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Index Of All Titles


BEST OF

AEQVITI
Aes Grave
Aes Rude
The Age of Gallienus
Alexander Tetradrachms
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Counterfeits
Ancient Glass
Ancient Oil Lamps
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Anonymous Folles
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Armenian Numismatics Page
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A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
Carausius
A Case of Counterfeits
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Clashed Dies
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Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Danubian Celts
Damnatio Coinage
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Diameter 101
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
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Edict on Prices
ERIC
ERIC - Rarity Tables
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The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
EQVITI
Facing Portrait of Augustus
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Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
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Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
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romancoin.info
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The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
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Taras Drachms with Owl Left
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Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Tyrian Shekels
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
Vabalathus
Venus Cloacina
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Widow's Mite
XXI

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ERIC Table of Contents


Title Page

Introduction

About Roman Coins

Denominations

Coins of Other Ancient Cultures

Identifying Roman Coins

How To Use This Book

Mintmarks

Mint Map

Pricing And Grading

Bibliography

Reference Catalogs Cited

Coin Terms Used

Glossary

Rarity Tables

Index of Rulers

Photography Credits

Additional Web Resources

Imperial Catalog:

AUGUSTUS
LIVA
AGRIPPA
NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS
GERMANICUS
AGRIPPINA I
TIBERIUS
DRUSUS
ANTONIA
CALIGULA
CLAUDIUS I
BRITANNICUS
AGRIPPINA II
NERO
GALBA
CLODIUS MACER
OTHO
VITELLIUS
VESPASIAN
DOMITILLA
TITUS
DOMITIAN
DOMITIA
JULIA TITI
NERVA
TRAJAN
PLOTINA
MARCIANA
MATIDIA
HADRIAN
SABINA
AELIUS
ANTONINUS PIUS
FAUSTINA I
MARCUS AURELIUS
FAUSTINA II
LUCIUS VERUS
LUCILLA
COMMODUS
CRISPINA
PERTINAX
DIDIUS JULIANUS
MANLIA SCANTILLA
DIDIA CLARA
PESCENNIUS NIGER
CLODIUS ALBINUS
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS
JULIA DOMNA
CARACALLA
PLAUTILLA
GETA
MACRINUS
DIADUMENIAN
ELAGABALUS
JULIA MAESA
JULIA SOAEMIAS
JULIA PAULA
AQUILIA SEVERA
ANNIA FAUSTINA
SEVERUS ALEXANDER
JULIA MAMAEA
ORBIANA
MAXIMINUS I
PAULINA
MAXIMUS
GORDIAN I
GORDIAN II
BALBINUS
PUPIENUS
GORDIAN III
TRANQUILLINA
PHILIP I
OTACILIA SEVERA
PHILIP II
PACATIAN
JOTAPIAN
TRAJAN DECIUS
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS
HOSTILIAN
TREBONIANUS GALLUS
VOLUSIAN
AEMILIAN
CORNELIA SUPERA
SILBANNACUS
URANIUS ANTONINUS
VALERIAN I
MARINIANA
VALERIAN II
GALLIENUS
SALONINA
SALONINUS
REGALIANUS
DRYANTILLA
POSTUMUS
LAELIANUS
MARIUS
VICTORINUS
DOMITIAN II
TETRICUS I
TETRICUS II
QUIETUS
MACRIANUS
CLAUDIUS II
QUINTILLUS
AURELIAN
SEVERINA
ZENOBIA
VABALATHUS
TACITUS
FLORIAN
PROBUS
SATURNINUS
CARUS
CARINUS
MAGNIA URBICA
NIGRIAN
NUMERIAN
JULIAN I
DIOCLETIAN
MAXIMIAN
CARAUSIUS
ALLECTUS
DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS
CONSTANTIUS I
THEODORA
GALERIUS
GALERIA VALERIA
SEVERUS II
MAXENTIUS
ROMULUS
CONSTANTINE I
HELENA
FAUSTA
ALEXANDER
LICINIUS I
CONSTANTIA
MAXIMINUS II
LICINIUS II
CRISPUS
VALERIUS VALENS
MARTINIAN
CONSTANTINE II
DELMATIUS
HANNIBALLIANUS
CONSTANS
CONSTANTIUS II
MAGNENTIUS
DECENTIUS
NEPOTIAN
VETRANO
CONSTANTIUS GALLUS
JULIAN II
JOVIAN
VALENTINIAN I
VALENS
PROCOPIUS
GRATIAN
VALENTINIAN II
THEODOSIUS I
AELIA FLACCILLA
MAGNUS MAXIMINUS
FLAVIUS VICTOR
EUGENIUS
HONORIUS
CONSTANTINE III
CONSTANS II
MAXIMINUS
PRISCUS ATTALUS
JOVINUS
SABASTIANUS
CONSTANTIUS III
GALLA PLACIDIA
JOHANNES
VALENTINIAN III
LICINIA EUDOXIA
HONORIA
PETRONIUS MAXIMINUS
AVITUS
MAJORIAN
LIBIUS SEVERUS
ANTHEMIUS
EUPHEMIA
ANICIUS OLYBRIUS
GLYCERIUS
JULIUS NEPOS
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS
ARCADIUS
EUDOXIA
PULCHERIA
THEODOSIUS II
EUDOCIA
MARCIAN
LEO I
VERINA
LEO II
ZENO
ARIADNE
BASILISCUS
ZENONIS
LEONTIUS I
ANASTASIUS I
ANONYMOUS COINAGE

ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins

by Rasiel Suarez


Coin Terms Used  

AE – Short for Aeratus, Latin for copper.
 
AR – Short for Argentum, Latin for silver.
 
AU or AV – Short for Aurum, Latin for gold.
 
Billon – Any alloy made up chiefly of base metals which contains a negligible amount of silver.
 
Celator – The craftsman in charge of creating the dies.
 
Die – The metal stamp used to impress a design onto a metal blank. Each coin is made using two dies for obverse and reverse. Die axis refers to the position of each die relative to each other when the coin was struck.
 
Exergue – Generally taken to mean the bottom part of the coin. This area is usually delineated and reserved for codes unrelated to the rest of the coin's design or message.  The exception are the Denarii and Aurei which sometimes use the exergue as extra spacing to accommodate large reverse legends. In most other cases the exergue is used for mint marks. These mintmarks often spill into the reverse fields as well. While not frequently used, the obverse sometimes will have some exergue writing.
 
Fabric – Refers to the texture of a coin. Two coins with identical designs can still have a very different "look and feel" about them. Factors like thickness, metal type, porosity, waviness and so on make up a unique signature for each coin that becomes associated with a particular culture and era. The study of a coin's fabric is vitally important in determining a coin‟s authenticity.
 
Flan – The metal blank used to make the coin. The term‟s use is synonymous with “coin” except that the former concerns itself only with the structural integrity, shape and makeup of the metal.
 
Fourree – A French word meaning „stuffed‟. In numismatics it refers to an ancient counterfeit meant to deceive the recipient of the coin, not a modern collector. The counterfeiter would use a copper core and coat it in silver before striking it and attempting to pass it off as a good coin. The artistic merit of Roman fourrees is usually so good that they can only be identified when the silver coating has worn through enough to reveal its interior. Given this fact it is suspected that the counterfeiters could only have been mint officials with access to official dies and/or under covert approval of their superiors. Gold fourrees exist as well.
 
 
 
Mule – (or hybrid) A term used to describe a coin whose obverse is mismatched with the reverse. For example, the Julia Domna Denarius pictured below is of a military type belonging to her husband Septimius Severus and which would never ordinarily be featured on a coin of an empress.
 
 
 
Mules are particularly abundant during transitional periods as one emperor is replaced with another and dies used for the former become mixed with the latter out of carelessness, haste or both. 
 
Obverse – The front or "heads" of a coin.
 
Orichalcum – A naturally occurring brassy alloy mined on the Italian peninsula. It was used irregularly in the minting of Sestertii and Dupondii during the first and second centuries. Being of a naturally golden color, coins made of this alloy are often mistaken for gold by inexperienced collectors.
 
Patina – Copper-based alloys and to a lesser extent silver ones exposed to the environment become corroded over time. If this environment is not too severe only the coin's surface becomes affected. This superficial layer is called a patina and novice collectors may often attempt to remove it in the failed hopes of restoring the coin to an as-new condition. A patina is usually desirable to maintain as it forms an effective barrier against further corrosion and is often considered quite attractive.
 



 
 
 
Reverse – The "tails" side of the coin.
 
Style – The unique artistic attributes of a coin‟s design. The art of engraving is remarkably consistent for a particular age and becomes a mint's signature as its various students learn to mimic one another‟s renderings. While each mint's output becomes consistent with itself it is often dissimilar to other mints‟ coins. The farther apart any two mints are the more likely that the artistic style will be different even when the overall design of the artwork and epigraphy is the same.
 
 

Style also evolves over time within a mint and this, too, becomes a familiar signature. In conjunction with the study of fabric as mentioned above an understanding of style is essential in distinguishing authentic from fake.