This is a list of Common Inscriptions found on Roman coins.
.A.A A A F F
--- Viri Auro Argento Aere Flando Feriundo, or The Men for Striking and Casting gold, silver, and bronze.ABVNDANTIA
--- The personification of abundance. Attributes: cornucopia
, grain stalks.
--- Restorer of Liberty.
ADLOCVTO --- A speech made by the emperor to his army, or Praetorian Guard, on a notable occasion such as the initiation of a military campaign.ADVENTVS
, ADVENT --- Arrival. Commemorates the return, or arrival of an emperor.ADVENTVI AVG FELICISSIMO
--- Felicitations of the Roman people upon the return of the emperor.
AEDIS, AED --- Temple or shrine.AEGYPTOS
--- The personification of Egypt
--- The personification of equity. Atributes: cornucopia
, balance-scales, scepter
, AETERN --- The personification of stability,drawn from the concept of eternity. Attributes: globe, phoenix
, torch, scepter
; sometimes depicted holding the heads of the sun and moon.AETERNAE MEMORIAE
--- Eternal remembrance.AFRICA
--- The personification of North
African Provinces. (modern day Libya
--- The personification of the Germanic tribe, the Alans.AMOR
ANCILE --- One of twelve sacred shields which fell from heaven. These shields were beaten to awaken Mars
when war was declared.ANNONA
--- The goddess of the wheat harvest, and the deity over-seeing the grain imports from Africa
. Attributes: grain stalks, prow modius
--- Provisions from the emperor.ANNONA AVGVSTI CERES
--- Provisions from the Majestic Ceres
, the Hellenistic goddess of grain.APOLLO
, APOL, APOLLONI --- The Hellenistic sun god; also patron
of the arts and prophecy. Attributes: long hair, naked, lyre
, bow and arrow. (APOLLONI SANCTO
, Holy Apollo
AR AD --- Arabia
--- the Altar
--- a country north
--- The personification of the province of Asia
, or modern Turkey.
, AVGVSTO or AVGVSTVS
--- The title "Augustus", usually abbreviated, is often found on reverse
legends when refering to an attribute of an emperor.An emperor's titular honor
(nominative, masculine); or AVGVSTA
(feminine). If the inscription
is dedicated to the emperor, or relates an honor
given to an emperor, it would take the form AVGVSTO (to Augustus
; or plural AVGVSTIS). When the title is used with a personalized attribuet like glory, it would take the form GLORIA AVGVSTI
(glory of the emperor). During the Imperial era, especially under the tetrarchy
, the pluralgenitive form AVGVSTORVM (of the emperors), is encountered. In abbreviated forms, the last "G" is repeated to refer to the other legitimate rulers bearing the title of Augustus
at the same time. Each "G" refers to one of the emperors. (i.e. AVGG
on a Trajan Decius
coin would be refering to Trajan
Decuis as the first "G", and Herennius Etruscus
,(his son) as the second "G") .
, BEATA TRANQLITAS --- "Blessed calm". Refers to the stability under the rule of Constantine I
--- Chariot with two beasts.
BONI, BONVS, BONA, BONO --- Good
, noble, kind, honest.
BONO GENIO PII IMPERATORIS
--- The good genius
of the emperor.BONVS EVENTVS
--- An Italic
god of agriculture. and later used as a personification of good
news. Depicted pouring libations from patera
over an altar
, and holding a cornucopia
--- The personification of the British Province. Depicted as a female sitting on a rock, holding a spear and resting arm on shield
. Antoninus Pius
issued a set of bronze sestertius
coins in Rome
to be circulated in Britian.
--- A winged staff entwined with snakes. Served as a symbol for safety, speed, and was assiciated with a hearld.
CAELESTIS --- Celestial, or from the heavens. Divinity.CAES
--- This was the gens
name of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and later adopted as the title for heir-apperent to the Imperial rank. Then under the tetrarchy
, this title was designated to a junoir emperor. Some adopted this title to gain prestige and legitimacy (Otho
). If there were two or more caesars at one time then the legend
would reflect this by adding another "S" for each additional caesar
. (CAESS would indicate two caesars).
