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Davesne, A. & G. Le Rider. Le trésor de Meydancikkale. (Paris, 1989).
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Vol. III, Part 1. (London, 1926).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Die Münzen Der Dynastie Von Pergamon. (Berlin, 1885).
Lindgren, H. & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
Lindgren, H. Lindgren III: Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
MacDonald, G. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection, University of Glasgow, Vol II: Greece, & Asia Minor. (Glasgow, 1901).
Mildenberg, L. & S. Hurter, eds. The Dewing Collection of Greek Coins. ACNAC 6. (New York, 1985).
Mionnet, T.E. Description de Médailles antiques grecques et romaines. (Paris, 1807-1837).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2: Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 4: Bosporus-Lesbos. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 4: Mysien-Ionien. (Berlin, 1989).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 1: Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Mysia, Troas, Aiolis, Lesbos, Ionia. (Berlin, 1957).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Bibliothèque Nationale, Cabinet des Médailles, Vol. 5: Mysia. (Paris, 2001).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Bibliothèque National, Collection Jean et Marie Delepierre. (Paris, 1983).
Westermark, U. Das Bildnis des Philetairos von Pergamon, Corpus der Munzpragung. (Stockholm, 1960).
Wroth, W. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Mysia. (London, 1892).
Philetaerus, on officer of Lysimachus, deserted in 282 B.C., taking control of Pergamon and a large treasure deposited there. At first nominally a Seleukid suzerainty, Pergamon grew into a strong, prosperous and independent kingdom. Loyal allies of Rome in the Macedonian Wars and against the Seleucids, they were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor. When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 B.C., to prevent a civil war, he bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic.
Philetaerus (282 - 263 BC)
Eumenes I (263 - 241 BC)
Attalus I Soter (241 - 197 BC)
Eumenes II (197 - 159 BC)
Attalus II Philadelphus (160 - 138 BC)
Attalus III (138 - 133 BC)
Eumenes III Aristonicus (pretender, 133 - 129 BC)
Philetaerus, B.C. 284-263, was the treasurer selected by Lysimachus to guard his hoard of 9,000 talents deposited at Pergamum. In B.C. 284 he made himself independent, though his tetradrachms show that he recognized Seleucus Nicator as his suzerain.
|Head of young Herakles.
|ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ Zeus seated holding eagle; symbols, bust of Athena and crescent.|
|Head of Seleucus Nicator, divinized.||ΦΙΛΕΤΑΙΡΟΥ Athena seated; outstretched hand on shield; above, ivy-leaf; on r., bow.|
|Head of Philetaerus wearing diadem; also with diadem and laurel-wreath entwined.||ΦΙΛΕΤΑΙΡΟΥ Athena seated; outstretched hand on shield; beneath arm, ivy-leaf; on r., bow (Fig. 283).|
|Head of Philetaerus wearing wreath with tie. (Also head with laurel-wreath and diadem entwined, Attalus I or Eumenes II ?.)||ΦΙΛΕΤΑΙΡΟΥ Athena seated, crowning king 's name; shield behind her; on r., bow : symbols, ivy-leaf, grapes. Tetradrachm
(Cf. Wace in Journ. Int., 1903, p. 143, and in J. H. S., 1905, 98.)
|Head of Philetaerus wearing diadem and laurel-wreath entwined.||ΦΙΛΕΤΑΙΡΟΥ Type as on coins of Attalus I, with symbols, bee, star, palm, cornucopia, &c., and monograms.|
|Head of Eumenes II, wearing diadem.
[BMC Mysia, p. 117; cf. Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 118.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΥΜΕΝΟΥ Two youths (Kabeiri or Dioskuri) standing facing, each holding a spear: whole in laurel-wreath.|
For Alexandrine coins, probably of the time of Eumenes II, see Imhoof, op. cit., pp. 16, 17.
Attalus II (Philadelphus), B.C. 159-138, younger brother of Eumenes II.
|Head of Philetaerus with diadem and laurel-wreath entwined.||ΦΙΛΕΤΑΙΡΟΥ Athena seated, etc., as on the tetradrachm of Eumenes II; with various symbols and monograms, flat, spread fabric.|
Inscription throughout, ΦΙΛΕΤΑΙΡΟΥ. Many of the reverse types and symbols are identical with the symbols of the tetradrachms, and this identity furnishes the chief clue to their attribution to the various kings (see Imhoof, op. cit.; BMC Mysia, p. 119 f.). Obverses, Head of Athena; Head of Apollo; Head of Asklepios. Reverses, Bow; Ivy-leaf; Star; Bee; Tripod; Thyrsos; Bow; Serpent coiled; Asklepios seated feeding serpent from phiale (probably after the statue of Phyromachus, Wroth, Num. Chron., 1882, p. 14; von Fritze, Nomisma, ii. p. 19 f.); Temple-key and serpent. Also with obv. Head of Philetaerus, rev. ΦΙΛΕΤΑΙΡΟΥ Female figure seated l. holding wreath (Brit. Mus. (authenticity doubtful)).
