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ERIC Table of Contents


Title Page

Introduction

About Roman Coins

Denominations

Coins of Other Ancient Cultures

Identifying Roman Coins

How To Use This Book

Mintmarks

Mint Map

Pricing And Grading

Bibliography

Reference Catalogs Cited

Coin Terms Used

Glossary

Rarity Tables

Index of Rulers

Photography Credits

Additional Web Resources

Imperial Catalog:

AUGUSTUS
LIVA
AGRIPPA
NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS
GERMANICUS
AGRIPPINA I
TIBERIUS
DRUSUS
ANTONIA
CALIGULA
CLAUDIUS I
BRITANNICUS
AGRIPPINA II
NERO
GALBA
CLODIUS MACER
OTHO
VITELLIUS
VESPASIAN
DOMITILLA
TITUS
DOMITIAN
DOMITIA
JULIA TITI
NERVA
TRAJAN
PLOTINA
MARCIANA
MATIDIA
HADRIAN
SABINA
AELIUS
ANTONINUS PIUS
FAUSTINA I
MARCUS AURELIUS
FAUSTINA II
LUCIUS VERUS
LUCILLA
COMMODUS
CRISPINA
PERTINAX
DIDIUS JULIANUS
MANLIA SCANTILLA
DIDIA CLARA
PESCENNIUS NIGER
CLODIUS ALBINUS
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS
JULIA DOMNA
CARACALLA
PLAUTILLA
GETA
MACRINUS
DIADUMENIAN
ELAGABALUS
JULIA MAESA
JULIA SOAEMIAS
JULIA PAULA
AQUILIA SEVERA
ANNIA FAUSTINA
SEVERUS ALEXANDER
JULIA MAMAEA
ORBIANA
MAXIMINUS I
PAULINA
MAXIMUS
GORDIAN I
GORDIAN II
BALBINUS
PUPIENUS
GORDIAN III
TRANQUILLINA
PHILIP I
OTACILIA SEVERA
PHILIP II
PACATIAN
JOTAPIAN
TRAJAN DECIUS
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS
HOSTILIAN
TREBONIANUS GALLUS
VOLUSIAN
AEMILIAN
CORNELIA SUPERA
SILBANNACUS
URANIUS ANTONINUS
VALERIAN I
MARINIANA
VALERIAN II
GALLIENUS
SALONINA
SALONINUS
REGALIANUS
DRYANTILLA
POSTUMUS
LAELIANUS
MARIUS
VICTORINUS
DOMITIAN II
TETRICUS I
TETRICUS II
QUIETUS
MACRIANUS
CLAUDIUS II
QUINTILLUS
AURELIAN
SEVERINA
ZENOBIA
VABALATHUS
TACITUS
FLORIAN
PROBUS
SATURNINUS
CARUS
CARINUS
MAGNIA URBICA
NIGRIAN
NUMERIAN
JULIAN I
DIOCLETIAN
MAXIMIAN
CARAUSIUS
ALLECTUS
DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS
CONSTANTIUS I
THEODORA
GALERIUS
GALERIA VALERIA
SEVERUS II
MAXENTIUS
ROMULUS
CONSTANTINE I
HELENA
FAUSTA
ALEXANDER
LICINIUS I
CONSTANTIA
MAXIMINUS II
LICINIUS II
CRISPUS
VALERIUS VALENS
MARTINIAN
CONSTANTINE II
DELMATIUS
HANNIBALLIANUS
CONSTANS
CONSTANTIUS II
MAGNENTIUS
DECENTIUS
NEPOTIAN
VETRANO
CONSTANTIUS GALLUS
JULIAN II
JOVIAN
VALENTINIAN I
VALENS
PROCOPIUS
GRATIAN
VALENTINIAN II
THEODOSIUS I
AELIA FLACCILLA
MAGNUS MAXIMINUS
FLAVIUS VICTOR
EUGENIUS
HONORIUS
CONSTANTINE III
CONSTANS II
MAXIMINUS
PRISCUS ATTALUS
JOVINUS
SABASTIANUS
CONSTANTIUS III
GALLA PLACIDIA
JOHANNES
VALENTINIAN III
LICINIA EUDOXIA
HONORIA
PETRONIUS MAXIMINUS
AVITUS
MAJORIAN
LIBIUS SEVERUS
ANTHEMIUS
EUPHEMIA
ANICIUS OLYBRIUS
GLYCERIUS
JULIUS NEPOS
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS
ARCADIUS
EUDOXIA
PULCHERIA
THEODOSIUS II
EUDOCIA
MARCIAN
LEO I
VERINA
LEO II
ZENO
ARIADNE
BASILISCUS
ZENONIS
LEONTIUS I
ANASTASIUS I
ANONYMOUS COINAGE

ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez


Diocletian

Augustus 284-305

Originally Diokles, a Greek name, Diocletian gained the Latinized form of his name shortly before masterminding a revolt against Carinus. When Carinus received news of this insolence he set out at once with a large army to confront him. The two sides met in a prolonged and bloody match the results of which were finally turning against Diocletian. Seeing that all was lost he prepared to flee with what was left of his army when the most amazing thing happened. It seems Carinus had seduced the wife of one of his bodyguards who, for whatever possible reason, chose during the waning moments of the battle to avenge this affront by murdering his master.

