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Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
Brunömid, J. Die Inschriften und MŁnzen der griechischen Stšdte Dalmatiens. (Vienna, 1898).
Calciati, R. Pegasi, Volume II: Colonies of Corinth and related issues. (Mortara, 1990).
Ceka, H. Questions de numismatique illyrienne. (State University, Tirana, 1972).
Gardner, P. A Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, Thessaly to Aetolia. (London, 1883).
Head, B. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, Corinth, Colonies of Corinth, Etc. (London, 1889).
Imhoof, F. Numismatische Zeitschrift, 1884, pp. 246 ff.
Maier, A. "Die Silberpršgung von Apollonia und Dyrrhachion" in NZ 41 (1908), pp. 1 - 33.
Prokopov, I. Coin Collections and Coin Hoards From Bulgaria, Volume I, Numismatic Collections of the Historical Museum Lovech & the Historical Museum Razgrad. (Sofia, 2007).
Schlosser, J. von. Beschreibung der Altgreichischen MŁnzen I: Thessalien, Illyrien, Dalmatien und die Inseln des Adriatischen Meeres, Epeiros. (Vienna, 1893).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 1: Europe. (London, 1978).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Volume 3: Greece: Thessaly to Aegean Islands. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, MŁnchen Staatlische MŁnzsammlung, Part 12: Thessalien - Illyrien - Epirus - Korkyra. (Berlin, 2007).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, BibliothŤque National, Collection Jean et Marie Delepierre. (Paris, 1983).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, GrŤce, Collection Rťna H. Evelpidis, Part 2: Macťdoine - Thessalie - Illyrie - Epire - Corcyre. (Athens, 1975).
Visonŗ, P. "Greek-Illyrian Coins in Trade, 1904-2005" in SNR 84 (2005).
In classical antiquity, Illyria was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians, a region roughly defined from the Drin river (in modern north Albania) to Istria (Croatia) in the west and to the Sava river (Bosnia and Herzegovina) in the north.
Illyria was divided into small hereditary kingdoms, none ruling the entire region, and some with only a single town. Numerous Greek colonies were also established in Illyria. Epidamnos was found in 627 B.C. and Apollonia founded in 588 B.C., both by colonists from Corinth and Corfu. The most notable Illyrian kingdoms and dynasties were those of Bardyllis of the Dardani, and of Agron of the Ardiaei. Agron extended rule to other tribes and created the last and best-known Illyrian kingdom.
Rome defeated Gentius, the last independent king of Illyria, at Scodra (in present-day Albania) in 168 B.C. Four client-republics were set up, which were in fact ruled by Rome. Salona (near modern Split in Croatia) functioned as its capital. Later, the region was governed as a province, with Scodra as its capital. In 10 A.D., after crushing a revolt, Rome dissolved the province of Illyricum and divided it between the new provinces of Pannonia and Dalmatia. The province was then divided into Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south. Illyricum was made a Roman prefecture during the 4th century, and was abolished, re-established and divided several times during the late Roman and Byzantine periods.
Amantia. Autonomous bronze coins of the period of the Epirote
Republic, B.C. 230-168, with Epirote types. Heads of Zeus Dodonaeos
or of Zeus and Dione. Rev., Fulmen or serpent. Bust of Artemis. Rev.
Torch. Inscr., ΑΜΑΝΤΩΝ. (Imhoof MG, p. 137, and BMC Thessaly,
Pl. XXXI. 10, 11.
Apollonia. Colony of Corcyra. Silver coins of five periods:ó(i) Circ. B.C. 450-350, with Corcyrean types, Cow and Calf. Rev. ΑΠ, Conventional pattern usually called Gardens of Alkinoos, which I shall in future describe as a Square containing a stellate pattern, or as a Stellate square. (See infra, p. 325 f.) Staters of circ. 160 grs. ∆ Lyre, Rx ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ Obelisk of Apollo (BMC Thessaly, Pl. XII. 1, 2).
