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ERIC Table of Contents


Title Page

Introduction

About Roman Coins

Denominations

Coins of Other Ancient Cultures

Identifying Roman Coins

How To Use This Book

Mintmarks

Mint Map

Pricing And Grading

Bibliography

Reference Catalogs Cited

Coin Terms Used

Glossary

Rarity Tables

Index of Rulers

Photography Credits

Additional Web Resources

Imperial Catalog:

AUGUSTUS
LIVA
AGRIPPA
NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS
GERMANICUS
AGRIPPINA I
TIBERIUS
DRUSUS
ANTONIA
CALIGULA
CLAUDIUS I
BRITANNICUS
AGRIPPINA II
NERO
GALBA
CLODIUS MACER
OTHO
VITELLIUS
VESPASIAN
DOMITILLA
TITUS
DOMITIAN
DOMITIA
JULIA TITI
NERVA
TRAJAN
PLOTINA
MARCIANA
MATIDIA
HADRIAN
SABINA
AELIUS
ANTONINUS PIUS
FAUSTINA I
MARCUS AURELIUS
FAUSTINA II
LUCIUS VERUS
LUCILLA
COMMODUS
CRISPINA
PERTINAX
DIDIUS JULIANUS
MANLIA SCANTILLA
DIDIA CLARA
PESCENNIUS NIGER
CLODIUS ALBINUS
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS
JULIA DOMNA
CARACALLA
PLAUTILLA
GETA
MACRINUS
DIADUMENIAN
ELAGABALUS
JULIA MAESA
JULIA SOAEMIAS
JULIA PAULA
AQUILIA SEVERA
ANNIA FAUSTINA
SEVERUS ALEXANDER
JULIA MAMAEA
ORBIANA
MAXIMINUS I
PAULINA
MAXIMUS
GORDIAN I
GORDIAN II
BALBINUS
PUPIENUS
GORDIAN III
TRANQUILLINA
PHILIP I
OTACILIA SEVERA
PHILIP II
PACATIAN
JOTAPIAN
TRAJAN DECIUS
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS
HOSTILIAN
TREBONIANUS GALLUS
VOLUSIAN
AEMILIAN
CORNELIA SUPERA
SILBANNACUS
URANIUS ANTONINUS
VALERIAN I
MARINIANA
VALERIAN II
GALLIENUS
SALONINA
SALONINUS
REGALIANUS
DRYANTILLA
POSTUMUS
LAELIANUS
MARIUS
VICTORINUS
DOMITIAN II
TETRICUS I
TETRICUS II
QUIETUS
MACRIANUS
CLAUDIUS II
QUINTILLUS
AURELIAN
SEVERINA
ZENOBIA
VABALATHUS
TACITUS
FLORIAN
PROBUS
SATURNINUS
CARUS
CARINUS
MAGNIA URBICA
NIGRIAN
NUMERIAN
JULIAN I
DIOCLETIAN
MAXIMIAN
CARAUSIUS
ALLECTUS
DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS
CONSTANTIUS I
THEODORA
GALERIUS
GALERIA VALERIA
SEVERUS II
MAXENTIUS
ROMULUS
CONSTANTINE I
HELENA
FAUSTA
ALEXANDER
LICINIUS I
CONSTANTIA
MAXIMINUS II
LICINIUS II
CRISPUS
VALERIUS VALENS
MARTINIAN
CONSTANTINE II
DELMATIUS
HANNIBALLIANUS
CONSTANS
CONSTANTIUS II
MAGNENTIUS
DECENTIUS
NEPOTIAN
VETRANO
CONSTANTIUS GALLUS
JULIAN II
JOVIAN
VALENTINIAN I
VALENS
PROCOPIUS
GRATIAN
VALENTINIAN II
THEODOSIUS I
AELIA FLACCILLA
MAGNUS MAXIMINUS
FLAVIUS VICTOR
EUGENIUS
HONORIUS
CONSTANTINE III
CONSTANS II
MAXIMINUS
PRISCUS ATTALUS
JOVINUS
SABASTIANUS
CONSTANTIUS III
GALLA PLACIDIA
JOHANNES
VALENTINIAN III
LICINIA EUDOXIA
HONORIA
PETRONIUS MAXIMINUS
AVITUS
MAJORIAN
LIBIUS SEVERUS
ANTHEMIUS
EUPHEMIA
ANICIUS OLYBRIUS
GLYCERIUS
JULIUS NEPOS
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS
ARCADIUS
EUDOXIA
PULCHERIA
THEODOSIUS II
EUDOCIA
MARCIAN
LEO I
VERINA
LEO II
ZENO
ARIADNE
BASILISCUS
ZENONIS
LEONTIUS I
ANASTASIUS I
ANONYMOUS COINAGE

ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez


Valentinian II

Augustus 375-392

Valentinian II was the son of Valentinian I and became emperor when his father died. He was still only a child at the time and the Western empire was divided between him and his half-brother Gratian. However, while Gratian ruled at his will, Valentinian was too young and, instead, several behind-the-scenes characters exercised the real power on his behalf.
After Gratian's death Valentinian faced a major threat from Magnus Maximus who was gobbling up the Western empire and had no room for him in his quest. He solicited and then received help from Theodosius, the emperor of the East, who subsequently came to his aid and defeated Maximus. However, Valentinian was still unable to shake the web of control that others had over him. Theodosius lingered in Italy after the defeat of Maximus and essentially ruled the entire empire from Valentinian's own court while simultaneously relegating Valentinian to the background. When he finally left, he appointed one of his commanders, Arbogastes, as an administrative aide for Valentinian II
This would be a thinly veiled puppet of Theodosius. Valentinian, not being the wiser, complained to Theodosius by correspondence about his situation and lack of empowerment. The complaints fell on deaf ears as this was, naturally, all part of Theodosius's plans. When he saw nothing would be done about the issue he summoned the courage to force Arbogastes to retire only to have the general tear up the resignation letter in his face. He then sneered and derided Valentinian with a comment to the effect that he wasn't taking orders from him. In a fit of anger Valentinian grabbed a sword and started for Arbogastes but was held back by guards. Two days later he was found hung in a room. Whether he committed suicide in despair over his powerlessness or was assassinated directly on account of Arbogastes is left to speculation.

Like other guys from this period, one finds many coins of this emperor on the market. Most newer collectors will be introduced by way of the many, many AE4‟s available. These comprise one of two main types: the Victory advancing left, hauling a captive and the quintessentially Roman “Vota” issue.
 
Coins with these Vota themes are religious commitments made in exchange for time served. For example, an emperor who has made it five years on the throne might issue a commemorative of that milestone with a simple VOT/V encased in a wreath. A more optimistic emperor may go ahead and issue coins with various numerals followed by a “MVLT”, or multiplier, of however many more years he thinks he will stay in power… and then, if that term is achieved, to be renewed again.
 
Asides from bronzes, the silver Siliqua and the gold Solidus are also easy to find and comparatively affordable with rough estimates for common types costing $150 and $500, respectively.


Busts:

 

1) Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
2) Diademed (rosettes), draped and cuirassed bust right
3) Diademed bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding mappa and scepter
4) Diademed, cuirassed bust right
5) Diademed, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter
6) Helmeted, cuirassed bust right, holding scepter with Chi-Rho atop and shield
7) Helmeted, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield

 

Obverses:

 
1) DN VALENTINIANS PF AVG
2) DN VALENTINIANVS IVN PF AVG
3) DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG

 

Reverses:

 
1) CONCORDIA AVGGG
2) CONCORDIA AVGGGG
3) FELIX ADVENTVS AVG N
4) GLORIA REIPVBLICE
5) GLORIA ROMANORVM
6) PERPETVETAS
7) REPARATIO REIPVB
8) RESTITVTOR REIP
9) RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE
10) SALVS REIPVBLICAE
11) SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
12) SPES REIPVBLICAE
13) TRIVMFATOR GENT BARB
14) VICTORIA AVG
15) VICTORIA AVGG
16) VICTORIA AVGGG
17) VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM
18) VIRTVS AVGGG
19) VIRTVS EXERCITI
20) VIRTVS EXERCITVS
21) VIRTVS ROMANORVM
22) VOTA PVBLICA
23) VRBS ROMA
24) VRBS ROMA FELIX
25) No legend

 

Types:

 
1) City gate with two turrets
2) Constantinopolis seated, facing, holding scepter and shield reading VOT / X / MVLT / XV
3) Constantinopolis seated, facing, holding scepter and shield reading VOT / X / MVLT / XX
4) Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on globe, holding scepter and globe.
5) Phoenix standing left on globe.
6) Roma seated left, holding Victory on globe and spear.
7) Roma seated, facing, holding globe and spear
8) Roma, holding scepter and Constantinopolis, stepping on galley prow, holding shield reading VOT / XV / MVLT / XX and scepter; both seated, facing.
9) Roma, holding Victory on globe and scepter and Constantinopolis, stepping on galley prow, holding Victory on globe and cornucopia, bothe seated, facing.
10) Valentinian II advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum.
11) Valentinian II and Gratian (or Theodosius I) seated, facing, each holding a mappa and scepter.
12) Valentinian II and Gratian (or Theodosius I) seated, facing, together holding globe over palm; Victory above and in between them.
13) Valentinian II riding horse left, raising hand.
14) Valentinian II standing left on galley, holding Phoenix on globe; Victory seated to right, steering galley.
15) Valentinian II standing left on galley, raising hand; Victory seated to right, steering galley.
16) Valentinian II standing right, stepping on captive, holding labarum and globe
17) Valentinian II standing right, stepping on captive, holding labarum and Victory on globe.
18) Valentinian II standing, facing, holding hand of kneeling woman with cornucopia to left and labarum.
19) Valentinian II standing, facing, holding hand of kneeling woman with cornucopia to left and Victory on globe.
20) Valentinian II standing, facing, holding labarum and globe; captive to left.
21) Valentinian II standing, facing, holding labarum and resting hand on shield.
22) Valentinian II standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe.
23) Valentinian II standing, facing, stepping on captive, holding labarum and globe.
24) Victories (2) standing, facing, each holding wreath and palm.
25) Victory advancing left, holding trophy and dragging captive.
26) Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
27) Victory advancing left, holding wreath in each hand.
28) Victory advancing right, holding wreath and cross on globe.
29) Victory advancing right, holding wreath in each hand.
30) Victory advancing right, stepping on globe, holding wreath and cross on globe.
31) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / V 
32) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / V / MVL / X
33) Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading VOT / X / MVLT / XX
34) Wreath, VOT / V / MVLT / X within.
35) Wreath, VOT / V / MVLTIS / X within
36) Wreath, VOT / V within
37) Wreath, VOT / X / MVLT / XV within
38) Wreath, VOT / X / MVLT / XX within
39) Wreath, VOT / XV / MVLT / XX within
40) Wreath, VOT / XX / MVLT / XXX within
41) Wreath, VOTIS / V / MVLTIS / X within.
42) Wreath, VOTIS / X / MVLTIS / XV within

 

Mints:

 
1) Alexandria
2) Antioch
3) Aquileia
4) Arelate
5) Constantinopolis
6) Cyzicus
7) Heraclea
8) Lugdunum
9) Mediolanum
10) Nicomedia
11) Roma
12) Sirmium
13) Siscia
14) Thessalonica
15) Treveri

 
 
AU Solidus Reference(s)

 
1) B1, O1, R02, T04, M05 Exe: CONOB RIC 67a (IX, Constantinopolis)
2) B1, O2, R15, T12, M14 Exe: TESOB       • at end of reverse legend RIC 34b (IX, Thessalonica)
3) B1, O2, R15, T12, M15 Exe: TROB` RIC 49c (IX, Treveri)
4) B1, O3, R15, T12, M09 Exe: COM RIC 8a (IX, Mediolanum)
5) B1, O3, R15, T12, M14 Exe: TESOB RIC 34e (IX, Thessalonica)
6) B1, O3, R15, T12, M15 Exe: T/R/COM RIC 90a (IX, Treveri)
7) B2, O3, R02, T04, M05 Exe: CONOB     Officina at end of reverse legend RIC 45b (IX, Constantinopolis)
8) B3, O3, R22, T11, M09 Exe: M/D/COM RIC 9 (IX, Mediolanum)

 
AR Siliqua

 
9) B1, O2, R16, T26, M15 Exe: TRPS RIC 57a (IX, Treveri)
10) B1, O3, R21, T06, M15 Exe: TRPS RIC 94a (IX, Treveri)
11) B1, O3, R23, T06, M08 Exe: LVGPS RIC 43a (IX, Lugdunum)
12) B1, O3, R23, T06, M09 Exe: AQPS• RIC 15d (IX, Aquileia)
13) B1, O3, R25, T38, M05 Exe: CONS• RIC 77a (IX, Constantinopolis)