CALRITAS REIPVB --- Brightness of the Republic.CALVMNIA
--- false accusation or claim.CAPPADOCIA
--- The personification of Cappadocia
, in centeral Asia Minor
CAPTA --- Conquered. This was used in the first and second centuries by soldier emperors to commemorate the conquest of new territories. The cooin would have either the allergorical image for that province bound and abjected, or a military trophy
. The legend
usually included the name of the province with the feminine verb of "capio" (to seize) as CAPTA. (i.e. AEGYPTO CAPTA, DACIA
--- Affection or liking to.CARITAS
--- Great relations and affection by two emperors (AVGG
= two, AVGGG
*An exeption to this rule was the relations between Pupienus
and his co-emperor Baibinus. who didn't get along too well.CARTHAGE
--- The personification of Carthage
CASTRORVM --- military fort
--- A temporary official duty which entailed a commision to determine the composition of the Senate. Eligibility requirements included wealth, property and moral character. With this the emperor could purify the Senate to his advantage and liking.
--- The fruit bearing Ceres
--- The Hellenistic goddess of grain (Demeter). Depicted on bronze/brass coins to suggest a plentiful food supply to the masses. Attributes: holds grain, torch, and veiled headCIPPUS
--- A stone pillar, engraved
with Imperial and Senetorial proclamations, set in public places or beside roads.
RESTITVT --- Citizen rights/ Citizenship Restored
in Asia Minor
,CLEM --- The personification of clemency or mercy. In the first and second centuries most types were sponsored by the Senate and may refer to the emperors pardoning of a distinguished Senator accused of sedition or treason. Attributes: olive branch.
COLLEGIA SACREDOTVM --- The college of priests that governed the observance of state religion. If an emperor or carsar (heir, prince), was not elected as Pontifex Maximus
, he was co-opted into the college. These coin types usually depict several sacred instruments pecular to the priestly office that the emperor was appointed. Typical legend
: SACERD(os) COOPT(atus) IN OMN(ia) CONL(egia) SVPRANVM(erum) EX S(enato) C(onsulto).COLONIA BOSTRA
--- Colony of Bostra
COMDITOR --- The Founder. (i.e. ROMVLO CONDITORI
, "Romulus the Founder").COMES AVG
--- Companion of an emperor. Usually refers to the deity depicted on the coin reverse
.COMITI AVGG NN
--- Retinue of emperors.
--- Concord of Equity.CONCORDIA
--- The personification of unity and agreement. Often depicted in troubled times, seeking to unite public opinion behind Imperial policy. Attributes: cornucopia
, CONCORDIA MILITVM
--- Unity of the Army or Militia. The personification of Concordia
is depicted holding military symbols
of authority, such as two standards or scepter
--- Donatives of food or money made to the people of Rome
during the first and second centuries. Depicted with emperor seated in a curule chair on a platform, with several attendants handing out coins to the people.
CONIVGALIBVS --- marriage. (DIS CONIVGALIBVS
= to the deities of marriage).CONSECRATIO
. In the first and second centuries when a popular emperor or their family member died, they were consecrated as gods. Their successors built a personality cult around the dead emperor, serving as chief priest, and often dedicating temples to the dead. In the third century this custom faded out as the Cristian era evolved. Some common types of these depict a cult item or temple of the deified emperor. Some include: a cart drawing the cult image of the deified emperor, an emperor throne, a funeral pyre, an eagle
CONSENSVS --- Consensus.CONSER
VRB SVAE --- Protector of the city's customs and traditions. Conservator
CONSERVAT AVG, CONSERVATOR AVG
--- Protector of the emperor. Usualy refers to Sol, Mars
--- The personification of steadiness. If dressed in armor then the personification is of courage and firmness.CONSTANTINOPOLIS
--- The personification of the city Constantinople/Byzantium (Modern day Istanbul). The capital under Constantine and then the backbone of the Eastern Empire.
CONSTITVTO --- to set up an agreed price
--- The horn of plenty. Asymbol of prosperity and fortune.
CORONA CIVICA --- The Wreath
of Civic Service, awarded by the Senate for saving the life of a Roman. Upon accession, most emperors would receive this honor
for preserving the Empire against it's enemys. This award conveyed great honor
COS --- Consul
. The chief executive officer under the Republic. There were two elected together to serve simultaneous, for one year. An Emperor's usurped the Consul' powers, first nominating his own clients for election,then ultimately appointing Consuls himself. Most emperors served as Consul
several times during their reign. In a coin legend
the Roman numerals after the COS refer to the number of times he has held the Consuls office.
CURULE CHAIR --- A short bench that originally served as the seat of curule aedile (the moderator of senate meetings). It became the symbol of official rank and was reserved for Consuls, Praetors and the Imperial family.
