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Caesarea, Cappadocia (now Kayseri, Turkey) is located at the foot of Mount Argaeus (now Mount Erciyes). The city has been continuously inhabited since c. 3000 B.C. with the establishment of a Hittite trading colony. It was originally known as Mazaca. Under Persian rule the city was the center of a satrapy under Persian rule until it was conquered by Perdikkas, one of the generals of Alexander the Great when it became the seat of a transient satrapy by another of Alexander 's former generals, Eumenes of Cardia. The city was subsequently passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus but became once again the center of an autonomous Cappadocian kingdom under Ariarathes III of Cappadocia c. 250 B.C. In the ensuing period, the city came under the sway of Hellenistic influence and was given the Greek name of Eusebia in honor of the Cappadocian king Ariarathes V Eusebes Philopator, 163 - 130 B.C. The city came under Roman sway during the eastern campaigns of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) from 66 to 62 B.C. It continued to be ruled by the native kings until Mark Antony replaced Ariarathes X in 36 B.C. with Archelaus, the great-grandson of a Greek general who had deserted to the Romans from the service of the Pontic King Mithradates VI. Archelaus he changed the name of the city to Caesarea sometime between 12 B.C. and 9 B.C. Archelaus was deposed by Tiberius in 17 A.D. and Cappodocia was annexed to the Empire as a province, with Caesarea as its capital. In 72 A.D. Vespasian merged Cappadocia with the neighboring province of Galatia. Trajan re-aligned Cappodocia, merging it with Pontus, but keeping the name of Cappodocia, with Caesarea as its capital. The city was seized by the Parthians about 260. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants. It was recovered by Rome and eventually became the capital of the province of Cappodocia Prima, created during the time of Valens, 364 - 378. It was turned into a fortress by Justinian. Caesarea in the 9th century became a Byzantine administrative center as the capital of the Theme of Charsianon. Only a few traces of the ancient site survive today.
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Also see: Cappadocia