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Caligula - Pater Patriae Quinarius

by J. Geranio

No Mention in RIC or BMC

I have been intrigued by the following experimental issue of a quinarius with oak wreath and P.P. on reverse. One example at 3.82 g. and the reverse not matching with the obverse date (TRP III) for the title when Caligula received the pater patriae title, which was two years later. Caligula received all the titles of Augustus except the title of pater patriae according to Dio he received all titles in March 38 A.D. and a short time later on Sept. 21 - 38 A.D. the rites for pater patriae were carried out as confirmed by a fairly new Arval fragment which states, " consensu senatus delatum sibi patris patriae nomen recepissit, which means;had received the title of pater patriae offered to him with the consent of the senate.

So, We know of only this specimen which is probably an experimental piece for a new coin type which was not adopted, because in the following year (with the TR. POT. IIII) The old type of quinarius with the victory was reintroduced. The title PP on the reverse cannot mean to make any specific reference to the conferment of the title pater patriae, as Caligula had received this two years earlier. This issue was first brought to my attention by Marco Emilio Lepido.

A few thoughts and references from Lepido, "I state that I have not had much time to devote to this quinarius. My idea about its uniqueness is very simple: as confirmed by recent studies, Banti expressed by the author of the Corpus, in the second two years of the reign of Caligula, between 39 and 40 AD, there has been a decline in the volume of production coinage of the mints/ plants. So this quinarius could be a new type created in that period, as the Banti and as you yourself have stated, and issued in a smaller number of copies as all other types of coins of the years 39-40 AD Caligula than the copies of the first two years that are numerically more."

"I also do think this quinarius is gold I just attained the same image from the CNR. The figure is on page 230 of volume XII, while the description is on the next page. This quinarius, the Banti classified as type IV,corresponds to the number 15 in the Corpus. Unfortunately, at the moment, I can not get a scan of the CNR as they do not have the opportunity, but I'll try to return as soon as you let it get scanned in response to this discussion. It seems that the only known references about this quinarius are ones you've already mentioned and which are always taken from the work of Banti. In fact, from the same book, I learn that this quinarius is not known nor by Cohen, nor by the RIC, nor even by the BMC. They do not have larger images. In fact the figure published by Banti is really small and, since it is a book dated, the image is also low resolution."

I find it interesting that there are no references in RIC or BMC?

There are no great images at this time I can post except the last photo I received from Lepido that I will post. I believe this issue, though experimental deserves more study and I will continue to try and attain a higher resolution photo in color and black and white.

A question I have is do we have any other examples in the Julio Claudian or Flavian period of examples of such experimental pieces? This to me is the purest form of a coin that would have been introduced except Caligula was murdered before it was distributed?

Joe Geranio- JCIA

Color Photo of Caligula AV Quinarius with Victory Reverse- TRP IIII as Reintroduced.
Quinarius 40-41, AV 3.89 g. Laureate bust r. Rev. Victory seated r., holding wreath. C 16. BMC 31. RIC 29. CBN 184. King 3c (this coin).
Of the highest rarity, very few specimens known

POINT: From Augustus to Claudius the Aureus went into full distribution over the quinarius except during the reign of Tiberius who used the same reverse type throughout his principate. On Nero quinarii: I know of one issue that is housed in the British Museum. Vespasian also issued a gold quinarius.

Refs:

Geranio, J. For Photos of Julio Claudian AV Quinarii- https://www.flickr.com/groups/1757091@N21/
Barrett, A. Caligula: The Corruption of Power- page 70.
Lepido, M. Correspondence on FAC
Corpus Nummorum Romanorum (Italian) Hardcover � 1972- by BANTI A. - SIMONETTI L. pg. 230 v. XII

BELOW: QUINARI FROM AUGUSTUS TO NERO- http://www.ancientcoins.ca/RIC/

For Augustus AV Quinarii from Tarraco, Spain- SEE: RIC 121- Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AV Quinarius (3.93 g, 6h). Spanish mint - Tarraco. Struck circa 18-17/6 BC. AVG-VST across field, bare head right / Victory, draped, standing right on globe, holding aquila in raised left hand and branch downwards in right. RIC I 121; BMCRE 424 = BMCRR Rome 4379; BN -. description courtesy CNG R4