CV L --- Clupeus Virtutis, Or shield
of virtue. This refers to the golden shield
awarded to Augustus
by the Senate for his virtue, clemency, justice and dutifulness. Other emperors through Trajan
were awarded with similar shields upon accession. This award was depicted on a shield
as either CL V
or S P Q R
held by the personification of Roma
--- The GuardianCYBELE
--- The mother of the gods, Mother earth. Also known as Magna Mater
(the Great Mother). Attributes: turreted and veiled head
, lions; often riding a lion-drawn cart. Titles: MAGNA MATER
--- The province of Dacia
is on the lower Danube basin, including parts of Romania and Bulgaria.
DEA CAELESTIS --- The patron
deity of the city of Carthage
. Attributes: lion
, usually riding lion
--- To laugh at or ridicule.
DEDICATIO --- Dedication to/of. (DEDICATIO AEDIS
= dedication of a temple).
DE IVDAEIS --- "With regard to Judaea".
DEO VVLCANO --- "The god Vulcan".
DESTINATO --- Determined to be assigned.DEVICTA
--- Conquered. Defeat.DIANA
, DIANA LVCIFERA
--- The Hellenistic goddess of the hunt
and the moon goddess (Artemis
); also the patroness of children. Attributes: crescent moon, torch, bow and arrow, hunting dog, stag. Titles: LUCIFERA
(light-bringer), CONSERVATRIX, VICTRIX
--- For having children.
DISCIPLINA --- educated instruction or disciplined training. Refers to an emperors focus on an educated, or well trained armies.DIVI F
, DIVI FILIUS
, DIVI --- The title "divus" means god and refers to a deified emperor or Imperial family member. DIVVS
are the nomative forms (masculine and feminine respectivly). These usually appear on the legend
of the dead emperor. If the issuer of the coin is the son of a "God" then the legend
DIVI (genitive form), would appear in the legend
.DOMINOR NOSTROR CAESS
Caesars our lords.
.E.EQVESTER ORDO PRINCIPI IVVENT
--- (see Princeps Ivventvtis
EQVITVM, EQVIT --- Of the cavalry. In Republican times the cava;ry was drawn from the middle class, who were able to afford the horse and armor, and were thus called the equestrian
EVENTVS --- Incident or occurrence.EXERCITVS
--- The Army and the Infantry. A common reverse type
under military dictators in the fourth century.
EXPED --- refers to an emperors visit to an area
or province.EX S C
--- Ex Senato Consulto, or by Senatorial Decree. Often used to refer to the award of honor
to the emperor by the Senate.EX S C OB CIVES SERVATOS
--- A decree of the Senate bestowed for having saved the lives of citizens.
--- The personification of fertility. Assosiated with bearing Imperial heirs. These often are depicted with children. (FECVND AVGUSTAE
Fertility of the empress.)FEL TEMP REPARATIO
--- The restoration of happy times. A major theme of the reformed billon
and bronze coinage in the late Constantinian dynasty. Some reverse
types include the phoenix
, a barbarian dragging a young captive from a hut, or a Roman soldier spearing a fallen horseman (Persian cavalry).FELICITAS
, FEL, FELIC, FELICISSIMO --- The personification of happiness and success. Attributes: caduceus
, and sometimes is leaning on a column.FELIX
--- Lucky, fortunate, and sometimes can be noted as being wise
. Also used as a title for Venus
N N, Happy arrival of both our emperors.)
FIDEI PVBLICAE --- The faithfulness of the officials.FIDES
--- The personification of faithful protection, or fulfillment of duties.FIDES PVBLICA
--- The promise of public protection.FIDES EXERCITVS
, FIDES MILITVM
--- Faithfulness of the Army or Militia. The personification of Fides
is depicted holding military symbols
of authority, such as two standards or a scepter
FISCI --- money-bag, purse.
FISCI IVDAICI CALVMNIA SVBLATA
--- refers to the remission of tax imposed on the Jews by Nerva
to fund the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus
--- A leather bag used to hold money.FORT RED
--- Fortunate return of our emperor.FORTI FORTVNAE
--- a dedication to the brave man of Fortune.FORTVNA
--- The personification of luck and fate and accorded cult status as a minor deity by some Romans. The emperors often used the type
to imply that they serve as a intermediary between fate and the Empire. Attributes: cornucopia
, olive branch, patera
, rudder or a wheel.FORTVNA REDUX
, FORT RED
, who leads one back. This type
commemorates the vows an emperor made prior to departing on a hazardous journey, and then upon his safe arrival.
FRVGIFERO, FRVGIFE, FRVGIFER, FRVGIS, FRVG
--- Fruitfulness or fertile.
FRVMENTO --- Grain, crops.
FVNDATOR --- The Founder.
--- The personification of the Gallic provinces, Gaul, France, Switzerland, and Northern Italy.GAVDIUM POPVLI ROMANI
--- Delight of the Roman Public.