Diocletian was then hailed as emperor by the same army that almost defeated him and he marched towards Rome as victor. Soon after his arrival he named his friend Maximian as co-emperor giving him rule over the western half of the empire. Both would then select subordinates who were not relatives of their own to help in the task and secure a line of succession unlike a blood dynasty. Diocletian's vision of this governmental scheme became known as the Tetrarchy and the first cycle of which was completed, as far as he was concerned, when he abdicated in 305 and demanded Maximian do likewise to leave their subordinates to rule.

Modern historians with the gift of hindsight pinpoint Diocletian's choice of reforming the army as the key culprit of the empire's downfall almost 200 years later. He figured that rather than have weak concentrations of army outposts scattered over the length of the empire's borders it would be better to have a centralized large force which could respond quickly in the event of a military crisis. While the theory may have been sound in principle he never foresaw the obstacles that led to the successful deployment and logistical problems that this method required and, thus, over time Romans became increasingly susceptible to barbarian attacks.

Diocletian died an old, forgotten and heartbroken man in his retirement palace in what is now Croatia. In the end he was vilified for shattering the economy, wreaking political chaos in Rome and resorting to the now somewhat anachronistic practice of persecuting Christians. Finally, he had to witness in his own lifetime the utter failure of his power sharing format when the Tetrarchy disintegrated into the Constantinian dynasty.

Sadly, with the rise of Diocletian we no longer get to see what the emperor looked like in real life. For half a century both the art and the workmanship of Roman coins had been in decline. But up until then there had been at least nominal effort expended in portraying the emperor’s actual facial features.

Sometime during the reign of Gallienus this, too, started fading so that by the time his succesors came they all started looking quite a bit alike. Early-period coins of Diocletian look pretty much indistinguishable from those of Carinus, his immediate predessor. And when Maximian is made co-emperor there is again no effort to make the two men look any different from each other.
These changes are so far-reaching that it would not be until the Renaissance over a thousand years later that heads of state begin to look like real people again. In fact, from this time and until late into the middle ages the artistic merit and the overall quality of the coins of all western cultures will steadily deteriorate.  From this point forward when the legends are obscured from wear or tear attribution becomes much more difficult.

On the other hand, Diocletian is a very easy emperor to find in a wide assortment of coin denominations. Halfway into his reign he ordered a complete overhaul of the currency. He eliminates, or rather reduces the size of the Antoninianus and introduces the Follis and a Denarius-like coin termed the Argenteus. The Follis catches on but the Argenteus doesn’t which makes it a bit of a rarity nowadays. But both pre-and post-reform coins are readily available from the nearly free crummy bronzes to gold medallions affordable only to the obscenely rich.

Busts:

1)     Helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
2)     Helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust right
3)     Helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust right, holding Victory on globe
4)     Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
5)     Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust right
6)     Laureate bust left over bust of Jupiter
7)     Laureate bust left, holding scepter
8)     Laureate bust left, wearing mantle, holding scepter with eagle atop
9)     Laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle, holding branch and mappa
10)     Laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle, holding mappa and branch
11)     Laureate head left
12)     Laureate head right
13)     Laureate, cuirassed bust left
14)     Laureate, cuirassed bust left over Sol radiate bust left, holding whip
15)     Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding scepter
16)     Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
17)     Laureate, cuirassed bust right
18)     Laureate, cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield
19)     Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
20)     Laureate, draped bust right
21)     Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding globe
22)     Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with eagle atop.
23)     Radiate bust right, wearing imperial mantle.
24)     Radiate head right
25)     Radiate, cuirassed bust left
26)     Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
27)     Radiate, cuirassed bust right
28)     Radiate, cuirassed busts of Diocletian and Constantius I facing each other
29)     Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
30)     Radiate, draped bust right

Obverses:


1) DIOCLETIANVS AVG
2) DIOCLETIANVS AVG COS IIII PP
3) DIOCLETIANVS AVG ET CONSTANTIVS NOB C
4) DIOCLETIANVS AVG ET MAXIMIANVS C
5) DIOCLETIANVS AVGVSTVS
6) DIOCLETIANVS BAE AVG
7) DIOCLETIANVS P AVG
8) DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
9) DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG COS VIII
10) DN DIOCLETIANO AETER AVG
11) DN DIOCLETIANO BAEAT SEN AVG
12) DN DIOCLETIANO BAEATIS
13) DN DIOCLETIANO BAEATISS
14) DN DIOCLETIANO BAEATISS SEN AVG
15) DN DIOCLETIANO BAEATISSIMO SEN AVG
16) DN DIOCLETIANO BEAT SEN AVG
17) DN DIOCLETIANO BEATISSIMO SEN AVG
18) DN DIOCLETIANO FELICI
19) DN DIOCLETIANO FELICIS
20) DN DIOCLETIANO FELICISS
21) DN DIOCLETIANO FELICISS SEN AVG
22) DN DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG
23) DN DIOCLETIANO PF S AVG
24) IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG
25) IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P AVG
26) IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
27) IMP C DIOCLETIANVS AVG
28) IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P AVG
29) IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
30) IMP C VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG
31) IMP C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P AVG
32) IMP C VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
33) IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG
34) IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG ET MAXIMIANVS AVG
35) IMP DIOCLETIANVS ET MAXIMIANVS N C
36) IMP DIOCLETIANVS P AVG
37) IMP DIOCLETIANVS P FE AVG
38) IMP DIOCLETIANVS P FEL AVG
39) IMP DIOCLETIANVS PF AV
40) IMP DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
41) IMP DIOCLETIANVS PIVS AVG
42) IMP DIOCLETIANVS PIVS F AVG
43) VIRTVS DIOCLETIANI AVG


Reverses:


