The Age of Gallienus
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Class A Folles
Armenian Numismatics Page
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Denarii of Otho
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC - Rarity Tables
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Facing Portrait of Augustus
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Helvetica's ID Help Page
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Maps of the Ancient World
Museum Collections Available Online
Not in RIC
Numismatic Excellence Award
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Rome and China
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax Hoard
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Ancient coins from Aetolia in the Forum Ancient Coins shop
Babelon, E. Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
Brett, A.B. Catalogue of Greek Coins, Boston Museum of Fine Arts. (Boston, 1955).
de Callataÿ, F. & J. van Heesch. Greek and Roman Coins from the Du Chastel Collection. Coin Cabinet of the Royal Library of Belgium. (London. 1999).
Delbridge, Diana. Locri Opuntii Corpus. Unpublished. (referenced by BCD.)
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Volume II: Macedon, Thrace, Thessaly, North western, central and southern Greece. (London, 1924).
Grose, S. W. Catalogue of the McClean Collection of Greek Coins, Fizwilliam Museum, Volume II: The Greek mainland, the Aegaean islands, Crete. (Cambridge, 1926).
Head, B.V. British Museum Catalogue of Greek Coins, Central Greece. (London, 1884).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Monnaies Grecques. (Amsterdam, 1883).
Lindgren, H. C. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints from the Lindgren Collection. (San Mateo, 1989).
Naville Co. Monnaies grecques antiques S. Pozzi. Auction 1 (4 April 1921, Geneva).
Numismatica Ars Classica NAC AG. The BCD Collection, Lokris - Phokis. Auction 55 (8 October 2010). Zürich.
Robinson, E. S. G. & G. K. Jenkins. A Catalogue of the Calouste Gulbenkian Collection of Greek Coins, Vol. II: Greece to East. (Lisboa, 1989).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 1: Europe. (London, 1978).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Volume 3: Greece: Thessaly to Aegean Islands. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Bibliothèque National, Collection Jean et Marie Delepierre. (Paris, 1983).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain III, R.C. Lockett Collection, Part 3: Macedonia - Aegina (gold and silver). (London, 1942).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain VII, Manchester University Museum. (London, 1986).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece 5: Numismatic Museum, Athens. The A. G. Soutzos Collection. (Athens, 2007).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, United States, Burton Y. Berry Collection, Part 1: Macedonia to Attica. (New York, 1961).
Ward, J. & G.F.Hill. Greek Coins and Their Parent Cities. (London, 1902).
Warren, J. “The Kato Klitoria Hoard” in Kraay-Mørkholm Essays.
The Eastern Locrians, sometimes called Ηοιοι, sometimes Opuntii, after their chief town Opus, and sometimes Hypocnemidii (later Epicnemidii) from their geographical position at the foot of Mt. Cnemis, struck no coins which can be attributed to an earlier date than about B.C. 400, nor was it until after the peace of Antalcidas, which enacted that all towns in European Greece και μικρας και μεγαλας αυτονομουσ ειναι (Xen. Hell. v. 1, 3. 31) that the capital Opus began to place her own name on the money.
The weight standard of the Locrian money is the Aeginetic, and the following are the chief types:—
|Head of goddess crowned with leaves, copied from the famous Syracusan dekadrachm by Euainetos (B.C. 405-367), (Fig. 190; cf. Fig. 98; cf. Photiades Cat., 344).||ΟΠΟΝΤΙΟΝ The Locrian Ajax, the son of Oïleus, naked, but armed with helmet, sword, and shield, advancing to the fight, accompanied on one variety by his name ΑΙΑΣ; copied from the Syracusan type of ΛΕΥΚΑΣΠΙΣ1 (pp. 175 and 178 supra).
AR Staters, Drachms, and ½ Drachms.
|ΟΠΟΝ Amphora. [BMC Central Greece Pl. I. 2, and varieties in N. C., 1895, 270.]||Star (ηωος αστηρ, the badge of the eastern Locrians. Cf. Strab., p. 416).
|Head of Athena.||ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ Grapes. |
After the battle of Chaeroneia, B.C. 338, it is probable that Opus, like Thebes, fell under the displeasure of Philip, and that, as in Boeotia the right of issuing silver was transferred from Thebes to the Boeotians, so also in Locris it was transferred from Opus to the Locrians collectively. The coins of the Locrians, which appear to be subsequent to the battle of Chaeroneia, resemble for the most part in their types those already described, although they are distinctly later in style, but instead of ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ they bear the legends ΛΟΚΡΩΝ ΥΠΟΚ (in mon.), ΛΟΚΡ, ΛΟ, or ΛΟΚΡ ΕΠΙΚΝΑ (BMC Central Greece Pl. II, and Photiades Cat., 351).
1 I am inclined to think that these types were designed for the Opuntians at the Syracusan mint, and that the dies (for the first issue at any rate) were executed there. At a later period the Aetolians also appear to have had recourse to the die-engravers of Syracuse for their first gold coins. (See supra, p. 334.)
Under Macedonian rule from circa. B.C. 300 there is no reason to suppose that any coins were struck in Locris; but when Flamininus (B.C. 197) restored freedom to all the cities of Greece, Opus began once more to strike bronze coins with the old types, but reading ΟΠΟΥΝΤΙΩΝ in place of ΟΠΟΝΤΙΩΝ. This coinage came to an end in B.C. 146 (BMC Central Greece Pl. II. 9).
Under the empire Opus again enjoyed the right of coinage, but for a short period only, during the reigns of Galba and Otho, sometimes with magistrate’s name, ЄΠΙ ΚΛΑΥ[ΔΙΟΥ] CЄΡΑΠΙΩΝΟC. On some of these coins of Imperial times are the heads of Hades and Persephone, and on the reverses a warrior (perhaps Opous) standing. For other varieties of Locrian coins see BMC Central Greece Pls. I and II, and Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 148.
Scarpheia was an ancient Locrian city mentioned by Homer (Il. ii. 532).
|Female head.||ΣΚΑΡΦΕΩΝ The Locrian Ajax in fighting attitude. |
|Head of Athena. [BMC Central Greece Pl. II. 13.]||ΣΚΑΡΦΕΩΝ Hermes standing. |
For some others see Prokesch, Ined., 1854, Pl. II. 44, and Margaritis Cat., Pl. I. 22.
Thronium. (Leake, Northern Greece, ii. 177.)
|Bearded head of Centaur or Seilenos. [BMC Central Greece Pl. II. 14.]||ΘRΟΝΙ Greave (κνημις) in incuse square. |
On this coin, which is one of the earliest struck in Locris, the reverse type contains an allusion to the Cnemis range of mountains, from which the people of Eastern Locris derived their surname.
In the time of the Aetolian League, B.C. 279-168, Thronium struck bronze coins with Aetolian types.
|Head of Apollo. [BMC Central Greece Pl. II. 15.]||ΘΡΟΝΙΕΩΝ Spear-head and jaw-bone of boar; symbol, grapes. |
Amphissa, which had been destroyed by Philip of Macedon, B.C. 338, was afterwards restored and became a populous place.
|Head of Apollo laureate.||ΑΜΦΙΣΣΕΩΝ Spear-head and jaw-bone of Kalydonian boar; symbols, star and grapes. |
Oeantheia. The only known coin of this city shows by its shape that it belongs to the time of the Aetolian league.
|Head of Apollo laureate. [Imhoof MG, p. 147.]||ΟΙΑΝΘΕΩΝ Spear-head. |