(iii) B.C. 229-100. New series of silver coins of the period during which Apollonia and Dyrrhachium were under the protection of Rome. These coins are of the weight of the Roman Victoriatus, circ. 52 grs. (see Haeberlin in Z. f. N., 1907, p. 238). Obv., Cow and Calf. Rev., Stellate square (BMC Thessaly, Pl. XII. 3), and of the half Victoriatus, circ. 26 grs. Rev., Fire of the Nymphaeum. They bear magistrates ' names on both sides. It is supposed that the name on the obverse, in the nominative case, is that of the mint-master, and that the name on the reverse, in the genitive, stands probably for an eponymous annual magistrate. There are also bronze coins of two distinct series with identical types, an earlier and a later, each represented by two or more denominations. In the later series the weights seem to have been doubled (see Hunter Cat., II. pp. 2 ff.). Inscr., ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΑΤΑΝ (BMC Thessaly, Pl. XII. 8-12).
|Head of Artemis, or veiled head.||Tripod within wreath. |
|Head of Dionysos.||Cornucopia. |
|Head of Apollo.||Obelisk within wreath or lyre. |
(iv) From circ. B.C. 100 to Augustus. About B.C. 104 the Victoriatus was abolished at Rome, being assimilated to the Quinarius. From this time forwards the silver coins of Apollonia were issued on the standard of the Roman Denarius.
|Head of Apollo.|
[BMC Thessaly, Pl. XII. 13.]
|Three nymphs dancing round the fire
of the Nymphaeum. |
AR 62 grs.
|Fire of the Nymphaeum.
[Congr. int., p. 113.]
AR 44 and 31 grs.
|Head of Athena. [Ibid., Pl. XII. 15.]||Obelisk. |
AR 29 grs.
|Lyre and quiver (?). [B. M.]||Obelisk. |
AR 13.5 grs.
(v) Imperial. Augustus to Geta. Inscr., ΑΠΟΛΛWΝΙΑΤΑΝ, ΝΕΡWΝΙ ΑΠΟΛΛWΝΙ ΚΤΙCΤΗ, ΝΕΡWΝΙ ΔΗΜΟCΙW ΠΑΤΡWΝΙ ΕΛΛΑΔΟC, etc. Types:óThree nymphs dancing; Obelisk of Apollo; Hades seated with a standing female figure before him carrying an infant in her arms; Apollo; Poseidon; Asklepios; River-god; Temple of Herakles; etc.
The Nymphaeum near Apollonia was sacred to Pan and the nymphs. It is described by Strabo (p. 316) Πετρα δ εστι πυρ aναδιδουσα, υπ aυτη δε κρηναι ρεουσι χλιαρου και ασφαλτου. The obelisk is that of Apollo Αγυιευς (see Ambracia, p. 320).
Byllis, on the north bank of the Aous, about twenty miles above Apollonia. Small bronze coins of the period of the Epirote Republic,
B.C. 230-168 (cf. coins of Amantia, p. 313). Inscr., ΒΥΛΛΙΟΝΩΝ orHead of Zeus; Rx Serpent twined round cornucopia. Youthful helmeted head; Rx Eagle on fulmen (BMC Thessaly, p. 64), or Quiver (Patsch Congres, 111).
|Head of Hermes to r.
[Brunömid, p. 74.]
|ΔΑΟΡΣΩΝ Galley l. [Z. f. N., xiii.
p. 68]. |
Dyrrhachium (Dyrrhachii. Epidamnus) the capital of the Dyrrhachians, was a colony of Corcyra of considerable importance. The money of this city down to about B.C. 100, when it comes to an end, falls into the same periods as that of Apollonia. The coins bear the name of the people and not of their chief town.
|Cow suckling calf.
[BMC Thessaly, Pl. XIII. 10.]
|ΔΥΡ Double stellate square.