1) ABVNDAT AVG
2) ABVNDAT AVGG
3) ADVENTVS AVGG
4) AEQVITAS AVGG
5) AETERNITAS AVGG
6) ANNONA AVG
7) AVSPIC FEL
8) CLARITAS AVGG
9) CLEMENTIA TEMP
10) COMES AVGG
11) COMITATVS AVGG
12) CONCORDIA AVGG
13) CONCORDIA AVGG ET CAESS
14) CONCORDIA AVGG ET CAESS NNNN
15) CONCORDIA MILITVM
16) CONCORDIAE AVGG
17) CONCORDIAE AVGG NN
18) CONSERVAT AVG
19) CONSERVATOR AVGG
20) CONSERVATORES AVGG ET CAESS NN
21) CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
22) CONSVL IIII PP PROCOS
23) CONSVL V PP PROCOS
24) CONSVL VI PP PROCOS
25) CONSVL VII PP PRC
26) CONSVL VII PP PROCOS
27) CONSVL VIII PP PRCOS
28) CONSVL VIIII PP PRCOS
29) COS III
30) COS IIII
31) FATIS VICTRICIBVS
32) FEL ADVENT AVGG NN
33) FELICIA TEMPORA
34) FELICIT PVBL
35) FELICITAS AVG
36) FELICITAS PVBLIC
37) FELICITAS TEMPORVM
38) FELIX ADVENT AVGG NN
39) FIDES MILIT
40) FIDES MILITVM
41) FORTVNA RED
42) FORTVNA REDVX
43) FORTVNAE REDVCI AVGG ET CAESS NN
44) FORTVNAE REDVCI AVGG NN
45) FORTVNAE REDVCI CAESS NN
46) GAVDETE ROMANI
47) GENIO POP ROM
48) GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
49) HERCVLI CONSERVAT
50) HERCVLI DEBELLAT
51) HERCVLI INVICTO AVGG
52) HERCVLI PACIF
53) HERCVLI PACIFERO
54) HERCVLI VICTORI
55) IMP C MAXIMIANVS AVG
56) IOV ET HERCV CONSER AVGG
57) IOVI AVGG
58) IOVI CONS CAES
59) IOVI CONSER AVGG
60) IOVI CONSERVAT
61) IOVI CONSERVAT AVG
62) IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG
63) IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG ET CAESS NN
64) IOVI CONSERVATOR AVGG
65) IOVI CONSERVATORI
66) IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG
67) IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG
68) IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG ET CAESS NN
69) IOVI ET HERCVLI CONS AVGG
70) IOVI FVLGERATORI
71) IOVI FVLGVRATORI
72) IOVI PROPVGNAT
73) IOVI TVTAT AVGG
74) IOVI TVTATORI AVGG
75) IOVI VICTORI
76) LAETITIA AVGG
77) LAETITIA FVND
78) M SACRA AVGG ET CAESS NN
79) MARS VICTOR
80) MARTI PACIF
81) MARTI PACIFERO
82) MARTI PROPVGNATORI
83) MARTI VLTORI
84) MAXIMIANVS AVG
85) MAXIMIANVS AVG ET CONSTANTIVS C
86) MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
87) MONETA AVGG ET CAESS NN
88) MONETA S AVGG ET CAESS NN
89) MONETA SACRA AVGG ET CAESS NN
90) ORIENS AVG
91) ORIENS AVGG
92) ORIENS AVGVSTOR
93) PACATORES GENTIVM
94) PAX AETERN
95) PAX AVG
96) PAX AVGG
97) PAX AVGGG
98) PERPETVA FELICITAS AVGG
99) PIETAS AVGG
100) PIETAS AVGG ET CAESS NN
101) PMTR PPP
102) PM TR P VIII COS IIII PP
103) PRIMI XX IOVI AVGVSTI
104) PRIMIS X MVLTIS XX
105) PROVIDENT DEOR
106) PROVIDENT DEOR QVIES AVGG
107) PROVIDENTIA AVG
108) PROVIDENTIA AVGG
109) PROVIDENTIA DEORVM
110) PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG
111) QVIES AVGG
112) QVIES AVGVSTORVM
113) ROMAE AETERN
114) ROMAE AETERNAE
115) S M VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN
116) SACR MONET AVGG ET CAESS NN
117) SACRA MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN
118) SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NN
119) SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR
120) SACRA MONET VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN
121) SAECVLARES AVG
122) SAECVRIT AVGG
123) SAECVRIT PERP
124) SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS AVCTA KART
125) SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
126) SALVS AVG
127) SALVS AVGG
128) SECVRIT AVGG
129) SECVRIT PERP
130) SECVRIT PERPET DD NN
131) SECVRITAS ORBIS
132) SOLI INVICT CONSERVAT AVGG ET CAESS NN
133) SOLI INVICTO
134) SPES PVBLICA
135) TEMPOR FEL
136) TEMPOR FELICIT
137) TEMPORVM FEL
138) VENERI VICTRICI
139) VICTORI AVG
140) VICTORIA AETERNA
141) VICTORIA AVG
142) VICTORIA AVGG
143) VICTORIA SARM
144) VICTORIA SARMAT
145) VICTORIA SARMATICA
146) VICTORIAE SARMATICAE
147) VICTORRIA SARMAT
148) VIRTVS AVG
149) VIRTVS AVGG
150) VIRTVS AVGVSTORVM
151) VIRTVS EXERCIT IMPER ROMANI
152) VIRTVS MILITVM
153) VIRTVTI AVGG
154) VOTIS ROMANORVM
155) VOTIS X
156) VTILITAS PVBLICA
157) No legend
 

Types:

1) Abundantia standing right, pouring out cornucopia
2) Aequitas standing right, holding scale and cornucopia
3) Aeternitas standing left, holding phoenix on globe and scepter
4) Africa standing, facing, holding standard and elephant tusk; lion and bull to lower left.
5) Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia.
6) Carthago standing, facing, holding fruits in each hand
7) Cippus (fractured)
8) City gate with (3) turrets
9) City gate with (4) turrets
10) Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae
11) Concordiae (2) standing, facing each other, shaking hands and each holding a cornucopia
12) Diocletian and Jupiter standing, facing each other, sacrificing over altar and each holding a scepter.
13) Diocletian and Maximian each riding horse right, raising hand
14) Diocletian and Maximian seated left, each holding globe and parazonium; each being crowned by Victory to right
15) Diocletian and Maximian standing, facing each other, sacrificing over altar
16) Diocletian and Maximian standing, facing each other, sacrificing over altar; Felicitas standing in center background, holding caduceus and cornucopia
17) Diocletian and Maximian standing, facing each other, together holding Victory on globe
18) Diocletian and Maximian standing, facing each other, together holding Victory; Victory in center background, crowning both
19) Diocletian and Maximian standing, facing each other; Victory in center background, crowning both
20) Diocletian riding horse left; Victory to left, holding wreath and palm 21) Diocletian riding horse right, raising hand
22) Diocletian riding horse right, raising hand and holding scepter
23) Diocletian standing left, holding globe
24) Diocletian standing left, holding globe and parazonium
25) Diocletian standing left, holding globe and scepter
26) Diocletian standing left, raising hand and holding spear; four standards in front.
27) Diocletian standing left on right, holding globe and scepter, facing Victory to left, holding wreath and palm
28) Diocletian standing right on left, holding globe, facing Maximian to right, holding scepter.
29) Diocletian standing right on left, holding parazonium, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter.
30) Diocletian standing right on left, holding spear, receiving globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter
31) Diocletian standing right on left, holding spear, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter.
32) Diocletian standing right on left, holding Victory on globe, facing Maximian to right, holding scepter.
33) Diocletian standing, facing, holding globe and spear
34) Diocletian standing, facing, holding spear and globe; seated captive on either side.
35) Elephant with rider advancing left.
36) Fates (3) standing, each holding a rudder and cornucopia
37) Fates (3) standing, holding each other’s hands.
38) Felicitas seated left, holding patera and cornucopia
39) Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia.
40) Felicitas standing left, leaning on column and with legs crossed, holding caduceus.
41) Fides standing, facing; standard on either side.
42) Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair
43) Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
44) Fortuna standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia
45) Four Seasons frolicking.
46) Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
47) Genius standing left, pouring out patera and holding cornucopia
48) Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia
49) Hercules bust right, holding club over shoulder and lion’s skin
50) Hercules clubbing hydra
51) Hercules standing left, holding branch and resting hand on club
52) Hercules standing left, holding Victory and resting hand on club
53) Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and bow with lion skin
54) Hercules standing right, resting hand on club and Victory with lion skin
55) Hercules standing right, resting hand on club with lion skin on rock
56) Hercules standing right, resting hand on hip and holding club with lion skin.
57) Hercules standing, facing, resting hand on club and holding bow with lion skin
58) Hercules standing, facing, resting hand on club and holding trophy
59) Hercules wrestling lion
60) Hercules wrestling lion, Victory crowning him
61) Jupiter advancing left, holding thunderbolt; eagle to left
62) Jupiter seated left, holding scepter and thunderbolt
63) Jupiter seated left, holding thunderbolt and scepter
64) Jupiter seated left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left.
65) Jupiter seated left, holding Victory on globe and scepter
66) Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt.
67) Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter
68) Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; Diocletian to lower left.
69) Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left.
70) Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left and two standards to right
71) Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; globe to left
72) Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter
73) Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; Diocletian to lower left.
74) Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; eagle to left.
75) Jupiter standing right on left, holding scepter and thunderbolt, facing Hercules to right, holding club and lion skin.
76) Jupiter standing right on left, holding scepter facing Hercules, holding club and lion skin, together holding Victory.
77) Jupiter standing right, aiming thunderbolt
78) Jupiter standing right, aiming thunderbolt at Titan to right
79) Jupiter standing right, aiming thunderbolt; eagle to left
80) Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder
81) Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and caduceus; child to side.
82) Lion advancing left, holding thunderbolt in jaws
83) Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear.
84) Mars advancing left, holding palm and spear.
85) Mars advancing left, holding spear and trophy
86) Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield
87) Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy
88) Mars advancing right, dragging captive and holding trophy with shield
89) Mars standing left, holding branch and spear with shield.
90) Maximian, laureate head right
91) Minerva standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield.
92) Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia
93) Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter.
94) Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter.
95) Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter; shield to side.
96) Pax standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter.
97) Pietas standing, facing, holding baby; child to left
98) Providentia seated left, holding wand over globe and scepter
99) Providentia standing left, holding globe and scepter
100) Providentia standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia.
101) Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia
102) Providentia standing right on left, raising hand, facing Quies to right, holding branch and scepter.
103) Quies standing left, holding branch and scepter.
104) Roma seated left on chair, holding Victory and spear; shield to side.
105) Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory and spear.
106) Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake
107) Securitas standing left, leaning on column, touching head and holding scepter
108) Securitas standing, facing, leaning on column and with legs crossed, touching head.
109) Sol advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
110) Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe.
111) Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe; captive to side.
112) Sol standing left, raising hand and holding whip.
113) Spes standing left, holding flower and raising skirt
114) Temple with (2) columns, Mars holding spear and shield within.
115) Tetrarchs sacrificing in front of city gate
116) Utilitas standing, facing
117) Victories (2) standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading SIC / XX / SIC / XXX
118) Victories (2) holding shield reading VOT X FEL on palm tree.
119) Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
120) Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm
121) Victory riding biga right
122) Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm.
123) Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm.
124) Victory standing facing on globe, holding trophy.
125) Victory standing right, holding shield reading VOT X FEL on palm tree
126) Victory standing right, holding shield reading VOT X on palm tree
127) Victory standing right on left, holding globe, facing Jupiter to right, stepping on captive, holding thunderbolt and scepter
128) Virtus standing left, touching trophy; seated captive on either side.
129) Virtus standing left, holding branch and spear with shield
130) Virtus standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear.
131) Virtus standing right, holding spear and parazonium; seated captive to right
132) Wreath, MVL / TIS / XX within 133) Wreath, PRIMI / XX / IOVI AVG / COS VIII within
134) Wreath, SIC / X / SIC / XX within
135) Wreath, VO / TIS / X / SIC / XX within
136) Wreath, VO / TIS / XX / SIC / XXX within
137) Wreath, VOT / X / SIC / XX within
138) Wreath, VOT / XX / AVGG / NN within
139) Wreath, VOT / XX / AVGG within
140) Wreath, VOT / XX / SIC / XXX within
141) Wreath, VOT / XX within
142) Wreath, VOT X M XX within
143) Wreath, XC / VI within
144) Wreath, XCVI within
145) Wreath, XX / DIOCL / ETIAN / I AVG within

