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Numismatic Bulgarian Some Useful Words

There are several excellent coin reference books written in Bulgarian.  This is a list of some words you might find in them.  It's certainly not complete, but it might be helpful.  It takes no account of grammar or syntax and is just to allow you to recognise the roots of the words.  Sometimes the word in the "English" column is actually an English transliteration of a Greek or Latin word for example, the names of deities or rulers. If you can pronounce the Cyrillic words you won't need those sections at all.

The words are listed in three sections. Here are links:

Rulers emperors, wives and children in whose names the coins were struck.
Personifications and deities the main figures on many reverses.
Other words used in coin descriptions.

The centre column, "Romanised," gives the English versions of the Cyrillic letters. I can't imagine that this gives the correct pronunciation, but helps me, totally ignorant of the language, work with the Bulgarian words; maybe it will help you too.


Rulers

        
BulgarianRomanisedEnglish
Октавиан АвгустOktavian AvgustOctavian Augustus
ДомицианDomi(ts)ianDomitian
ТраянTra(ya)nTrajan
Хадриан(Ch)adrianHadrian
Елий ЦезарElii (Ts)ezarAelius Caesar
Антонин ПийAntonin PiiAntoninus Pius
Марк АврелийMark AvreliiMarcus Aurelius
Луций ВерLu(ts)ii VerLucius Verus
Фаустин МладаFaustin MladaFaustina Younger
КомодKomodCommodus
КриспинаKrispinaCrispina
Клод АлбинKlod AlbinClodius Albinus
Септимий СеверSeptimii SeverSeptimius Severus
Юлия Домна(Yu)li(ya) DomnaJulia Domna
КаракалаKarakalaCaracalla
ПлавтилаPlavtilaPlautilla
ГетаGetaGeta
МакринMakrinMacrinus
ДиадуменианDiadumenianDiadumenian
ЕлагабалElagabalElagabalus
Аквилия СевераAkvili(ya) SeveraAquilia Severa
Юлия Соемия(Yu)li(ya) Soemi(ya)Julia Soaemias
Юлия Меса(Yu)li(ya) MesaJulia Maesa
Александър  СеверAleksandur SeverAlexander Severus
Юлия Мамея(Yu)li(ya) Mame(ya)Julia Mamaea
ГордианGordianGordian
ТранквилинаTrankvilinaTranquillina
ФилипFilipPhilip
Отацилия СевераOta(ts)ili(ya) SeveraOtacilia Severa
ВалерианValerianValerian
ГалиенGalienGallienus
СалонинаSaloninaSalonina

 

Personifications and Deities

        
BulgarianRomanisedEnglish
АполонApolonApollo
Аполон СавроктонApolon SavroktonApollo Sauroktonos
АресAresAres
АртемидаArtemidaArtemis
АсклепийAsklepiiAsklepios
АтинаAtinaAthena
Атина НикефороъAtina NikeforosAthena Nikephoros
БахусBa(ch)usBacchus
Бонус ЕвентусBonus EventusBonus Eventus
ГенийGeniiGenius
ГлюконGl(yu)konGlykon or Glycon
ДеметраDemetraDemeter
ДионисDionisDionysos
ЕвридикаEvridikaEurydike or Eurydice
ЕйренеEireneEirene
ЕросErosEros
ЗевсZevsZeus
КонкордияKonkordi(ya)Concordia
НемезидаNemezidaNemesis
НикеNikeNike
ОрфейOrfeiOrpheus
ПанPanPan
ПриапPriapPriapus
СераписSerapisSerapis
ТриптолемTriptolemTriptolemos
ТюхеT(yu)(ch)eTyche
ФебFebPhoebus (Apollo)
Хадес(Ch)adesHades
Харпократ(Ch)arpokratHarpocrates
Хелиос(Ch)eliosHelios
Хем(Ch)emHemos
Хера(Ch)eraHera
Херакъд(Ch)erakudHerakles
Хермес(Ch)ermesHermes
Хигия(Ch)igi(ya)Hygeia

 

Other Words


Some short words:
а = and, first    в = in, on, at    и = and    на = of    по = on, over    с = with, and    си = its    му = him
зад = behind    над = over    под = under    със = with    без = without