--- Mother, or ancestress. (VENERI GENETRICI
= Mother Venus
GENIO ANTIOCHENI --- A dedication to the Genius
of Antioch.GENIO AVGVSTI
--- A dedication to the Genius
of the emperors, possibly refering to the guardian spirit looking over the emperor and his family.
GENIO POP ROMANI --- A dedication to the Genius
of the Roman Public. This type
commemorates the spirit of Rome
as well as the unique character of the Roman people.GENIO SENATVS
--- A dedication to the Genius
of the Senate.
GENITALIBVS --- Birth, of creation.GENIVS
, GEN --- The personification of the guardian spirit.GERMANIA
--- The personification of Germany.GLORIA EXERCITVS
--- Glory of the Army. Common type reverse
.GLORIA NOVI SAECVLI
--- The glory of the new age.GLORIA ROMANORVM
--- Glory of the Romans.
, HERCVLI, HERCVL --- A great Greek hero, credited with spreading civilization, to which he became a god. Used to the liking of Trajan
, and Postumus
, HILAR --- The personification of cheerfulness and joy. Attributes: Palm
--- The personification of the Spanish Provinces.HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS
--- Under this sign you will be victorius. This refers to Constantine's dream of being lead into battle by an angel bearing a cross
. Thus defeating Maxentius
at the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 A.D.
--- The personification of Honor
.(HONOS ET VIRTUS
.I.III VIR A A A F F
--- Tres Viri Auro Argento Aere Flando Feriundo, or The Three Men for Striking and Casting Gold, Silver and Bronze. This is the Latin title for the Republican and early Imperial board of the three moneyers
, and usually appears in conjunction of the moneyers
that issued a particular coin issue.
, IMPERAT, IMPERATOR
--- The Emperor or supreme military commander. In Republican times the title was used to describe successful generals. Beginning with Julius Caesar
the Roman autocrats adopted the title as a praenomen
or official rank. The Senate continued to award the title Imperator
as an honorary acclamation following major victories.INDVLGENTIA
--- The personification of tenderness. To grant, leniency or concession. be kind to. be lenient to. Accorded cult status as a minor deity by some Romans.(INDVLGENTIA AVGG IN CARTH
, Indulgence of the emperor to Carthage
INVICTA --- Unconquered, in reference usually to a city or goddess.
INVICTVS, INVICTO, INVICTA --- Invincible, unconquerable. see Sol.I O M
--- a shortend version of IOVI OPTIME MAXIME
, or "Jupiter the best....".
IOVI --- The dative form of Jupiter
, used in dedicatory inscriptions. (i.e. IOVI CVSTOS
, to Jupiter
, the protector)
IOVI CONSERVATOR AVG
(G) NN ---Jupiter, conservator
of our emperor (or emperors).IOVI EXSVP
who excels in all things.IOVI PROPVGNATORI
the defender.IOVI STATORI
IOVI VOT SVSC
PRO SAL CAES
AVG SPQR --- Vows to Jupiter
by the senate and the Roman people for the restoration of the health of the emperor.ISIS
--- An Egyptian goddess of the underworld and the wife of Osiris
, who represented the birth and death of one year. Attributes: rattle (sistrum
, ITALIAM, ITALICA
--- The personification of Italy. Usually depicted as a female figure on a globe, holding a cornucopia
--- The personification of Judaea
IVN, IVVENI, IVVENTIS --- Junior, young.IVNO
, IVNONIS, IVNONI, IVNONEM
), the consort of Jupiter
, and the patroness of child birth. Attributes: peacock
. Titles: CONSERVATRIX, LVCINA
--- Happy Juno
--- Goddess of light.IVNO REGINA
the Queen.IVNONI MARTIALI
--- The war like Juno
, IOVIS --- Jupiter
, the genitive form is Jovis. The Hellenistic father of the current generation of gods (Zeus), and the god of the skies. Often posed as the protector of the state and the emperor (IOVI CVSTOS
). Attributes: thunderbolt, scepter
, small figure of Victory
, globe; usually depicted naked, or naked with cloak across his shoulder. Titles: CVSTOS
, PROPVGNATOR, TONANS (Thunder), VICTOR
IVSTITA --- The personification of justice. Attributes: olive branch, patera
--- The Italic
deity of time and the ages. A popular Republican Type
, but rare
on Imperial coins. He was the first king
of Italy and invented civilization for which he became a god.JANUS
, TEMPLE OF --- At times of peace the temple doors are closed.