Mints:

1) Alexandria
2) Antioch
3) Aquileia
4) Karthago
5) Cyzicus
6) Heraclea
7) Londinium
8) Lugdunum
9) Nicomedia
10) Roma
11) Serdica
12) Siscia
13) Thessalonica
14) Ticinum
15) Treveri
16) Tripolis


AU Medallion Reference(s)


1) B08, O09, R037, T016, M15 Exe: `TR Five Aureus weight RIC 27 (VI, Treveri)
2) B19, O26, R024, T025, M02 Exe: SMA 2-1/2 Aureus weight RIC 1 (VI, Antioch)
 
AU Binio


3) B27, O26, R063, T067, M10 RIC V 133

AU Aureus


4) B12, O01, R054, T052, M15 Exe: TR
5) B12, O05, R022, T023, M05 RIC V 285
6) B12, O05, R023, T023, M02 Exe: SMA` RIC V 309
7) B12, O05, R029, T021, M05 RIC V 287
8) B12, O05, R030, T021, M05 RIC V 288
9) B12, O05, R157, T145, M14 Exe: SMT RIC 11a (VI, Ticinum)
10) B12, O08, R065, T077, M15 Exe: `T RIC 22 (VI, Treveri)
11) B12, O08, R070, T078, M10 RIC V 146
12) B12, O08, R157, T133, M16 Exe: `TR RIC 75 (VI, Treveri)
13) B17, O29, R081, T083, M12 RIC V 249
14) B19, O08, R065, T064, M10 RIC V 142a
15) B19, O08, R065, T067, M09 Exe: SMN RIC 5a (VI, Nicomedia)
16) B19, O24, R031, T036, M05 Exe: */SC
17) B19, O24, R031, T036, M05 Exe: SC RIC V 294
18) B19, O24, R065, T067, M05 Exe: SC RIC V 293
19) B19, O26, R031, T037, M02 Exe: SMA RIC V 314
20) B19, O26, R065, T072, M05 RIC V 295
21) B19, O26, R066, T067, M02 Exe: O/SMA “O” in field is the Greek Omicron representing 70 to a pound of gold RIC V 316
22) B19, O26, R067, T067, M10 RIC V 134
23) B19, O26, R141, T120, M02 Exe: O/SMA “O” in field is the Greek Omicron representing 70 to a pound of gold RIC V 320
24) B19, O26, R141, T123, M08 RIC V 5
25) B19, O26, R148, T130, M05 RIC V 304d 26) B20, O26, R079, T087, M08 RIC V 24

AU Quinarius


27) B20, O33, R067, T067, M10 RIC V 153

AR Argenteus


28) B12, O01, R032, T004, M04 Exe: P RIC 11a (VI, Carthago)
29) B12, O01, R108, T115, M01 Exe: ALE
30) B12, O01, R108, T115, M12 RIC 33a (VI, Siscia)
31) B12, O01, R144, T115, M06 Exe: H` RIC 10a (VI, Heraclea)
32) B12, O01, R144, T115, M14 RIC 12a (VI, Ticinum)
33) B12, O01, R146, T009, M09 Exe: SMN` RIC 25a (VI, Nicomedia)
34) B12, O01, R152, T008, M01 Exe: ALE RIC 10a (VI, Alexandria)
35) B12, O01, R152, T008, M11 Exe: `/•SM•SD• RIC 1a (VI, Serdica)
36) B12, O01, R152, T115, M10 Exe: ` RIC 40a (VI, Roma)
37) B12, O01, R152, T115, M10 Exe: R RIC 32a (VI, Roma)
38) B12, O01, R152, T115, M12 RIC 27a (VI, Roma)
39) B12, O01, R152, T115, M12 RIC 43a (VI, Siscia)
40) B12, O01, R157, T144, M03 Exe: AQ RIC 16a (VI, Aquileia)