 
AE2

 
14) B1, O2, R07, T19, M03 Exe: SMAQ` RIC 30b (IX, Aquileia)
15) B1, O2, R07, T19, M13 Exe: *`SISC RIC 26b.5 (IX, Siscia)
16) B1, O2, R07, T19, M13 Exe: *`SISC• RIC 26b.7 (IX, Siscia)
17) B1, O2, R07, T19, M13 Exe: `SISC RIC 26b.1 (IX, Siscia)
18) B1, O2, R07, T19, M13 Exe: `SISC• RIC 26b.3 (IX, Siscia)
19) B1, O3, R07, T19, M11 Exe: SMR` RIC 43c (IX, Roma)
20) B1, O3, R07, T19, M14 Exe: `/SMTES RIC 37b (IX, Thessalonica)
21) B1, O3, R19, T23, M01 Exe: ALE` RIC 18a (IX, Alexandria)
22) B1, O3, R19, T23, M02 Exe: ANT` RIC 63b (IX, Antiochia)
23) B1, O3, R19, T23, M05 Exe: ¤/CONS` RIC 83a (IX, Constantinopolis)
24) B1, O3, R19, T23, M07 Exe: */•SMH` RIC 24a (IX, Heraclea)
25) B7, O3, R05, T14, M02 Exe: =/ANT` RIC 40b (IX, Antiochia)
26) B7, O3, R05, T15, M05 Exe: =/CON` RIC 52b (IX, Constantinopolis)
27) B7, O3, R05, T15, M07 Exe: T/SMH` RIC 21a (IX, Heraclea)


AE3 Reference(s)

 
28) B1, O1, R01, T07, M13 Exe: `/SISC RIC 27b (IX, Siscia)
29) B1, O2, R23, T06, M10 Exe: */SMN` RIC 31 (IX, Nicomedia
30) B1, O2, R23, T06, M10 Exe: °/*/SMN` RIC 34 (IX, Nicomedia
31) B1, O3, R01, T07, M01 Exe: O/ALE` 
32) B1, O3, R01, T07, M02 Exe: q/F over K/ANT` RIC 45b (IX, Antiochia), L 2696
33) B1, O3, R01, T07, M05 Exe: CONS` RIC 56b (IX, Constantinopolis)
34) B1, O3, R01, T07, M07 Exe: SMH` RIC 14b (IX, Heraclea)
35) B1, O3, R05, T10, M03 Exe: SMAQ` RIC 45b (IX, Aquileia)
36) B1, O3, R05, T10, M13 Exe: `SISC• RIC 38a (IX, Siscia)
37) B2, O3, R01, T07, M02 Exe: q/F over K/ANT` RIC 45c (IX, Antiochia)
38) B7, O3, R05, T15, M05 Exe: =/CON` RIC 52b (IX, Constantinopolis)
39) B7, O3, R05, T15, M06 Exe: =/SMK` RIC 14b (IX, Cyzicus)
40) B7, O3, R05, T15, M07 Exe: T/SMH` RIC 21a (IX, Heraclea)

 
AE4

 
41) B1, O2, R10, T25, M05 Exe: ¤/CONS` RIC 86a (IX, Constantinopolis)
42) B1, O2, R16, T25, M03 Exe: ¤/AQ` RIC 58a (IX, Aquileia), L 1105
43) B1, O2, R16, T26, M14 Exe: `SIS RIC 39a (IX, Siscia)
44) B1, O2, R25, T34, M14 Exe: `SISC RIC 29c.1 (IX, Siscia), L 1545
45) B1, O2, R25, T34, M14 Exe: `SISC• RIC 29c.3 (IX, Siscia), L 1549
46) B1, O3, R10, T25, M06 Exe: ¤/SMK` RIC 26a (IX, Cyzicus)
47) B1, O3, R14, T24, M14 Exe: TES` RIC 63a (IX, Thessalonica), L 1863
48) B1, O3, R25, T38, M01 Exe: ALE` RIC 19a (IX, Alexandria)
49) B1, O3, R25, T38, M02 Exe: AN` RIC 65a (IX, Antiochia)
50) B1, O3, R25, T38, M06 Exe: SMK` RIC 21b (IX, Cyzicus)
51) B1, O3, R25, T38, M07 Exe: SMH` RIC 19b (IX, Heraclea)
52) B1, O3, R25, T38, M10 Exe: SMN` RIC 38a (IX, Nicomedia)

 

Valentinian II Busts

Valentinian II Types