--- A military standard
with the Chi-Rho monogram
--- The personification of joy and good
grace. Attributes: wreath
, rudder steering globe, anchor
LEG --- Legion.(LEG I, LEG II, LEG III - The number of the legions).LIBER
--- The Hellenistic goddess of wine (Bacchus/Dionysios). Attributes: wine cup, thyrsos
(a staff ornamented with grape leaves), crown of ivy leaves, panther
, LIBERAL --- The personification of generosity, and frequently, an indirect reference to a specific Imperial donative to the urban population. Attributes: tessera
, or coins flowing from a cornucopia
, LIB --- The personification of liberty. Often used by usurpers claiming to restore the liberty of the Roman Republic. Attributes: pileus
(pointed hat), scepter
LVDOS ---Games. Sport or entertainment.LVNA
--- An alternative manifestation of the moon goddess, as used by Julia Domna
; more appropriately a personification of the moon.
MAGNAE --- great, powerful, extensive.MAG PIVS
--- Great and pious.MARS
, MARTIS --- The god of war, spring
and regeneration. MARS
(masculine), MARTIS (genative). Attributes: spear, shield
, olive branch, crested helmet. Appears either naked or cloaked with helmet, or fully armored. Titles: CONSERVATOR
, PACIFER (holds olive branch), PROPVGNATOR, VICTOR
MART PAC, MATI PACIF or PACIFERO --- Mars
, the pacifier.(MARTIA CONSERVATORI Mars
, the conserver.MARTI
, the defender.)
MARSUPPIUM --- A bag or pouch to carry valuables or official documents.MATER
MAGNA --- see CYBELE
MATRI --- Mother, matron. (MATRI MAGNAE = mother of great power).MAVRETANIA
--- The personification of Mauretania
( modern day Morocco and Algeria).
MERCVRY --- The Hellenistic messenger god (Hermes
). Attributes: caduceus
(winged cap), marsuppium.
MILITVM, MILIT, MIL --- Foot soldier, military.MINERVA
--- The Roman version of the Hellenistic Pallas
is common on Domitan coinage, who was a great soldier and general. Attributes: spear (which she usually brandishes), shield
, crested helmet, aegis
, small figure of Victory
, prow. Title: VICTRIXMODIUS
--- A measuring device used for grain. Its depiction on coins implies an abundance of food.MONETA
--- An reflection of Juno
as the patroness of money and the mother of muses.
MVLIEBRI --- Feminine, womanly. (FORTVNAE MVLIEBRI
= feminine Fortuna
--- Mutual, or agreed upon.
NAVALIS --- of ships. (VICTORY
--- An avenging spirit or punisher of evil. Most frequently appears to indicate the suppression of a mutiny, as in the coinage of Claudius
. Attributes: caduceus
, snake, wheel.
NEPTVNE --- The Hellenistic god of the sea (Poseidon). Attributes: dolphin
, trident, figure head
of prow, prow.
NEPTUNE REDUX, NEP RED
--- Neptune, who leads one back from the sea. Commemorates the vows an emperor makes in anticipation of a safe sea journey and a safe return journey home
. Attributes:Trident, acrostolium
--- refers to the Nile river. The Nile is depicted as a male figure usualy lying, legs draped, and holding a cornucopia
and reeds. Also may have a crocodile
--- The personification of aristocracy. Attributes: palladium
, NOSTRORVM --- Of our people. (i.e. CAESARVM NOSTRORVM
, the heir apperent of our people)
.O.OB CIVES SERVATOS
, OB C S
--- In return for civic service. This refers to the award of the Corona Civica (see CORONA CIVICA).OBSEQVENS
--- yield to with compliance, (FORTVNA OBSEQVENS
= compliant Fortune).
OPI --- the personification of power, might and influence. Usually depicted as a woman holding a scepter
and her head
resting on her hand.
OPS --- The ancient Italic
goddess of abundance and wealth. Attributes: grain stalks, scepter
, honest, brave, noble.OPTIMO PRINCIPI
--- honest, brave and noble leader.ORIENS AVG
is the name of Sol when he is assosiated with the sun. This implies rising fortune for the emperor and thus the Empire.
--- Pacifier of the world.
PACE PR UBIQ
PARTA IANUM CLUSIT --- Portal of Janus
being closed (indicates peace).
PACE PR TERRA
MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT --- Refers to the closing of the doors of the temple of Janus
, to symbolize world peace. ?PACI AVGUSTAE
--- The peace of the emperor.(an emperors personal vision of "Imperial Stability").