Under the kings of the Pergamene dynasty the so-called Cistophori made their first appearance as the chief medium of circulation for Western Asia Minor. The Cistophorus was so named from its type, the Sacred Bacchic Chest or Cista. According to Dr. Imhoof (Die Münzen der Dynastie von Pergamon, p. 33) this coinage originated at Ephesus shortly before B.C. 200, and its use rapidly extended throughout the dominions of Attalus I of Pergamum. Henceforth the Cistophorus became a sort of Pan-Asiatic coin, its general acceptance being secured by the uniformity of its types, while the local mint-letters and magistrates ' symbols were merely subordinate adjuncts. The institution of this quasi-federal coinage in Asia Minor may have been suggested by the popularity of the Federal money of the Achaean League in Peloponnesus, as well as by the eager adoption by so many Asiatic cities of Alexandrine tetradrachms. The manifold advantages of a uniform currency were evidently beginning to be understood and widely appreciated in the ancient world about this time, and the cistophorus, whether intentionally coined for this purpose or not, met the popular demand, and was issued in vast quantities from numerous Asiatic mints (cf. Livy xxxvii. 46, 58, 59, and xxxix. 7).
The types of the Cistophori may be thus described.
|Cista mystica, with half-open lid, from which a serpent issues; the whole in wreath of ivy. (Fig. 284.)||Two coiled serpents, with heads erect;
between them, a bow-case.
AR Tetradrachm 195 grs.
Cistophori are known to have been issued at the following mints in Asia Minor:— Adramyteum and Pergamum in Mysia; Ephesus and Smyrna in Ionia; Apollonis, Thyateira, Nysa, Sardes, Stratoniceia ad Caïcum, and Tralles in Lydia; Apameia, Laodiceia, and Synnada in Phrygia; also in Crete (see supra, p. 479). See Pinder, Über die Cistophoren, 1856.
Class I. Circ. B.C. 200-133.
Class II. B.C. 133-67.
In field, as a constant symbol the snake-entwined Asklepian staff, often with the addition of the letters ΠΡΥ in monogram, standing for Prutanis Πρυτανις, together with abbreviated magistrates ' names.
Class III. B.C. 57-54.
Series of Proconsular cistophori, bearing the names of the Proconsuls C. Fabius, B.C, 57-56, with local magistrates ' names ΜΗΝΟΦΙΛΟΣ and ΔΗΜЄΑC; C. Claudius Pulcher, B.C. 55-54 (?), with local magistrates ' names, ΜΗΝΟΔWΡΟC, etc. (BMC Mysia, p. xxx; N. C., 1899, p. 97).
Class IV. B.C. 49-48.
Cistophorus struck by Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio as 'Imperator '; Legionary Eagle, in place of Bow-case, between serpents on reverse (B. M. Guide, Pl. LX. 5). (For a cistophorus probably struck B.C. 50-49 by L. Antonius as Q[uaestor] see N. C., 1893, p. 10.)
LATER COINAGE OF PERGAMUM.
The bronze coins (sizes 1.-.6) described below have been generally ascribed to the period (B.C. 133 to Augustus) when the Pergamene kingdom and its capital became part of the Roman province of Asia. Von Fritze (Corolla Num., p. 47 f.) has, however, shown reasons for assigning them to the later period of the Pergamene kingdom, circ. B.C. 200-133. They would thus be a civic issue supplementing the regal issue of bronze coins. It may be doubted whether any bronze coins were struck at Pergamum between B.C. 133 and the time of Augustus.
Imperial— Augustus to Gallienus. Also quasi-autonomous of same period. Inscr. ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗΝΩΝ. Types: Asklepios, Hygieia, Telesphoros. The Asklepian cultus was of great importance (see Wroth, 'Asklepios and the coins of Pergamum, ' in N. C., 1882, pp. 1-51, and von Fritze, Nomisma, ii. pp. 18-35), and Asklepian types are abundant, especially under the Antonines and under Caracalla, who visited the Pergamene temple of Asklepios in A.D. 214. ΚΟΡΩΝΙC, mother of Asklepios, standing; Statue of Asklepios between rivers Keteios and Seleinos; Asklepios, small naked figure and rat (BMC Mysia, p. 148); Caracalla adoring Asklepian serpent and Telesphoros (BMC Mysia, p. xxxi); also sacrificing to Asklepios (ib.); ΘΕΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ, Head of Senate, rev. ΘΕΑΝ ΡΩΜΗΝ, Head of Roma; ΠЄΡΤΑΜΟC ΚΤΙCΤΗC, Head of hero Pergamos; Athena; Armenian (?) captive (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 506); ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΝ ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗΝΟΙ, Augustus in temple; ΛΙΒΙΑΝ ΗΡΑΝ, Bust of Livia as Hera, rev. ΙΟΥΛΙΑΝ ΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΗΝ, Bust of Julia as Aphrodite; obv. Bust of ЄΥΡΥΠΥΛΟC ΗΡΩC, rev. Cypriote temple of Aphrodite (ΠΑΦΙΑ) (see BMC Cyprus, Pl. XXVI. 7); ΖЄΥC ΦΙΛΙΟC; Temple of Rome and Augustus (BMC Mysia, p. 142); River-god, ΚΑΙΚΟC; River-god, ΚΗΤΕΙΟC; Apollo Smintheus (BMC Mysia, p. 145); Satyr dancing the boy Dionysos on his foot (BMC Mysia, p. 150); Youthful Zeus, Gaia and Thalassa (BMC Mysia, p. 151); Ariadne sleeping (Z. f. N., xxiv, p. 74); Great Altar of Pergamum, with humped bulls in front (R. N., 1902, p. 234); Herakles and Erymanthian boar (Inv. Wadd.); Kabeiri (Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 120 f.).