AE Medallion


41) B28, O03, R151, T088, M15 Exe: TR

AE Antoninianus


42) B27, O29, R097, T094, M07 Exe: S/P/MLXXI
 
AE Antoninianus (reduced)


43) B23, O27, R019, T030, M12 Exe: XXI`
44) B27, O24, R060, T067, M14 Exe: `XXIT RIC V 223f
45) B27, O24, R060, T070, M14 Exe: `XXIT RIC V 226f
46) B27, O25, R064, T012, M12 Exe: `/XXIO RIC V 264f
47) B27, O26, R015, T031, M05 Exe: K` RIC V 15a
48) B27, O27, R049, T058, M14 Exe: `XXIT RIC V 215f
49) B27, O27, R060, T067, M14 Exe: `XXIT RIC V 225f
50) B27, O30, R060, T066, M14 Exe: `/XXIT RIC V 232f
51) B27, O32, R049, T056, M14 Exe: `XXIT RIC V 212f
52) B27, O32, R060, T067, M14 Exe: `XXIT RIC V 222f
53) B27, O32, R060, T068, M14 Exe: `XXIT RIC V 220f
54) B27, O33, R128, T106, M08 Exe: C RIC V 89f
55) B29, O24, R107, T101, M10 Exe: XXI` RIC V 180c
56) B29, O26, R015, T031, M02 Exe: `/•XXI RIC V 322c
57) B29, O26, R015, T031, M02 Exe: `/XXI RIC V 322c
58) B29, O26, R015, T031, M06 Exe: H` RIC V 13
59) B29, O26, R015, T031, M06 Exe: A/•XXI• RIC V 284c
60) B29, O26, R015, T031, M06 Exe: HB/•XXI• RIC V 284c
61) B29, O26, R056, T031, M02 Exe: ` over `/XXI RIC V 323c
62) B29, O26, R056, T031, M16 Exe: TR/®XXI RIC V 327c
63) B29, O26, R059, T069, M08 A in left field RIC V 35c
64) B29, O26, R066, T027, M16 Exe: TR/XXI RIC V 330c
65) B29, O26, R067, T031, M02 Exe: `/XXI RIC V 325c
66) B29, O26, R134, T113, M12 Exe: `/XXI C 459
67) B29, O26, R141, T119, M14 Exe: `XXIT RIC V 242c
68) B29, O28, R074, T074, M10 Exe: P RIC V 54c
69) B29, O29, R074, T074, M10 Exe: P RIC V 53c
70) B29, O32, R060, T068, M14 Exe: `XXIT RIC V 220c
71) B29, O33, R062, T067, M10 Exe: XXI` RIC V 162a
72) B29, O33, R062, T123, M10 Exe: XXI` RIC V 183c
73) B29, O33, R077, T080, M10 Exe: XXI` RIC V 171c
74) B29, O36, R057, T065, M08 Exe: A RIC V 33c
75) B29, O36, R057, T074, M08 Exe: P RIC V 27c
76) B30, O24, R015, T031, M05 Exe: Γ/XXI 286-293 RIC V 306a
77) B30, O24, R015, T031, M06 Exe: `/XXI RIC V 284a
78) B30, O25, R065, T069, M12 Exe: XXI` RIC V 268a
79) B30, O26, R064, T012, M12 Exe: `/•XXI•I• RIC V 263f
80) B30, O26, R142, T017, M12 Exe: `/XXI RIC V 277a
81) B30, O27, R064, T012, M12 Exe: XXI` RIC V 262a
82) B30, O33, R006, T005, M10 Exe: XXI` RIC V 156a
83) B30, O33, R062, T067, M10 Exe: XXI` RIC V 161a
84) B30, O33, R070, T079, M10 Exe: XXIΔ 290


AE Follis Reference(s)