(iii) B.C. 229-100. New series of Dyrrhachian coins.
|Cow suckling calf.||ΔΥΡ Double stellate square [Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. LXV. 12]. |
AR 53 grs.
|Forepart of cow.||Ą Id. [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XIV. 3]
AR 26 grs.
These coins are of the weight of the Roman Victoriatus and Ĺ Victoriatus, and bear the names of two magistrates, probably that of the eponymous annual magistrate in the genitive on the reverse, and that of the superintendent of the mint in the nominative on the obverse. (See note 1, p. 314.) The adjunct symbol on the obverse changes with the name on the reverse, and therefore belongs properly to it. The bronze coins, also with magistrates ' names, bear types relating to the worship of the Dodonaean Zeus, Herakles, Helios, Asklepios, etc.
Lissus. This town, at the mouth of the Drilo, was probably one of the colonies founded under the auspices of Dionysius of Syracuse, but the few coins which are known belong chiefly to the period of Macedonian supremacy, B.C. 211-197.
[NC, 1880, Pl. XIII. 3.]
|ΛΙΣΣΙΤΑΝ Fulmen. |
|Head of Hermes (?) in petasos.
[Brunömid, Pl. VI. 93.]
|ΛΙΣΣΙ[ΤΑΝ] Galley. |
Oricus. A seaport in the neighborhood of Apollonia, not far from the mouth of the Aous.
|Head of Zeus.
[Vienna Cat., I. Pl. V. 8.]
|ΩΡΙ[ΚΙ]ΩΝ Eagle on fulmen in oak wreath. |
|Head of Apollo.
[BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXXI. 13.]
|ΩΡΙΚΙΩΝ Obelisk of Apollo Agyieus, in wreath. |
|Head of Athena.||Ą Fulmen. |
|Macedonian shield. [Brunömid, p. 70.]||ΣΚΟΔΡΙΝΩΝ Helmet; all in wreath.
|Head of Zeus.||ΣΚΟΔΡΕΙΝΩΝ War galley and, sometimes, magistrate 's name. |
|Cow suckling calf. (Fig. 178.)
[BMC Thessaly, Pl. XIV. 10, 11.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΟΝΟΥΝΙΟΥ Double
stellate square. |
AR Staters, 160 grs.
Genthius, circ. B.C. 197-168, probably succeeded to the Illyrian throne on the expulsion of Philip V of Macedon from his Illyrian possessions, by the stipulations of the Peace of Tempe, B.C. 197. Genthius was afterwards induced by Perseus to attack the Romans, but was defeated beneath the walls of Scodra and taken prisoner by L. Anicius. It would seem that the coins of Genthius were struck both at Scodra and at Lissus.
|Macedonian shield.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΓΕΝΘΙΟΥ Helmet ∆ .6|
|Head of Genthius in kausia.
[Brunömid, p. 71.]
|Ą Ą Illyrian galley.
|Id.||Ą Ą Fulmen. |
Ballaeus, known only from coins. The date of his reign is probably B.C. 167-135 (Num. Chron., 1880, p. 300; Brunömid, pp. 82 ff.).
|Head of king, bare.
[BMC Thessaly, Pl. XIV. 14.]
|ΒΑΛΛΑΙΟΥ or ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΛΛΑΙΟΥ Artemis with torch and two spears, running, or Artemis standing.
AR 55 grs., and ∆ .7-.6
The coins with the title Βασιλευς come chiefly from Risano (Rhizon); those without the regal title chiefly from the island of Lesina (Pharos).
[Imhoof, Num. Zeit., 1884, pp. 246-60.]
In the early part of the fourth century Dionysius of Syracuse began to turn his attention to the western coasts of Illyricum and the islands in the Adriatic sea. He assisted the Parians in colonizing the two islands of Issa and Pharos, B.C. 385 (Holm, Gesch. Sic., ii. 134). About the same time the island of Corcyra Nigra, so called from its dark pine forests, appears to have received a Greek colony. The money of a town named Heracleia, perhaps situate in the island of Pharos, in which the coins which bear its name are found, belongs also to this category (Brunömid, p. 54). The coins of the whole of this group are chiefly of the fourth and second centuries B.C. There are apparently few of the third.
|Rude head of Apollo.||ΚΟΡΚΥΡΑΙΩΝ Ear of corn [Num.
