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884

Numidia

Müller, L. Numismatique de l'ancienne Afrique, 1862. vol. iii, pp. 1-77 and Supp., pp. 60 f.
Babelon, Rev. Num. 1889, pp. 393 f.; Cagnat, op. cit.


Numidia, a part of Africa between Mauretania Caesariensis and the Carthaginian region, whose inhabitants were called Numidae by the Romans. Jugurtha, king of Numidia, waged a long and bloody war against the Roman republic, twice subdues by the Consul Quintus Metellus, he again took up arms against the power of Rome; but though at first occasionally successful, he was finally vanquished by Marius, with Bocchus King of Mauritania, whom he had drawn over to his party. that traitor betrayed him to Marius, who conveyed him to Rome, dragged him in the train of his triumphal procession, and caused him to perish in prison. Numidia, in the year of Rome, became a province of the republic, and after the death of Lepidus, was ceded to Augustus.

Kings

Although the attempt of Zobel de Zangroniz to disprove the African origin of the regal coins of Numidia has failed (see Babelon, loc. cit.), much uncertainty still attaches to their distribution among the various kings : Masinissa (B.C. 202-148); his sons Micipsa (148-118), Gulussa (148-140?), and Mastanabal (148-140?); his grandsons Adherbal (118-112). Hiempsal I (118-116), and Jugurtha (118-106); and his great-grandson Hiempsal II (106-60).

Masinissa (B.C. 202-148). Uninscribed AR Phoenician didrachms (116 grs.) with obv. Beardless male head, rev. Horse and palm-tree (attribution doubtful). Æ (size 1.3) with obv. Bearded laureate head, rev. מסנסן הממלכת (Masinisan hammamleket, Masinissa the king), Horse and caduceus. Babelon, p. 399, no. 1. Also Æ (size 1.05); obv. Similar head, rev. Similar inscr., Elephant (Babelon, Mélanges Num., i , pp. 320 f.).

Masinissa or Micipsa. Æ or lead; obv. Bearded head, laureate or diademed, rev. Free horse (sometimes with palm-branch); inscr., מן or מן הת (abbreviation of Mastiniçan or Mikipzan hammamleket). Babelon, p. 399, Nos. 2, 3.

Micipsa (B.C. 148-118)(B.C. 148-118) and his brothers.

Bust of Victory.
[Müller, p. 16, Nos. 6, 7.]
Free horse.
AV Stater 116 grs.
Beardless male bust.
[Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. LIX. 30.]
Horse and palm-tree
AR Didrachm 116 grs.
Similar. [Müller, p. 17, No. 12.]Horse; above, disk and uraei
Similar. [Müller, p. 17, Nos. 13-15.]Horse.
AR Drachm and ½ drachm.
Head of Melkart, bearded, laureate, with club at shoulder.Elephant with rider [Müller, p. 17, No. 16].
AR Tetradrachm 225.3 grs.
Similar, hut beardless.
[Müller, p. 17, Nos. 17, 18.]
Elephant.
AR Tridrachm and ½ dr.

Gulussa (B.C. 148-140?). Æ or lead; obv. Bearded head laureate, rev. Free horse גן (= G[ulussa]n). Babelon, p. 399, No. 4. ; obv. Bearded head laureate, rev. Free horse גן (= G[ulussa]n). Babelon, p. 399, No. 4.

Adherbal (B.C. 118-112). Æ or lead; obv. Bearded head laureate, rev. Free horse אל (A[dherba]l). Babelon, p. 399, No. 5.

Jugurtha (B.C. 118-106).

Head of king with wreath and diadem entwined. Elephant א (Fig. 396)
AR Didrachm 119 grs.
AR Drachm 53 grs.
AR ½ Drachm 24 grs.


885

FIG. 396.

Hiempsal II (B.C. 106-60). AR denarii, quinarii, sestertii; obv. Male head crowned with corn, rev. Free horse (sometimes in wreath); ח or חת (= H[iempsal hammamleke]t) (Müller, p. 38, Nos. 15-47). Also AE; obv. Head of Demeter veiled, rev. Free horse with palm-branch or wreath, ח (Müller, Nos. 48, 49).

Mastanesosus, Numidian dynast, circ. B.C. 62 (Cic. in Vat. v. 12; see Z. f. N., iii, pp. 40 f.). Æ of barbarous style; inscr. משתנצן (Mastanazan), sometimes also ממלכת (mamleket, king); types—Long-haired beardless head; Female head, veiled and diademed; Ear of corn and bunch of grapes, in wreath (Müller, iii. p. 48, Nos. 59-61).

Juba I, B.C. 60-46. The coinage of this king consists of denarii and quinarii of the Roman standard and of bronze coins (Müller, iii, p. 42).