PACIFER --- Peace maker.PALLADIUM
--- The cult image of Minerva
--- The personification, depicted as two women, of the province Pannonia
. The province was along the Mid Danube basin and included parts of Yugoslavia. Pannonia
produced several emperors in the third century.PARAZONIUM
--- A short sword in its sheath.PARTHICO
--- Refers to the Parthians
. (a country south of the Caspian Sea).PATERA
--- A bowl
used to pour libations.PATER PATRIAE
, P P --- The father of the country. This honorary title was immensely lofty, the title granted to most emperors by the Senate. Most took the title upon succession, some waited modestly to accept the title (Nero
refused the title altogether.
PATIENTIA --- the personification of patience, endurance, suffering.
PAX --- The personification of peace. Attributes: olive branch, scepter
.PAX FVNDATA CVM PERSIS
--- Firm peace with the Persians.PAX ORBIS TERRARVM
--- Peace of the entire world.PERP
, PERPETVITAS,PERPETVAE, PERPETVVS --- Perpetuity, perpetual. May refer to the life of an emperor, PERP
, PIETATI, PIET --- The personification of devotion to the gods, one's duties and the emperor. Usually depicted as veiled, and sacrificing from a patera
over an altar
AVG --- The mutual piety of the two Augusti
--- The conical cap assosiated with liberty.
PIO --- Appease, or propitiate.
PLEBEI --- Common people, or lower class.
FRVMENTO CONSTITVTO --- refers to a free dole of grain given to each citizen of Rome
in 97 A.D. under Nerva
--- Pontifex Maximus
. The chief of the board of fifteen priests who directed the Roman State religion. Many emperors held this office and coins frequently refer to it soon after an emperor has been elected. Some of the typical instruments found on these coins are: an apex
(conical cap), the aspergillum
(used to sprinkle water over an altar
ond/or victim), the lituus
(staff), the praeferculum (held wine for libations), secespita
(knife), the securis
(an axe for quartering the victim), and a simplum (wine serving ladle).POPVL
IVSSV --- By the order of the Roman people.
POTESTATEM --- the ability to rule with power and force.PRAETOR
, PRAE --- Leader, or in front of.
PRAETORIANORVM --- of the Praetorian Guard.PRINCEPS IVVENTUTIS
, PRINC IVVENT
--- First among the young men. A Republican title for the leader of the equestrian
portion of the Militia, drawn from the middle class, to be able to afford a horse and armor. In the Imperial era this title was normally bestowed by the Equestrian
order to imply that the holder was of middle class. Also given to heirs apparent to the Imperial rank. The reverse
usually depicted the awarded "Princeps Iuventis" on a shield
PRINCEPS --- Prince. A title for the emperor in the late Imperial period.
PRINCIPI --- leader, or first man.
PROFECTIO --- Departure. Commemorates the departure of the emperor.
PROPAGO --- Posterity or propagate.
--- The Defender.PROV DEOR
, PROVID DEOR
, PROVIDENTIA DEORVM
--- Forsight of the gods.PROVIDENTIA
, PROVID,PROVI, PRO --- The personification of foresight. (PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
, Foresight of the Caesars.) Attributes: baton, globe.PVBLICA
, PVBLICAE, PVB --- Belonging to the people. Also can indicate a state official.PVDICITIA
--- The personification of modest virtue, or chastity. Frequently used on the coins of emperesses.
QVADRAGENS REMISSA S C --- Gentiles
remit, refers to the remission of the customs duty in Gaul and Hispania
, and to the proscription of Nero's finance officials.QVADRIGA
--- A chariot drawn by four beasts.
QVIES --- the personification of retirement and rest. Depicted standing holding branch and scepter
--- Citizens of Rome
, collectively in their peacetime functions.
RAVENNA --- The personification of Ravenna, which was usually the capital for the Western Empire from the time of Honorius
--- Restorer of the World. A common type
REDACTAE --- to drive back, or reduce.
REDUX --- Coming back, returning.
REDVCI --- Leading back, returning.REGI ARTIS
--- The Art of Leadership. (Claudius Gothicus
--- "Queen". (IVNO REGINA
= Queen Juno
--- "the Kingdoms Alloted".
H S NOVIES MILL ABOLITA
--- Refers to the liberality of Hadrian
in remitting debts.
REPARATIO REIPVB --- Restoration of the Republic.
REQVIES --- Rest (from labor), Retire.
RESTITVT SAECVIL --- Restoration of the spirit age.