Zeit., 1884, Pl. IV. 20]. |
|Head of Herakles in lion-skin.
[BMC Thessaly, Pl. XIV. 8.]
|ΗΡΑΚΛ, ΗΡΑΚ or ΗΡΑ Bow and club.
∆ .95 and .7
[Hunter Cat., Pl. XXXI. 11.]
|ΗΡΑ Dolphin. |
Issa. The earliest coins of this island belong to the fourth century B.C., and consist of heavy bronze pieces resembling in fabric the large bronze issues of various Sicilian cities (cf. Head, Coinage of Syracuse, Pl. VII A). On the obv. is the head of Ionios, the son of Adrias, the eponymous hero of the Ionian sea, and the inscr. ΙΟΝΙΟ[Σ]. On the rev. is a dolphin with a line of waves beneath (Num. Zeit., 1884, 257; Hunter Cat., Pl. XXXI. 12). The coins which bear the name of the town of Issa follow next in order, but do not seem to extend much beyond the end of the third century. The following are the principal varieties:ó
|ΙΣΣΑ Head of Artemis (?).||Star with eight rays. |
|Head of Athena.||ΙΣ Goat. |
|Head of Athena.||ΙΣ Stag with head turned back. |
|Head of Zeus (?).||Ι Σ Id. |
|ΙΣ Amphora.||Vine-branch with grapes. |
|Jugate heads.||ΙΣ Grapes. |
|Youthful head.||Ι Σ Kantharos. |
|Head of Zeus. [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XV. 4.]||ΦΑΡ Goat standing. |
AR 41 grs.
|Id. [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XV. 5.]||ΦΑΡΙΩΝ Id. symbol: sometimes,
|Head of Persephone.
[Brunömid, Pl. I.]
|ΦΑ Goat. |
|Head of young Dionysos ivy-crowned.
[BMC, p. 84, 11.]
|ΦΑ Grapes. |
|Young head laureate.
[BMC, Pl. XV. 8.]
|Ą Kantharos. |
[Zeit. f. Num., i. 99, xvi. 3, xvii. 3, xxi. 258; Fox, 73; B. C. H., vi. 211.]
|Head of Apollo laureate [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XV. 10-13; Pl. XVI. 1, 2.]||ΔΑΜΑΣΤΙΝΩΝ Tripod, often with
name, in the genitive, of dynast or
magistrate, ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔΟ, ΚΑΚΙΟ,
ΚΗ, ΚΗΦΙ, ΚΗΦΙ[ΣΟΦΩ]ΝΤΟΣ,
ΣΩΚΡΑΤΙΔΑ, ΑΡΡΙΑ, etc.
AR Staters, Paeonian standard, circa 206-190 grs.
|Female head with hair in net.
[BMC Thessaly, Pl. XVI. 4.]
|ΔΑΜΑΣΤΙΝΩΝ Large square ingot
marked with caduceus or swastika,
and with a handle attached, for
carrying it. (Svoronos, Journ. Int.,
1906, p. 176). |
AR 48 grs.
|Head of Apollo. [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XVI. 8.]||ΔΑΜΑΣΤΙΝΩΝ Pickaxe. |
AR 29 grs.
For other varieties see Imhoof MG, p. 135, and Num. Zeit., 1884, p. 260, where a silver coin weighing 50 grs. has on the obverse a female head, and on the reverse the proper name ΔΑΡΑΔΟ in a double linear square (Hunter Cat., Pl. XXXI. 13).
Tenestini. Similar AR coins. Inscr., ΤΕΝΕΣΤΙΝΩΝ (Hirsch Coll.).
These unknown tribes or towns were probably only small mining communities in the vicinity of Damastium (Imhoof MG, p. 136).