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Manuel I Comnenus of Trebizon

Coins of The Empire of Trebizond for sale in the Forum Ancient Coins' Shop

Manuel I Megas Komnenos (died March 1263) was an Emperor of Trebizond, from 1238 until his death. At the time Manuel reigned, the Empire of Trebizond comprised a band of territory stretching along the southern coast of the Black Sea. Although Michael Panaretos, a 14th-century Greek chronicler, calls Manuel "the greatest general and the most fortunate" and states he ruled "virtuously in the eyes of God", the only event he documents for Manuel's reign is a catastrophic fire striking the city of Trebizond in January 1253. The major events of his reign are known from external sources, most important of which is the recovery of Sinope in 1254, which had been lost to the Sultanate of Rum forty years before.

Trebizond was founded about 1204 A.D., probably following the Crusader takeover of Constantinople. It was surrounded by Muslim states and constantly paid tribute to them. Trebizond did not fall to the Ottomans until 1461, nearly a decade after Constantinople, but its emperor was little more than a puppet for the Sultan.


Links

Wikipedia Manuel I of Trebizond


References

Retowski, O. Die Münzen der Komnenen von Trapezunt. (Braunschweig, 1974).
Sear, D. Byzantine Coins and Their Values. (London, 1987).
Sommer, A. Die Münzen des Byzantinischen Reiches 491-1453. Mit einem Anhang: Die Münzen des Kaiserreichs von Trapezunt. (Regenstauf, 2010).
Wroth, W. Catalogue of the Coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths, Lombards and of the Empires of Thessalonica, Nicaea, and Trebizond in the British Museum. (London, 1911).


Silver Asper Identification Table

Type 1
Obv: OAΓI-EVΓENI (and similar variations), St. Eugenius standing facing, nimbate, long cross in right hand
Rev: MNΛ-OKH (and similar variations), Manuel standing facing, labarum in right hand, akakia in left hand, Manus Dei upper right
Refs: Retowski 11 ff., BMCV 1 - 7, SBCV 1601
Sommer       Retowski        Sigla (On Reverse Unless Noted)
T3.1              11 - 21            B inner left
T3.2              22 - 27            K inner left obverse and reverse
T3.3              28 - 46a          K inner left reverse only
T3.4              47 - 53            K/Λ inner left
T3.5              54 - 56            ξ inner right
T3.6              57 - 58            C or retrograde C inner left
T3.7              60 - 63            I inner right
T3.8              64 - 69            X on labarum shaft
T3.9              70 - 75            + obverse and reverse inner left
T3.10            76 - 86            + on labarum shaft
T3.11            87 - 104          star inner right
T3.12            105 - 118        rosette inner right
T3.13            119 - 153        pellets on the labarum shaft and additional pellets inner right
T3.14            154 - 168        pellets inner right only, no pellets on the labarum shaft
T3.15            169 - 182        pellets on the labarum shaft, no pellets lower inner right
T3.16            183 - 192        no pellets on or near the labarum shaft
T3.17             -                     area around lower half of the labarum obscure
T3.18            203                 O before the reverse legend

Type 2
Obv: Same as above but obverse legend EVΓENIOC O TPAΠC (and similar variations)
Rev: Same as above but see below for reverse legends
Refs: Retowski 214 - 220, SBCV 1602, BMCV -
Sommer       Retowski 
T3.19            214 - 216        reverse legend M/N/HΛ/KM - N/o     
T3.20            217                 reverse legend MH/N/HΛ/o - K/MH/N (MH's ligate, corrected from refs.)