Struck under the usurper Clodius Albinus, 195 - 196 A.D.)

Mediolanum (Milan, Italy)

c. 250 - c. 275 and
364 - 475 A.D.

MD, MDOB, MDPS, MED
(Notes: Theoderic, the Gothic king of Italy minted coins at Mediolanum, 493 to 526 A.D.)

Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)

294 - c. 474 A.D.

MN, N, NIC, NICO, NIK, SMN
(Notes: reopened as a Byzantine mint, 498 - 627.)

Ostia (Port of Rome)

308-313 A.D.

MOST, OST, POST
(Notes: The mint was transferred to Ostia from Carthage and then transferred from Ostia to Arelate.)

Ravenna, Italy

404 - 475 A.D.

RAV, RV, RVPS

Rome, Italy

c. 289 - 40 B.C. and
20 B.C. - 476 A.D.

R, RM, ROM, ROMA, ROMOB, VRB ROM, SMR

Serdica (Sophia, Bulgaria)

272 -282, 303-308
and 313 -314 A.D.

SD, SER, SERD, SMSD

Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia)

320 - 326, 351 - 364, 379
and 393 - 395 A.D.

SIR, SIRM, SIROB, SM

Siscia (Sisak, Croatia)

260 - c. 390 A.D.

S, SIS, SISC, SISCPS

Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece)

298 or 299 - c. 460 A.D.

CHES, COM, COMOB, CONOB, OES, SMTS, TE, TES, TESA, TESOB, TH, THES, THS, THSOB, TS, T Christogram E.
(Notes: Closed during the reign of Leo I, 457-474 A.D.)

Ticinum (Pavia, Italy)

c. 274 - 326 A.D.

PT, T, TT

Treveri (Trier, Germany)

Tripolis (Tripoli, Lebanon)

294 - 395, 408 - 413 and c. 430 A.D.
270 - 276 A.D.

PTR, SMTR, STR, TR, TRE, TRIOB, TROB, TROBS, TRMS, TRP, TRS, TRPS
TR in center field
 

Vibo Valentia (Calabria region, Italy)

c. 228 - 189 B.C.

VB

Officina Numbers

1st

I, P (for prima), PRIMA, A (alpha), OFF P (officina prima)

2nd

II, S (for secunda), SECVNDA, B (beta), OFF S (officina secunda)

3rd

III, T (for tertia), TERTIA, C, G (gamma)

4th

IIII, Q (for quarta), QVARTA, D, D (delta)

5th

V, E (epsilon)

6th

VI, V (stigma - archaic Greek letter resembling S)

7th

VII, Z (zeta)

8th

H (eta)

9th

N, Q (theta), DE (delta epsilon)

10th

X, I (iota)

11th

XI, IA (iota alpha), AI (alpha iota)

12th

XII, IB (iota beta), BI (beta iota)

13th

IG (iota gamma), GI (gamma iota)

14th

ID (iota delta), DI (delta iota)

15th

IE (iota epsilon), EI (epsilon iota)

Sources:

Roman Mintmarks and Mints (used by permission), by Norman R. Ray

Moneta, The Roman Imperial Software, by Numus

Roman Coins and their Values, by David Sear


DICTIONARY OF ROMAN COINS


Mint Marks - See Notae Monetales.


View whole page from the Dictionary Of Roman Coins