--- Restoration of the World.RESTITVTOR
EXERCIT --- Restorer of the Army.RESTITVTOR
AFRICAE --- Restitutor
or ruler of Africa
or ruler of the world.RESTITUTOR VRBIS
--- Restittutor or ruler of the city (Rome
RESVRGES --- Resurgent (i.e. ROMA RESVRGES
, resurgent Rome
).ROM ET AVG
--- A cult of Roma
, worshipped almost exclusively in the Provinces. This cult is reffered to on the popular altar reverse asses
--- The goddess of the city of Rome
as well as the personification of Rome
. Depicted as wearing armor and holding a small figure of Victory
, ROMAE AETERINITAS --- (Dictated as) to Eternal Rome
ROMANORVM --- of the Romans (i.e. GAVDIVM ROMANORVM
, Delight of the Romans)ROMA
PERPETVA --- Everlasting RomeROMA
RENASCENS --- Revived or renewed Rome
--- "Romulus the founder".
--- Priest (or priestess). Mostly refers to the issuer of the coin was a priest of the divine. (also see CONSECRATIO
SACRA --- Sacrafice, or to make sacred.SAEC
, SAECVLI, SAECVLO, SAECVLARES --- The passing of a human generation which was celebrated with music, dance and festivals. Some of the participating emperors were Augustus
, Domitan and Septimius Severus
. Some reverse
types include: sacrifices, sellisternia (feast), a stone pilar (cippus
), or later , the games (gladiator, animal sacrificing, etc..) . (FELIC SAEC
= happiness of the era, or age).
SAECVLARES --- Refers to the Saecular games. Some reverse
types include animals
that were displayed, and then slaughtered during the games. Some animals
include the lion
, gazelle, antelope, stag, goat, or a she-wolf.SAECVLI FELICITAS
--- The Era of Prosperity.SAECVLVM FRVGIFERVM
--- A personification of the fruitful age, or Golden age.
SALVATOR REIPVLICAE --- Savior of the Republic.SALVS
, SALVTI --- The goddess of health and safety. On the basis from an old Italic
custom of pleasing the gods by sacrificing a virgin to the sacred snakes. Salus
usually appears on a coin after suppression of a coup against the emperor, or when an emperor recovers from an illness. Attributes: sacrificing to snake from patera
. The snake is usually rising from the altar
or being held in arms.SALVS
GENERIS (GEN) HVMANI --- Salvation to human kind.
SANCTO --- Holy or sacred. (APOLLONI SANCTO
= Holy Apollo
--- The Wisdom of our Prince.SARMATIA
--- The personification of Sarmatia
, which is located partly in moderm Russia and Poland. This tribe raided the Empire frequently in the fourth century.
S C --- Senatus Consulto
. By Senatorial Decree.SECVRITAS
--- The personification of freedom from danger. Usually issued after the suppresion of a plot against an emperor, or after repelling a foriegn incursion.
SEGENTIA --- The Roman goddess of the ripening of wheat, or crops.
SELLESTERNIVM --- A ritualistic faest heald in honor
of the gods, and to try and charm them into clemency. Usually issued after a great disaster, plague, or some terrible moment in time.SENATVS
SERVATOS --- Guard or protect.SICILIA
-- To be scilent, or not speak about.SIDERIBVS RECEPTA
--- "Received by the stars". Reverse
usually depicting Diana Lucifera
holding a torch. Diana
lit the way for the dead to journey to their new home
in the heavens and stars.
SOL, SOL INVICTVS --- Originally the personification of the sun (Helios
), then later became a kind of vague status as a deity. Aurelian
founded the Temple of Sol Invictus and used this cult as a spiritual model for the recovery of the Empire
that was in recovery from the anarchy. A festival was held for Sol on his birthday, December 25, which was later co-opted by the Christians as Christmas Day. Attributes: radiate
crown, globe, whip, is depicted naked with cloak. Titles: COMES
, INVICTVS, ORIENS
.SOLI INVICTO COMITI
--- (dedicated as) to his companion (emperor), the unconquered Sol.
SOSPITATORI --- to defend or preserve.SPES
--- The personification of
hope, or imminent good
. Attributes: holds flower, lifts her robe as she walks.SPES PVBLICA
--- Hope of the Public.SPES
REPVBLICAE --- Hope of the Republic.S P Q R
Populusque Romanus, or The Senate and the People of Rome
. This was a standard legend
for expressing the authority on Senatorial decrees. On coins it was used to emphasize the importance of the honor
that was awarded to an emperor. Usually depicted engraved
upon a shield
of Virtue, see CL V
, Clupeus Virtutis).
SVBLATA --- to take away or remove. Steal
--- "The stable world". Tellus was an allegrical figure of the world, or mother earth.
TEMP, TEMPORVM --- of the Times (i.e. FELICITAS TEMPORVM
, prosperity or happiness of the Times).
