The Age of Gallienus
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Class A Folles
Armenian Numismatics Page
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Denarii of Otho
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC - Rarity Tables
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Facing Portrait of Augustus
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
Julius Caesar - The Funeral Speech
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Maps of the Ancient World
Museum Collections Available Online
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Excellence Award
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Latin: Tenth anniversary of rule.
Gibbon called the festival of the Decennalia a comedy because it owed its origin to the custom of Octavius in repeatedly refusing to receive the supreme power for more than ten years. All the Emperors who reigned long enough celebrated these festivals, and many of their coins bear legends which refer to this custom. The following is a list of the principal legends:
VOT DECEN TR P etc., Pertinax.
VOTA SOL DEC II COS IIII, Antoninus Pius.
VOTA DEC ANN SVSC TR P etc., Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus
VOTA SOL DECENN COS III, Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus
VOTA SOLVTA DECENNALIVM, Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus
VOTA SOLVT DEC COS III, Septimius Severus and Caracalla.
VOTA SVSCEPTA X , Septimius Severus and Caracalla.
VOTA SVSCEP DECEN, Commodus and Septimius Severus.
VOTA SVSCEPT A DECENNALIA, Septimius Severus.
VOTIS DECENNALIBVS, Septimius Severus, Maximinus I, Balbinus, Pupienus, Gordian III, Philip I, Philip II, Trajan Decius, Herennius Etruscus, Hostilian, Trebonianus Gallus, Volusian, Aemilian, Valerian I, Gallienus, Tetricus
VOTIS DECENNALIA, Gallienus
VOTIS DECENNALIB, Gallienus
VOT X is found on the coins of Constantius I Chlorus, Galeria Valeria, Maximinus II Daza, Constantine II, Valentinian II.
VOT X AVG N, Constantine I.
VOT X CAES, Constantius II.
VOT X CAESS, Galerius, Maximianus and Severus II.
VOT X CAESS NN, Maximinus II Daza.
VOT X FEL, Maxentius.
We also find VOT X combined with other numbers as VOT X ET XV, Licinius II.
VOT X ET XV F R T, Constantine II.
VOT X ET XV FEL, Licinius I.
VOT X ET XX, Gallienus.
VOT X M XX, Diocletian.
VOT X MVL XX, Constantine I.
VOT X MVLT XV, Valens, Gratian, Theodosius.
VOT X MVLT XX, Diocletian, Licinius, Julian II, Jovian, Valentinian I, Valens, Gratian, Valentinian II, Theodosius, Honorius, Valentinian III.
...The crown on these late coins must not be confounded with those seen on the coins of the early Emperors associated with the legend OB CIVIS SERVATOS, which represented the civic crowns once given for having saved the life of a citizen. The crowns on these late coins represent the golden triumphal crowns such as were sent from the provinces to a general as soon as they heard a triumph had been decreed to him or whenever any great festival was held.
In the earlier days these were gratuitous presents, but in the time of Constantine the wreaths were exacted as a tribute under the name "aurum coronarium" (Cod. Theod., 10, tit. 74). These coins bearing a crown and VOT. XXX illustrate several passages in the writings of Eusebius. In the prologue of his Oration he speaks
of the act of writing the oration itself as "a weaving of tricennial crowns."
In his life of Constantine ( c. I, lib. 1.) "We have woven as it were garlands of words wherewith to encircle his sacred head."
In chapter VI of the Oration he writes:
"And God Himself as an earnest of future reward assigns to him now, as it were tricennial crowns composed of prosperous periods of time; and now after the revolution of three circles of ten years, He grants permission to all mankind to celebrate this general, nay rather this universal festival."
This was written in the year 335 A.D. The Vicennalia of Constantine were therefore celebrated in the year of the Council of Nicaea, 325 A.D. Hence we know the dates of his coins bearing the numbers of these festivals VOT XX or XXX.