Magistrates—Vettius Bolanus, M. Plautius Silvanus, Q. Poppaeus Secundus, P. Petronius, C. Antius, A. Julius Quadratus, Proconsuls of Asia. The usual local magistrate is a Strategos; also Grammateus, Hiereus, Gymnasiarch, Prytanis (a woman, BMC Mysia, p. 145; cf. Ath. Mitth., 1899, p. 167), Theologos (N. C., 1894, p. 12).
Titles—ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Β and Γ; ΠΡΩΤΩΝ; Η ΠΡΩΤΗ ΤΗC ΑCΙΑC ΚΑΙ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΚ ΠΡΩΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟC ΠΡΩΤΗ ΤΩΝ CЄΒΑCΤΩΝ ΠЄΡΓΑΜΗΝΩΝ ΠΟΛΚ (Caracalla).
Games—ΠΡΩΤΑ ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ ЄΝ ΠЄΡΓΑΜΩ (Gallienus).
Perperene, south-east of Adramyteum. Small autonomous bronze of the second or first century B.C. Head of Apollo, rev. ΠΕΡ, ΠΕΡΠΕ, Grapes. Imperial— Domitian to Otacilia. Also quasi-autonomous Inscr., ΠΕΡΠΕΡΗΝΙΩΝ. Types: Grapes; Telesphoros holding grapes; Asklepios; Two serpents at altar; Dionysos; Zeus; Athena; Demeter; Apollo (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 506); Head of the Senate as town-goddess (ib. p. 32); Bust of the Imperial ΗΓЄΜΟΝΙΑ laureate, on coins of Caligula (ib. p. 32) and Nero.
Pitane, on the Elaean gulf near the mouth of the Euenus. Æ, end of fifth century B.C., wt. 5.6 grs., obv. Head r., rev. ΠΙΤΑΝΑ Pentagram (Brit. Mus.). Also Æ of fourth century B.C. to first century. Inscr., ΠΙ, ΠΙΤΑ, ΠΙΤΑΝΑΙΩΝ. Usual types: obv. Head of Zeus Ammon in profile or facing, rev. Pentagram. Also Head of Bacchante; Omphalos entwined by serpent. Imperial— Augustus to Otacilia. Inscr. ΠΙΤΑΝΑΙΩΝ. Types: Round shield ornamented with pentagram; Head of Ammon; Telesphoros; Athena; Zeus; Prow; Amazon. Magistrates, P. Cornelius Scipio, Proconsul (with head): Strategos.
Placia, on the Propontis, between Cyzicus and the mouth of the Rhyndacus. Autonomous small bronze of the fourth century B.C. Inscr., ΠΛΑΚΙΑ or ΠΛΑ. Types— Head of Kybele, sometimes turreted, rev. Lion r.; Lion 's head; or Bull walking. On the worship of Kybele at Placia and Cyzicus, under the name of ae Maetaer Plakianaeη Μητηρ Πλακιανη, see Mittheilungen d. deutsch. arch. Inst., vii. 151.
Poemanenon, a dependency of Cyzicus, Æ of first century B.C. Type: Head of Zeus, rev. ΠΟΙΜΑΝΗΝΩΝ Fulmen. Imperial and quasi-autonomous— Trajan to Philip. Types: Head of ΗΟΙΜΗC the founder, rev. Hermes (Z. f. N., iii. 123); Eros (Invent. Wadd.); Tyche; Tripod entwined by serpent; Zeus; Asklepios. Magistrate, Archon. (On the site of Poimanenon, cf. J. H. S., xxvi; p. 23.)
Priapus, a colony of Cyzicus near Parium. Autonomous bronze of the third and first centuries B.C. Inscr., ΠΡΙ ΑΠΗΝΩΝ or abbreviated.
Circ. B.C. 400-280.