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In a numismatic seminar held at U.C. Berkeley on coins in sanctuaries, R. Stroud found further proof of demonetization. Speaking on Roman coins found in the sanctuary of Demeter at Corinth, Stroud listed similar results:
On Corinthian Duoviri Coins:
Reign of Augustus............ 12
On Roman Imperial Coins:
Nero..................................1 (note 12)
There is still, however, no clear consensus on whether demonetization was carried out. An immediate and total recall would hardly have been practical, since there was no de facto damnatio. On the other hand, Claudius may have wanted, most likely for personal reasons, to erase any memory of the hated Emperor.
Here are some photos of attempted Damnatio on the coinage of Caligula. (my opinion)
Scratches across reverse - damnatio?
A Caligula sestertius with the 'C' in "C CAESAR" having been filed away in ancient times. The seller does not mention this in the description, its odd, but I look at the "C" in all Caligula's AE's first thing. I am now after not documenting for the first 15 years, adding them as I find them.
Agrippina and Caligula- Was this coin defaced or was someone checking the gold content?
The obverse of a Caligula 'Vesta' AS with the 'C' in the inscription having been filed away in ancient times. (Gary photo) I have seen more of the Caligula Vesta bronze types with the chiseled "C" in "C CAESAR" than any other form of damnatio on Caligula' bronzes. I have seen at least 20 Vesta bronzes that have damnatio damange like this at coin shows. It probably helps I am looking for the Damnatio on Caligula's bronzes. No other Julio Claudian princeps has the number of damnatio attempts as Caligula. Nero should also have similar damnatio attempts, but in my research I do not see them. Neronian damnatio attempts seem to be on monuments and inscriptions but not so on coins. Nero needs further study in damnatio attempts in regards to numismatics.
Here is a damnatio sestertius of Caligula I just ran across today, again the seller has no idea, but this seem to be the pattern and choice in the first century of damnatio of Caligula coins. Chisel off the first "C" in "C CAESAR". Of the 45-60 coins I have seen over 80% are exactly like this. I'm a little obsessed with Caligula coins, so I have noticed over the last 25 years.
Note scratches on face of Caligula? Defacement? KINGS of BOSPORUS. Aspurgus, with Gaius (Caligula). AD 14/5-37/8. ∆ 12 Units (24mm, 11.06 g, 12h). Bare head of Caligula right / Diademed head of Aspurgus right; monogram to left, IB (mark of value) to right. MacDonald 302; Anokhin 319; RPC I 1903. cngcoins.com
Note the defacement across the face by the ear and nose. 4 slashes across face?
Caligula AE sestertius. Struck 37-38 AD.
Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laureate head left.
Reverse: S P Q R/P P/OB CIVES/SERVATOS in four lines within oak wreath.
RIC 37; BMCRE 38; Cohen 24.
A wonderful obliterated coin with his father Germanicus defaced badly.
This coin is defaced and is evidence of the unpopularity of Gaius Caligula. On some Vesta bronzes you will find the "C" in CAESAR obliterated. On this coin (Caligula in front of the Temple of DIVO AUGUSTUS sacrificing) the face has been obliterated and it was not mentioned in the catalog. The date of 41 A.D. seems to show more damnatio damage than years 37-40 A.D. on Caligulan imperial coinage? Joe Geranio
Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. ∆ ďMedallicĒ Sestertius (30.30 g, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 37-38. Pietas seated left, holding patera and resting arm on small draped figure standing facing on basis / Gaius standing left, holding patera over garlanded altar; victimarius holding bull for sacrifice and attendant holding a patera standing on either side; garlanded hexastyle temple of Divus Augustus in background; pediment decorated with sacrificial scene; quadriga and Victories as acroteria; statues of Romulus and Aeneas along roof line. RIC I 36.
Youthful Nero with Neck Damnatio?
The Senate nonetheless rejoiced at the death of Domitian, and immediately following Nerva's accession as Emperor, passed damnatio memoriae on his memory: his coins and statues were melted, his arches were torn down and his name was erased from all public records
SPAIN, Bilbilis. Tiberius. 14-37 AD. ∆ 27mm (10.84 g, 6h). L. Aelius Sejanus, praetorian consul. Struck 31 AD. Laureate head right / MV (ligate) AV(ligate)GVSTA BILBILIS TI C∆SARE V [L ∆L]IO [SEIAN]O, large COS across field within wreath. RPC I 398; SNG Copenhagen 620.
Now at 4 oclok you can see name of the dreaded Sejanus has been obliterated on this specimen.
SPAIN, Bilbilis. Tiberius. 14-37 AD. ∆ 27mm (10.84 g, 6h). L. Aelius Sejanus, praetorian consul. Struck 31 AD. Laureate head right / MV (ligate) AV(ligate)GVSTA BILBILIS TI C∆SARE V [L ∆L]IO [SEIAN]O, large COS across field within wreath. RPC I 398; SNG Copenhagen 620. Important historical type with the name of Sejanus removed in damnatio memoriae.
Note Damnatio attempt!! Even rarer are head and body belonging together. Photo courtesy John Pollini.
Statue of Caligula
Roman, A.D. 38-41
80 by 26 1/2 by 19 1/2 inches. This is an actual Damnatio attempt that was not originally successful? Since the head and body belong together, the break was attempted, and thankfully the head and body survived.
From: Die Bildnisse des Caligula, (1989) Boschung, D. Educational Use Guidelines.
Modern day Damnatio!! Drusus' head removed from a statue. Merida, Spain.
|Iovi Optimo Maximo |
SARIS AVGusti IMPeratoris
Pvblio SVLPICIO SCRIBONIO
PROCVLO LEGato AVGvsti PRo PRaetore
CVRA ET IMPENSA
Qvinti IVLI PRISCI ET
Qvinti IVLI AVETI
|To Jupiter, greatest and best,|
for the health of Nero
sar Augustus, imperator,
by the cannabae community.
Publius Sulpicius Scribonius
Proculus was governor.
Made and paid for by
Quintus Julius Priscus and
Quintus Julius Avetus
The red shows where Nero's name was erased
Joe Geranio- Julio Claudian Iconographic Association