        
BulgarianRomanisedEnglish
аверс, аверсенavers, aversenobverse (of a coin)
бигаbigabiga
бикbikbull
Бог or богBogGod or god
богиняbogin(ya)goddess
ботушаbotu(sh)a(high) boots
брадатbradatbearded
броняbron(ya)armour, mail, cuirass
бюстb(yu)stbust
бягb(ya)grunning
вариантvariantvariant
вдигнатаvdignataraised
везниvezniscales (for weighing)
венецvene(ts)wreath (worn on the head)
влявоvl(ya)voto the left
водаvodawater
волvolox
вълчицаval(ch)i(ts)ashe-wolf
върхаvur(ch)atop
въэлияниеvuzli(ya)nielibation
галераgaleragalley
глава, главатаglava, glavatahead
глиганgliganwild boar
голgolnude
гореgoreabove
горящgor(ya)(sht)burning
градgradcity
градскоgradskourban
градска богиняgradska bogin(ya)city goddess
гроздеgrozdegrapes
гущерgu(sht)erlizard
драпиранаdrapiranadraping
дрехатаdre(ch)atagarment
два, две dva, dvetwo
доспехиdospe(ch)iarmour, panoply
дръжкаdru(zh)kahandle, stem
дълъг or дългаdulug or dulgalong
държиdur(zh)ikeep, hold
дървоdurvotree
дяснатаd(ya)snataright
еленelenstag, deer
етажаeta(zh)afloors
жезъл(zh)ezulsceptre
жертвелик(zh)ertveliksacrificial altar
звездаzvezdastar
земятаzem(ya)tathe earth, the ground
змияzmi(ya)snake
изображениеizobra(zh)enieportrait, image, depiction
изправенаizpravenastanding upright
император, императораimperator, imperatoraemperor
императрнцатаimperatri(ts)ataempress
клонкаklonkatwig, sprig
коетоkoetowhich
кожаko(zh)askin, hide
козилогkozilogcapricorn
колелоkolelo wheel
колесницаkolesni(ts)a chariot
колчанkol(ch)anquiver
коняkon(ya)horse
конникkonnikrider, horseman
копие kopiespear (also means "copy")
корабkorabship
кормилоkormilorudder
коронаkoronacrown
косаkosahair
кошницаko(sh)ni(ts)abasket
кракkrakleg
кривакkrivakclub, truncheon
крилатаkrilatawings, winged
КритскияKritski(ya)Cretan
кръгълkrugulround
кръстосанkrustosancross(ed)
камшик or къмшикkam(sh)ik or kum(sh)ikwhip, crop
лавровlavrovlaurel
лавров  венецlavrov vene(ts)laurel crown, ∴ ≅ laureate
лазиlazicrawl
легналlegnalrecumbent, lying flat, in bed
лираliralyre
лицеli(ts)e face
лъв, лъвскаluv, luvska lion
лъкluk bow
лъчист, лъчестаlu(ch)ist, lu(ch)estaradiant, radiate
ляв, лявата, влявоl(ya)v, l(ya)vata, vl(ya)voleft
мантияmanti(ya)mantle, robe
младаmladayoung
наведенаnavedena bent down, bowed down
нагънатnagunatplicated, folded
надолуnadoludownwards
надписnadpislegend, inscription
надясноnad(ya)snoright, to the right, rightwards
налявоnal(ya)voleft, to the left, leftwards
наметалоnametalocloak, mantle
напредnapredforward
негоnegohim
НимфейонNimfeionNymphaion
нос на корабnos na korabprow of ship
ножno(zh)knife
обърнат, обърнатаoburnat, oburnatafacing or turned backwards
опако, оп.opakoreverse
ореолoreolhalo
околоokoloaround
основа, осн.osnovaexergue, base, foot
палмоваpalmovapalm (tree)
панделкаpandelkaribbon, fillet
пантераpanterapanther
патераpaterapatera
паунpaunpeacock
печатpe(ch)atimpression (die)
плодовеplodovefruit
подобноpodobnosimilar
подпрян, подпряноpodpr(ya)n, podpr(ya)nopropped, leaning, resting
полуpolusemi
полулегналpolulegnalreclining
полуобърнатpoluoburnathalf turned
портиportigates
почиващpo(ch)iva(sht)resting
правpravupright, straight
привързанpriburzantied, attached
прическаpri(ch)eskahairstyle
пръстprustfinger
пълнаpulnafull
развяваrazv(ya)vawave, flourish
разтваряraztrar(ya)spread open
реверс, реверсаrevers, reversareverse (of a coin)
реченre(ch)enriver
ризницаrizni(ts)achain mail
рог на изобилиетоrog na izobilietohorn of plenty, cornucopia
ръка, ръцеruka, ru(ts)ehand, hands
сатирsatirsatyr
седнаиsednalseated
скалаskalarock
сложноslo(zh)nocomplex, intricate
сочиso(ch)ipoint to, indicate
стоглаватаstoglavatahundred-headed
стрелаstrelaarrow
същиятsu(sht)i(ya)tidentical
тетрастиленtetrastiletetrastyle (temple)
тилаtilaneck
типичнатаtipi(ch)natatypically, characteristically
тирсtirsthyrsos
тоягаto(ya)gastaff, club
триделенtridelentrilobed
тройноtroinotriple
тронtronthrone
туникаtunikatunic
урнаurnaurn
устатаustatamouth
факелfakeltorch
фронталноfrontalnofrontal, facing
хвърля(ch)vurl(ya)throws
хитон(ch)itonchiton
ход(ch)odwalk (ing)
храни(ch)ranifoodstuffs or feeds
цветя(ts)vet(ya)flowers
шлем(sh)lemhelmet
щит(sht)itshield

Some of the reference books this might be useful for are:

Ivan Varbanov's series on Greek Imperial Coins and their Values. The first three volumes are also available as (improved) English versions.

Hristova & Jekov's series of volumes on the Coins of Moesia Inferior, I-III c. AD.

Dimitar Dragonov's "The Coinage of Deultum," and the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum volume on the Coins of Deultum in Thrace.


This table was compiled by Bill Welch and can also be found on my web site, What I Like About Ancient Coins.  Credit should go to members of the Forum Classical Numismatics Discussion Board; in particular, to Charley Rhodes for a list of words that I used to start off this page, to the users Optimus and Pekka K for corrections and additional words, and to Pat Lawrence for generosity and encouragement.  But I have made many additions and changes, so any mistakes are likely to be mine.

Two web translation resources have proved useful. Where one fails, try the other.  They are Google Translate and Eurodict. They each have their own strengths, and know words the other does not. Google can translate paragraphs and phrases. Eurodict gives you access to the Cyrillic alphabet, which can be very useful, and often gives more detailed definitions of words. You will need to ensure that cookies are enabled in your browser.


The content of this page was last updated on 10 March 2011