TEMPVLM, TEMPL --- Temple. ( TEMPVLM DIV AVG REST = Temple for the God Augustus
TERRARVM --- of the WorldTESSERA
--- A cubic tablet mounted on a handle
--- The Toga
was the mantle or outer garment of a Roman citizen. Special designs were reserved for those who served on the Senate or Consul
. On a coin the emperor is usually refering to his Consular rank.TR P
, TRI POT
--- Tribunicia Potestas, or Tribunician Powers. This refers to the Republican office of the Peoples' Tribune, an official elected to see to the political needs of the Plebeians. This position had the power to veto power over the Senatorial Decrees, so the emperor (until the tetrarchy
), found that holding this title would be to his advantage. This was a one year term, and on the anniversary
of his acclamation, he would have his powers formally renewed. The Roman numerals appearing after his title refers to the number of times he has held the office, and to include the year. This becomes useful when trying to date a coin. (i.e. TR P
VI, means the sixth year of an emperors reign).TRANQVILLITAS
, TRANQ --- The personification of tranquillity. Attributes: holds rudder and grain ears.TRES GALLIAE
--- The three regions of Gaul. Aquicania, Lugdunsis and Narbonensis
TRIVMFATOR GENTIVM BARB(arorum) --- Triumphant over the barbarian tribes.
TROPAEA --- A Roman military trophy
was constructed from the arms and armor of a vanquished enemy, set up to put fear into the enemy so they do not return. (looks like a scare crow)
TVTATORI --- Guard, defend or protect against.
VBIQVE --- Everywhere, anywhere. (VBIQVE PAX
= peace everywhere)VENVS
, VENERI, VENERIS ---The Hellenistic goddess of love and beauty (Aphrodite). She was the patron
goddess of Julius Caesar
and then the Julian line (Venus Genetrix
). (VENERIS is the genative form) Attributes: apple
, small figure of Victory
. Titles: CAELESTIS (of the skies), FELIX
--- The goddess of public hearth (Hestia). She was attended by twenty priestesses, the Vestal
Virgins, who ensured that the fire on her altar
would burn for eternity. The ancient Roman religion revolver around the belief in tutelary spirits that protected each house or hearth. The head
of the house (pater
familias), were to tend to the spirits that protected the house. Vesta
was the greatest of these spirits and looked after the entire population. Emoerors used this cult figure of Vesta
as a patriotic allusion to their role as the patron
of the state (pater patriae
) as well as the Pontifex Maximus
. Attributes: patera
, simplum, palladium
. Titles: MATER
--- The victor
(not the personification of Victory
). Usually refers to the agent OF victory
such as MARS VICTOR
--- The Hellenistic goddess of Victory
). Frequently appears as an attribute to other deities, such as Roma
. Attributes: wreath
, wings.VICTORIA OTHONIS
. Minted to pay troops during his campaign against Vitellius
LAETE PRINC PERP
--- Joyful victories of the long lived princes.VICTRIX
--- The personification of manliness, courage and virtue. Frequently appears in armor, thus stressing the military values of the emperor.VIRTVS EXERCITVS
--- The virtue of the Army.VLTOR
--- The Avenger.VNDIQVE VICTORES
on all fronts (undique, means from all sides).VOLCANO
, VVLCAN --- The Hellenistic goddess of iron, fire and wepons (Hephaistos). Attributes: hammer, tongs, anvil.VOTA
--- Vows (to the Gods). The Roman custom of offering vows of a certain sacrifice to the Gods in return for the granting of some favor or wish. At the beginning of his reign, the emperor would offer vows to have a prosperous ten year term. The legend VOTA SVSCEPTA
, refers to the vows at the beginning of a ten year reign. VOTA
SOLVTA, refers to the sacrifices made in fulfillment of those vows. In the fourth century , the emperors had lowered their expectations and vows were offered for a five year reign (VOT V
). Rulers that lived and reigned for longer periods, offered vows after a completion of a term, and offering for another would be, VOTIS XV MVLTIS XX
(because of the vows, 15 years, through more vows, 20 years). This would be issued after the 15 year reign, and to offer vows for the next 5 years (= 20 years). Later during the fifth century, it was used as just
an essential inscription
on an ornamental shield
held by victory
, and the numbers do not refer to any specific anniversary
--- Vows of the People. This commemorates the reign of two emperors embarking on a joint Consulate, and the vows made for a prosperous term in office.VRBANAE
--- of the City. Urban.
VRBS --- A "city".VRBS ROMA BEATA
--- Blessed city of Rome