AVG RIC 122-Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AV Quinarius. Spanish mint - Tarraco. Struck circa 18-17/6 BC. AVG-VST across field, bare head right / Victory, draped, standing facing on globe, holding wreath, standard over shoulder. R4- cngcoins.com

AVG RIC 123-Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AV Quinarius. Spanish mint - Tarraco. Struck circa 18-17/6 BC. AVG-VST across field, bare head right / Victory, draped, standing facing on globe, holding palm and trophy. R4

AVG RIC 123a- Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AV Quinarius. Spanish mint - Tarraco. Struck circa 18-17/6 BC. AVG-VST across field, bare head right / AVG-VST, Victory, draped, standing facing on globe, holding palm and trophy. R5

AVG RIC 184- Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AV quinarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 11 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head right / IMP XII, draped Victory seated right on globe, hands on lap.R4

AVG RIC 185- Augustus. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AV quinarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 11 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head right / TR POT XIII, draped Victory seated right on globe, hands on lap. R4

AVG RIC 202- 27 BC-AD 14. AV quinarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 9-8 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head right / TR POT XVI, draped Victory seated right on globe, hands on lap. R4

AVG RIC 203- Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AV quinarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 7-6 BC. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head right / TR POT XVII, draped Victory seated right on globe, hands on lap. R4

AVG RIC 213- Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AV quinarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 1-2 AD. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head right / TR POT XXIII, draped Victory seated right on globe, hands on lap

AVG RIC 214- Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AV quinarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 2-3 AD. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head right / TR POT XXV, draped Victory seated right on globe, hands on lap.

AVG RIC 215- Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14 AD. Quinarius, Lugdunum 4-5 AD, 3.96 g. AVGVSTVS DIVI F Laureate head r. / TR POT XXVII Victory seated r. on globe. Bahrfeldt 227.4 (this coin). C 315. BMC p. 86 note. RIC 215. CBN 1678.

AVG RIC 216- Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AV quinarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 6-7 AD. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head right / TR POT XXV, draped Victory seated right on globe, hands on lap

AVG RIC 217- Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AV Quinarius (3.90 g, 7h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck AD 7-8. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, laureate head right / TR POT XXX, Victory, draped, seated right on globe, holding wreath in both hands . RIC I 217; Lyon 80; Bahrfelt 229; BMCRE 505; BN 1679-80.

AVG RIC 218- Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AV quinarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 8-9 AD. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head right / TR POT XXXI, draped Victory seated right on globe, hands on lap.

TIBERIUS- NOTE CONSISTENCY DURING TIBERIAN PERIOD.

TIBERIUS RIC5. 14-37 AD. Quinarius, Lugdunum, minted 15-16 AD. 14 mm. TI DIVI F AVGVSTVS Laureate head r. / TR POT XVII, Victory seated r. on globe, holding wreath with both hands. RIC 93, 5. C. 49. BN II, not. Giard 117, 125c

TIBERIUS RIC 6. 14-37 AD. Quinarius, Lugdunum, minted 18-19 AD, AV 3.53 g. 14 mm. TI DIVI F AVGVSTVS Laureate head r. / TR POT XX Victory seated r. on globe, holding wreath with both hands. C 50. BMC 14. RIC 6. King 2.

TIBERIUS RIC 7 -As the coin above (RIC 6), but with XXII on reverse (minted 20-21 AD) R5

TIBERIUS RIC 8. 14-37 AD. Quinarius, Lugdunum, minted 22-23 AD, AV 3.82 g. 14 mm. TI DIVI F AVGVSTVS Laureate head r. / TR POT XXIIII Victory seated r. on globe, holding wreath with both hands. Biaggi 174. BMC 16. BNC. 52. Fr. 67. Giard 128.2

TIBERIUS RIC 9- As the coin above (RIC 8), but with XXV on reverse (minted 23-24 AD)