85) B09, O15, R110, T102, M11 Exe: `/•SM•SD• S F across fields RIC 14a (VI, Serdica)
86) B09, O17, R110, T102, M02 Exe: `/ANT RIC 76a (VI, Antioch)
87) B09, O19, R109, T102, M01 Exe: `/ALE RIC 93a (VI, Alexandria)
88) B09, O21, R110, T102, M10 Exe: S/F/R` RIC 119a (VI, Roma)
89) B09, O22, R110, T102, M07 RIC 77a (VI, Londinium)
90) B09, O22, R110, T102, M11 Exe: S/F/•SM•SD• RIC 15a (VI, Serdica)
91) B09, O33, R110, T102, M05 Exe: KS/`TR S F across fields RIC 676a (VI, Treveri)
92) B11, O33, R048, T046, M15 Exe: A/`/TR RIC 191 (VI, TreverI)
93) B11, O40, R048, T046, M15 Exe: `/*/TR RIC 282 (VI, Treveri)
94) B12, O26, R048, T046, M09 Exe: SMN RIC 27a (VI, Nicomedia)
95) B12, O26, R048, T047, M05 Exe: K` RIC 10a (VI, Cyzicus)
96) B12, O26, R048, T047, M06 Exe: •HT`• RIC 23a (VI, Heraclea)
97) B12, O26, R048, T047, M06 Exe: H`
98) B12, O26, R048, T047, M06 Exe: HT` RIC 17a (VI, Heraclea)
99) B12, O26, R048, T047, M09 Exe: SMN` RIC 29a (VI, Nicomedia)
100) B12, O26, R048, T047, M11 Exe: `/•SM•SD• RIC 3a (VI, Serdica)
101) B12, O26, R048, T047, M13 Exe: `/•TS• RIC 25a (VI, Thessalonica)
102) B12, O26, R048, T047, M13 Exe: •TS`• RIC 21a (VI, Thessalonica)
103) B12, O29, R038, T004, M04 Exe: `/PK` Officina in field is a Greek letter that corresponds to Latin one in exergue RIC 21a (VI, Carthago)
104) B12, O29, R048, T046, M01 Exe: XX/` over I/ALE RIC 32a (VI, Alexandria)
105) B12, O29, R048, T046, M01 Exe: XXI/`/ALE RIC 30a (VI, Alexandria)
106) B12, O29, R048, T046, M03 Exe: AQ` RIC 22a (VI, Aquileia)
107) B12, O29, R048, T046, M07 Exe: `LN RIC 11 (VI, Londinium)
108) B12, O29, R048, T046, M07 Exe: LON RIC 1a (VI, Londinium)
109) B12, O29, R048, T046, M10 Exe: R* RIC 94a (VI, Roma)
110) B12, O29, R048, T046, M10 Exe: R/` RIC 64a (VI, Roma)
111) B12, O29, R048, T046, M10 Exe: R/F/` RIC 90a (VI, Roma)
112) B12, O29, R048, T046, M12 Exe: `/*SIS RIC 85a (VI, Siscia)
113) B12, O29, R048, T046, M12 S in left field, officina in right field RIC 79a (VI, Siscia)
114) B12, O29, R048, T047, M02 Exe: `/ANT* RIC 56a (VI, Antioch)
115) B12, O29, R117, T092, M10 Exe: `) RIC 100a (VI, Roma)
116) B12, O32, R048, T047, M02 Exe: ` over `/ANT RIC 48a (VI, Antioch)
117) B12, O32, R048, T047, M02 Exe: K/` over V/ANT RIC 54a (VI, Antioch)
118) B12, O32, R058, T072, M01 Exe: S/` over P/ALE RIC 41 (VI, Alexandria)
119) B12, O32, R118, T092, M14 Exe: */`T RIC 47a (VI, Ticinum)
120) B12, O32, R119, T092, M14 Exe: `T• RIC 43a (VI, Ticinum)
121) B12, O33, R048, T046, M15 Exe: `/*/TR RIC 305a (VI, Treveri)
122) B12, O38, R044, T042, M15 Exe: */`TR 123) B12, O40, R038, T004, M04 Exe: I/PK` RIC 23a (VI, Carthago)
124) B12, O40, R048, T046, M03 Exe: AQ` RIC 25a (VI, Aquileia)
125) B12, O40, R048, T046, M12 Exe: I/`/XXISIS RIC 113a (VI, Siscia)
126) B12, O40, R116, T092, M12 Exe: `/VI/SIS`
127) B12, O40, R119, T092, M03 Exe: AQ` RIC 29a (VI, Aquileia)
128) B12, O40, R119, T092, M12 Exe: */`/*SIS RIC 136a (VI, Siscia)
129) B17, O33, R048, T046, M07 RIC 13 (VI, Londinium)
130) B17, O33, R048, T048, M08 Exe: */`LG RIC 175 (VI, Lugdunum)
131) B17, O33, R078, T092, M15 Exe: */`TR RIC 473a (VI, Treveri)
132) B17, O36, R048, T046, M15 Exe: S/F/`TR RIC 505 (VI, Treveri)


AE Denarius

133) B19, O26, R079, T087, M08 RIC V 113
134) B19, O33, R062, T067, M10 RIC V 187
135) B19, O33, R062, T067, M10 Exe: `

Diocletian Busts

Diocletian Types