- The Collaborative Numismatics Project
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register. The column on the left includes the "Best of NumisWiki" menu. If you are new to collecting, start with Ancient Coin Collecting 101. All blue text is linked. Keep clicking to endlessly explore. Welcome Guest. Please login or register. The column on the left includes the "Best of NumisWiki" menu. All blue text is linked. Keep clicking to endlessly explore. If you have written a numismatic article, please add it to NumisWiki.

Resources Home
Home
New Articles
Most Popular
Recent Changes
Current Projects
Admin Discussions
Guidelines
How to

Index Of All Titles


BEST OF

AEQVITI
Aes Grave
Aes Rude
The Age of Gallienus
Alexander Tetradrachms
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Counterfeits
Ancient Glass
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Weapons
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Folles
Anonymous Follis
Anonymous Class A Folles
Antioch Officinae
Aphlaston
Armenian Numismatics Page
Brockage
Byzantine
Byzantine Denominations
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
Carausius
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Clashed Dies
Codewords
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Danubian Celts
Damnatio Coinage
Damnatio Memoriae
Denomination
Denarii of Otho
Diameter 101
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC
ERIC - Rarity Tables
Etruscan Alphabet
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
EQVITI
Facing Portrait of Augustus
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Fibula
Flavian
Fourree
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Gallienus Zoo
Greek Alphabet
Greek Coins
Greek Dates
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Hasmoneans
Hasmonean Dynasty
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Historia Numorum
Horse Harnesses
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Koson
Kushan Coins
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Latin Plurals
Latin Pronunciation
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Malloy Weapons
Maps of the Ancient World
Military Belts
Mint Marks
Monogram
Museum Collections Available Online
Nabataean Alphabet
Nabataean Numerals
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Bulgarian
Numismatic Excellence Award
Numismatic French
Numismatic German
Numismatic Italian
Numismatic Spanish
Parthian Coins
Patina 101
Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet
Phoenician Alphabet
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Roman Militaria
Roman Mints
Roman Names
romancoin.info
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
Scarabs
Serdi Celts
Serrated
Siglos
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Statuary Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Syracusian Folles
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Test Cut
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Tyrian Shekels
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
Vabalathus
Venus Cloacina
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Widow's Mite
XXI

   View Menu
 

Fulmen







Please add updates or make corrections to the NumisWiki text version as appropriate.
Fulmen. A thunderbolt. Lightning, the weapon of Jove, forged by Vulcan, is commonly delineated on ancient sculptures, paintings, and coins, as cloven into three or more points or forks.


[A winged thunderbolt with forks of lightning]
..............

Amongst other examples of the fulmen appearing on Roman coins are the following:
- Vulcan is seen forging it in the presence of the goddess Minerva, on a brass medallion of Antoninus Pius.
- First brass coins, struck under Tiberius to the memory of Augustus, bearing the obverse legend DIVVS AVGVSTVS and DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, typify his portrait with a thunderbolt before it, as if he were become, through his apotheosis, Jupiter Latii, and invested with the fulminating power, reigned in heaven with the king of gods and men. And as Jupiter is represented bearing the thunderbolt, so the figure of Augustus, with radiated head, and holding the fulmen, appears on a brass medallion of Tiberius, minted by the minicipium of Turiaso, now Tarazona, Spain, (engraved in Vaillant, Sel. Num. Descamps).
- On a coin of another Hispanian colony, viz. Caesar-Augusta (Zaragoza), struck in honour of Augustus during his lifetime, is a winged thunderbolt similar to the one on the above engraving.

One of the earliest examples of a Roman coin with an eagle standing on the fulmen is to be seen on a denarius of of M. Antonius. The same symbol appears frequently on coins of Augustus, restored by Titus and by Domitian, either isolatedly, or with an eagle standing atop it. On a large brass dedicated to Caligua by the Spanish colony of Caesar-Augusta (C C A) the Roman eagle is placed on a thunderbolt between two standards. The same type occurs on coins COL A A PATR struck under Claudius and under Nero. There is a large brass of Galba, on which Rome stands holding transversely the legionary standard, which is distinguished by an eagle, with the fulmen in his talons (Morell. Thesaur. Impp. Tab v). The FIDES EXERCITVVM of Vitellius has the eagle and the thunderbolt for its accompanying type. Vespasian's CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM also exhibits the thunderbolt beneath the claws of the legionary eagle. On a silver of Vespasian, and on a gold and silver of Titus appears a thunderbolt, placed horizontally on a throne (see wood cut below).

Although particularly assigned to Jove, there are instances of this attribute being appropriated to another divinity, viz. Jove's daughter.
- On a silver and middle brass of Titus, and more frequently of Domitian, Minerva stands holding the hasta in her left hand, and the fulmen in her right. - A large brass of Domitian exhibits the sedent image of IVPPITER CVSTOS, with the thunderbolt and spear (Morrell. Impp. Tab xiv).
- Another large brass of Domitian represents the emperor himself holding Jove's thunder in his right hand, and the hasta of divinity in his left, crowned by Victory from behind (Morrell. Tab xv No. 24).
- IVPPITER CONSERVATOR, eagle with expanded wings, standing on the fulmen; silver and middle brass of Domitian (Ibid, Tab vi No. 14).
- PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, thunderbolt surmaounted by and eagle (Ibid, Tab xvii No. 14). Before quitting the examples furnished from the Flavian mintages, a specimen of Vespasian's silver is subjoined:


Reverse: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, the fulmen placed on a throne (viz. that of Jupiter). The lightning was regarded as symbolical of warlike power (Wilde) - a power also conjoined (according to Berger) with public utility, as indicated on a denarius of the Fabia gens.

In the CONSERVATORI PATRIS PATRIAE brass medallion of Trajan, we see the figure of Jupiter holding his protecting hand, armed with a thunderbolt, over the head of the emperor, standing at his feet. A similar type is described by Mionnet, from a large brass of Hadrian.
- A two-fold representation of ths tutelary object of imperial invocation is finely displayed on a brass medallion of Lucius Verus, in which he and Marcus Aurelius stand beneath the towering figure of "the Thunderer."
- On a gold coin of Antoninus Pius the image of Jupiter is seated, with the fulmen and hasta pura; the legend IMPERATOR II (Spanheim, Pr. i 429).
- The lightning was emblematical of Divine Providence, as is clearly shewn on those coins which represent the fulmen, conjoined to the legend PROVIDENTIA DEORVM, to be seen on gold, silver, and large brass of Antoninus Pius.
- Coins struck under Caracalla and also under Maximianus respectively bear for their type of reverse a lion, with radiated head, carrying a thunderbolt in its mouth.
- On a brass medallion of Dioletian, Jupiter seated holds the fulmen and the hasta, and an eagle stands at his feet.
- For a finely designed type of JUPITER PROPUGNATOR, brandishing the fulmen, see Severus Alexander.

When in Spain Augustus narrowly escaped being killed by lightning, and held a thunderstorm in great dread ever afterwards. See IOVIS TON(ANTIS). 









View whole page from the Dictionary Of Roman Coins