TIBERIUS RIC 10-As the coin above (RIC 8), but with XXVI on reverse (minted 24-25 AD)

TIBERIUS RIC 11- As the coin above (RIC 8), but with XXVII on reverse (minted 25-26 AD)

TIBERIUS RIC 12-As the coin above (RIC 8), but with XXVIII on reverse (minted 26-27 AD)

TIBERIUS RIC 13 -As the coin above (RIC 8), but with XXVIIII on reverse (minted 27-28 AD)

TIBERIUS RIC 14-TIBERIUS. 14-37 AD. Quinarius, Lugdunum, minted 28/29 AD. TI DIVI F AVGVSTVS Laureate head r. / TR POT XXX, Victory seated r. on globe, holding wreath with both hands. Lyon 80; Bahrfelt 229; BMCRE 505; BN 1679-80.

TIBERIUS RIC 15-As the coin above (RIC 14), but with XXXI on reverse (minted 29-30 AD)

TIBERIUS RIC 16-TIBERIUS. 14-37 AD. Quinarius, Lugdunum, minted 30/31 AD, AV 3.92 grams. TI DIVI F AVGVSTVS Laureate head r. / TR POT XXXII, Victory seated r. on globe, holding wreath with both hands. RIC 16; Lyon 136.

TIBERIUS RIC 17-As the coin above (RIC 16), but with XXXIII on reverse (minted 31-32 AD)

TIBERIUS RIC 18-TIBERIUS. 14-37 AD. Quinarius, Lugdunum, minted 32/33 AD, AV 3.91 grams. TI DIVI F AVGVSTVS Laureate head r. / TR POT XXXIIII, Victory seated r. on globe, holding wreath with both hands. RIC 18; BMC 24; SRCV 1761 var

TIBERIUS RIC 19-TIBERIUS. 14-37 AD. Quinarius, Lugdunum, minted 33/34 AD AD. 14 mm. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, Laureate head r. / TR POT XXXV Victory seated r. on globe, holding wreath with both hands. BMC 25; RIC 19.

TIBERIUS RIC 20-As the coin above (RIC 19), but with XXXV on reverse (minted 34-35 AD)

TIBERIUS RIC 21-As the coin above (RIC 19), but with XXXVI on reverse (minted 35-36 AD)

TIBERIUS RIC 22-As the coin above (RIC 19), but with XXXVII on reverse (minted 36-37 AD)

CALIGULA

GAIUS (CALIGULA) RIC 20- 37-41 AD. AV quinarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 37-38 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, bare head of Gaius right / PM TR - POT COS, Victory, draped, seated on globe holding wreath in both hands. BMC 6.

UNPUBLISHED - COIN ABOVE ARTICLE IS ON.

Gaius (Caligula) RIC 29 Quinarius, .74 g. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS, Laureate head r. / P M TR POT IIII, Victory seated r., holding wreath.. C 16; BMC 31; RIC 29; CBN 184; King 3c CBN 37; Calciati 329

CLAUDIUS

UNPUBLISHED - Claudius. AD 41-54. Quinarius circa 41-42, 3.96 g. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P Laureate head r. / Victory flying l., holding shield inscribed OB/CI in her l. hand. RIC -. BMC -. C -. CBN -. Vagi 585.

Claudius RIC 17. AD 41-54. . AV quinarius. Struck AD 41-42. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P, laureate head right / VICTORIA - AVGVSTI, Victory, draped, seated on globe holding wreath in both hands. BMC pl.33, 24; RIC 17.

Claudius RIC 18. AD 41-54. AV quinarius. Struck AD 41-42. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P, laureate head right / VICTORIA - AVGVSTI, Victory, draped, standing r., foot on globe, holding wreath in both hands. BMC pl.33, 23; RIC 18

NERO

NERO RIC 10- ONE KNOWN- NERO CL DIVI F CAES AVG P M TR P II Youthful bare head r. Rev. VICT AVG Victory, draped, alighting left, holding round shield in right hand. BMC 11. BM In British Museum. In all my research only known example.