FIG. 397

REX IVBA Bust of Juba bearded, with hair elaborately arranged in formal curls, and with scepter at his shoulder. יובעי הממלכת (Yub'ai hammamleket, Juba rex) in Neo-Punic characters. Type, Temple (Fig. 397).
AR 66-45 grs.
REX IVBA Bust of Victory. Same inscr. Galloping horse
AR 30 grs.
Bust of Juba. Galloping horse.
AR 28 grs.
Head of Numidia in elephant-skin. Lion.
AR 13 grs.

The bronze coins bear the same Neo-Punic inscription, but are without the Latin one; obv. Head of Ammon or of Numidia in elephant-skin, rev. Elephant, Temple, Palace, or Lion.

The coins are chiefly remarkable for the characteristic portrait of the king, whom Cicero (De Lege agra. ii. 22) calls ‘adolescens bene capillatus’. Cf. also Suetonius (J. Caesar, c. 71), who relates how Caesar on one occasion pulled Juba by the beard.

Towns

After the victory of Caesar at Thapsus, B.C. 46, and the death of Juba, Numidia was divided between Rome and her African allies. It is probable that some of the towns continued to strike bronze money down to the time of Augustus.


886
Bulla Regia (Hammam-Darradj) (Müller, iii, p. 57). Bronze, obv. Eagle, rev. Crescent, sometimes containing disk. Inscr., בבעל (bb'l).

Cirta (Constantine), the capital of Numidia, and the chief royal residence. Bronze with Punic legends, perhaps representing the names of other cities, בדמלקרת כרטן (Bdmlkrt Krtn) or אלבת (‘lbt, Müller, iii, p. 60).

Turreted female head. Horse.
Æ 1.0
Id. Two upright ears of corn.
Æ .7

In B.C. 46 P. Sittius received Cirta from Caesar; it became a colony under the name Colonia Iuvenalis Honoris et Virtutis Cirta. It issued Æ with types. Heads of VIRTVS and HONOR, of P. SITTIVS, of Jupiter, and names of the quattuorviri, Mugonianus, etc. (Babelon, Rev. Num., 1889, pp. 502 f.).

Gadiauphala (Ksar Sbai), some thirty-five miles south-east of Cirta. Müller (iii. 65) attributes to this town bronze coins resembling those of Cirta, but reading עא (‘Aa).

Hippo Regius (near Bona) and Tipasa (Tifesh). Hippo Regius was a maritime city near the mouth of the river Ubus. Tipasa was about forty-four miles south of Hippo, and connected with it by a road. The two places appear to have struck money in common (Müller, iii, p. 53). Inscr., אפון (‘pon) and טפעתן = (Thp'tn). TypesHead of Baal laureate and surmounted by star, behind, sceptre, rev. Head of Astarte veiled and surmounted by disk in crescent; Head of Melkart surmounted by star and with club behind, rev. Head of Egyptianized divinity, wearing bonnet, surmounted by star and with axe behind; Youthful head, rev. Panther leaping to right.

Macomades (Kur-el-Ahmar), an inland town of Phoenician origin, about forty miles south-east of Cirta. Bronze of late autonomous times. Inscr., מקמא (= Mqma). TypesHead of Egyptianized divinity, in close-fitting cap with two floating ribands at the top, rev. Hog; Horse galloping, rev. Disk in crescent.

Salviana (?). Bronze of autonomous times. Inscr., אשלבן (= Aslbn). Type—Veiled bust of Phoenician goddess with caduceus, rev. Horse, above, crescent and disk (Müller, iii, p. 68).

Suthul, between Cirta and Hippo Regius. Bronze of late autonomous time. Inscr., סת (= St). TypesHead of Sarapis wearing modius, or of Hermes in petasos, rev. Wreath (Müller, iii, p. 59).

Thabraca (Tabarka) and Tuniza (La Calle), two maritime towns to the east of Hippo Regius. Late autonomous bronze in alliance. Inscr., תברכען (= Tbrk'n), and תננען (= Tnnṣn). Type—Veiled head of Astarte, rev. Beardless head with ringlets; behind, , symbol of Baal (Müller, iii, p. 52).


887
Thagora (Ta'ura), an inland town about forty miles south-east of Hippo Regius. Late autonomous bronze. Inscr., תגרן (= Tgrn). Types—Bearded head, rev. Prancing horse, above, star (Müller, iv. 67).

Tipasa. See Hippo Regius.

Tucca (?). Late autonomous bronze. Inscr., אתג (‘tg). Heads of the Dioskuri or Kabiri laureate, each surmounted by star, rev. Horses of the Dioskuri. These coins have also been attributed to Utica (Müller, ii. 164).

Zarai (Zraya), in the south-west of Numidia. Bronze of autonomous times. Inscr., סראע (= Sra'a). TypeHead of Astarte (?) crowned with myrtle, rev. Cornucopiae in myrtle-wreath.